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Vol. S. -A.TTG-TT»*P. 

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W. L. POMEROY, Raleigh, N. C. 



1R OF HON. A. D. MURPHEY, Bv How W. A. Graham,.. 1 

.JKIE REBELLIONS, (A Father's Letter,) 13 

KS VANITIES, (Poetry,) 16 

(AR OF THE REGULATION, Bv Hon. D. L. Swain, '. 17 

BACCALAUREATE SERMON, Bv Arciibisiiop Hughes 35 

/THE VEIL O'ER FUTURITY, (Poetry,) Bv Mrs. Keves 45 

fl. THE MISANTHROPE, Bv Tiieta, 40 

8. EDITORS' TABLE— Salutatory ; Local Matters; Official; Archbishop 

Hughes' Sermon; Changes in the Faculty; Apology; The Swain 
Prize; Death of an old Servant; Literary Notice; Distinguished 
Visitors; A Change in the Corps; Prize Awarded; A word to the 
Modest; Marriages; Exchanges; Receipts; 49 — 57 

9. COLLEGE RECORD— Commencement ; Freshman Exhibition ; Arch- 

bishop Hughes' Sermon; Mr. Pool's Address; Sophomore Exhibi- 
tion; Prize Awarded ; Graduating Exercises ; Alumni Association ; 
Annual Report; Degrees Conferred ; Valedictory; The Ball; .. 59 — 03 
10. TRIBUTES OF RESPECT— (N. B. Shannon, C. F. Dowd,) G4 

Book-Binder & Blank-Book Manufacturer, 

Binding in all styles done at short order and on moderate term.-. Those 
haying Magazines, Addresses, Periodicals, &c, would do well to hand them to 
Mr. J. B. Neatuery, at the Magazine office, who charges nothing abovi 
for forwarding. Specimens of his work can be seen at the Editors' office. 



J^O &ei)ilei)Kins £i|h)Wi)g Goods, 

fl®* Will visit Chapel Hill every season, mar — tun. 



THIS School is situated in a moral, healthy neighborhood, one mile from 
Mebani'sville Depot, 00 tbe North Carolina Railroad. 

The Principal will board bis pupils in bis own family ; being convinced that 
the teacher, standing in relation of parent, can more successfully disch '» 
the duties of that relation when be lias his pupils under his constant supervi- 
sion. The course of Instruction is preparatory to the University and other 
first-class Colleges. 

The Scholastic Year is divided into two Sessions of twenty weeks each, 
beginning respectively about the middle of January and July. 

TERMS — Per Session, for Hoard and Tuition, $100 in advance. 

References: Faculty of the University; W. J. Bingham A Sons, Oaks, N. 
C: A. Wilson, D. D./Mellville. N. ('. 

March. I860. WM. B. LYNCH, Principal. 

VrALLETT A 00. keep on hand all the College TEXT BOOKS. Also Meek 
•^-*- ical and Eaw Books, together with a general stock of Standard Authors, 
and other Miscellaneous Works, Bibles, Common Prayer, Hymns, Hymns and 
Psalms, and Psalmody, Gift Books, Albums and Autographs, Writing Desks, 
Portfolios, Mathematical Instruments, with a full supply of Stationery. 
Books or other articles ordered at short notice. March, 1860. 

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Vol. X. AUGUST, 1860. No. 1. 




Archibald D. Murphey, whose portrait appears on our frontispiece, 
was in the generation immediately preceding our own one of the most 
eminent characters in North Carolina. In many attributes of a statesman 
and philosopher he excelled all his contemporaries in the State, and in 
every department of exertion to which his mind was applied he had few 
equals or seconds. As an advocate at the bar, a judge on the bench, a 
reporter of the decisions of our highest court of justice, a legislator of 
comprehensive intelligence, enterprize and patriotism, a literary man of 
classic taste, attainments and style in composition, his fame is a source of 
just pride to his friends and his country. But for the paucity of our in- 
formation, and the pressure of time and circumstances in the preparation 
of this notice, it would be a labor of love to review his earlier years, and 
trace the developments and progress of his career in youth. Neither 
materials nor leisure for this topic, however, are now at our command. 

His father, Colonel Archibald Murphey, was a conspicuous citizen of 

the county of Caswell, and bore a part in the military service in the War 

of the Revolution for which the citizens of that county and especially of 

rt^his vicinity were greatly distinguished. The residence of his father was 

m about two miles from Red House in the congregation of the Rev. Mr. 

** M'Aden, a Presbyterian minister, whose son, the late Dr. John M'Aden, 

C^ married the daughter of Colonel Murphey, by whom he left descendants 

^n, who still survive. At this place, some seven miles from Milton, Archibald 

2^ DeBow Murphey, the subject of our memoir, was Born, we believe, in the 

™ year 1777. Of the other children of his parents there were two brothers 

and four sisters. His education, preparatory to admission into the infant 


University of the State at Chapel Hill, was received in the school of the 
Rev. Dr. David Caldwell, of Guilford country. Of the opportunities for 
education during his youth, Mr. Murphey himself informs us that before 
the University went into operation, in 1795, there were not more than 
three schools in the State in which the rudiments of a classical education 
could be acquired, and that the most prominent and useful of these was 
that of Dr. Caldwell — that the deficiency of books for literary instruction, 
except in the libraries of a few lawyers in the commercial towns, was still 
greater, and by way of illustration he relates that after completing his 
course of studies under Dr. Caldwell he spent nearly two years without 
finding any books to read except some old works on Theological subjects, 
and that then chance threw in his way Voltaire's History of Charles XII. 
of Sweden, an odd volume of Roderick Random, and an abridgement of 
Don Quixote. These constituted his whole stock of literary furniture 
when he entered College in 1796. When we remember that he afterwards 
became capable of writing like Goldsmith, and with an ease and rapidity 
that Goldsmith could not have equalled, we can but recall these remin- 
iscences of earlier times and encourage the diligent student by his example. 
With a mind delighted by a consciousness of advancement in knowledge, 
and spirit of emulation, he profited greatly by three years of study in the 
University, and graduated with the highest distinction in 1799. 

Such was the reputation acquired by him in this period that he was at 
once appointed to the Professorship of Ancient Languages in his Alma 
Mater — a situation in which he continued the three succeeding years, and 
in which he matured that scholarship and taste for liberal studies which 
so much distinguished him among his professional brethren and the edu- 
cated gentlemen of the State. His admission to the bar took place in 
1802 after a course of professional reading so limited that the first Judge 
to whom he applied (the signatures of two being then necessary for a 
license,) refused to examine him ; and (as he was accustomed to amuse 
his friends by relating) his success, only a few months later, in gaining 
admission to the practice in all the courts at once, was owing to the good 
fortune of bearing a letter from a friend, at the succeeding term of the 
Court of Conference, to one of the Judges, a gentleman of proverbial benev- 
olence and kindness, who conducted the examination, or interview, in his, • 
own chamber, and procured the signatures of his brethren without so much 
having been requested or expected — so little strictness was observed • 
towards the few applicants then entering the profession. V) 

But if he was allowed admission & gratify and without the requisite, * 
amount of learning, he was not long in supplying the deficiency. The ^ 
powers of mind and eagerness in quest of knowledge, which had been 9 
exhibited in his scholastic studies, enabled him to make rapid progress in 


the Law. His professional studies were directed by William Duffey, Esq., 
an eminent lawyer, then residing in Hillsboro', to whom he was ever af- 
terwards affectionately attached, and to whose memory he paid a grateful 
tribute among his sketches of public and professional men of North 
Carolina, in an oration before the Literary societies of the University in 
his latter years. Mr. Murphey advanced rapidly to the first rank of the 
advocates of his day — and notwithstanding his turning aside, to the indul- 
gence of his tastes for general literature, his enlightened labors and bright 
career in legislation, his promotion and service on the Bench for two years, 
his decayed health and irregular attendance on the Courts in his latter 
days, he maintained this position in the public estimation, even to the end 
of his life. When it is remembered that among his competitors at one time 
or another for more than a quarter of century, were Archibald Hender- 
son, Cameron, Norwood, Nash, Seawell, Yancy, Euffm, Badger, Hawks, 
Mangum, Morehead, and others, it must be admitted that he was at a bar, 
where the remark of Pinckney that " it was not a place where a false and 
fraudulent reputation for talents can be maintained" was fully justified. 
His practice for many years was not exceeded by that of any gentleman 
in the State, and his success corresponded with its extent. Both his ex- 
amination of witnesses and argument of causes before juries on the circuit 
could not be excelled in skilfulness. He had a Quaker like plainness of 
aspect, a scrupulous cleanness and neatness in an equally plain attire, an 
habitual politeness, and a subdued simplicity of manner which at once 
won his way to the hearts of juries, while no Greek dialectician had a 
more ready and refined ingenuity or was more fertile in every resource of 
forensic gladiatorship. His manner of speaking was never declamatory 
or in any sense boisterous — but in the style of earnest and emphatic con- 
versation ; so simple and apparently undesigning that he seemed to the 
jury to be but interpreting their thoughts rather than enunciating his 
own, yet with a correctness and often elegance of diction which no 
severity of criticism could improve. A pattern of politeness in all his 
intercourse, public and private, he could torture an unwilling or corrupt 
witness into a full exposure of his falsehood, and often had him 
impaled before he was aware of his design; and no advocate had at his 
command more effective raillery, wit and ridicule to mingle with his ar- 
guments. Many of his speeches in the Nisi Prim Courts are still recol- 
lected among the profession and the people of middle age in the fourth 
circuit, and are spoken of with great admiration. One of the last of these 
in which, though he was then broken down by misfortune and enfeebled 
by disease, the fires of his genius and eloquence shone out in the lustre 
of his palmiest days, was made in the case of Burrow v Worth in the 
Superior Court of Randolph in 1830 or 1831. It was an action for a 


malicious prosecution against Dr. David Worth, a prominent physician, 
charging him with having falsely and maliciously caused the plaintiff, 
Burrow, to he presented for the murder of one Carter, of whose wife it 
was pretended he was the paramour. The plaintiff sought to show that 
not only was the accusation against him false but that Worth was himself 
accessory to the murder which be alleged had been committed by the 
wife of Carter, by poison, which he (Worth) had furnished to her for that 
purpose, with the guilty motive on his own part which he attributed to 
the plaintiff; and he supported his complaint with a well combined scheme 
of perjury and fraud which it required no ordinary skill and courage to 
baffle. His chief witness was a married woman who was found to be a 
member of a church, whose general character was vouched by her ac- 
quaintances to be good, and who deposed in the plaintiff's examination to 
a conversation between Worth and the wife of Carter, in which it was 
agreed that for a base motive he would provide her with arsenic with 
which she should poison and take the life of her husband. It was fur- 
ther shown, and this was true, that Worth had attended the deceased as a 
physician at the time of the alleged conspiracy against his life, so that the 
opportunity, at least, was not wanting. Such was the aspect worn by 
the case when this witness was tendered to Mr. Murphey as the defend- 
ant's counsel for cross-examination. By a series of questions as to the 
time, place and circumstances, the furniture in the room in which the 
conversation was located, the relative positions of the parties and the 
witness, their previous acquaintanceship, the course of the dialogue be- 
tween them, et cetera, he involved her in a maze of inconsistences, con- 
tradictions and improbabilities so as to expose the whole story as a base 
fabrication. The privilege of cross-examination is often abused, though 
there is a consistency in truth and incongruity in falsehood which even 
in the case of the least resolute witnesses rarely allows such abuse to do 
much harm. All perceived in the case in question that it was one of the 
great tests of truth in the common law, and cannot safely be dispensed 
with in judicial proceedings. The evidence, as usually happens in such 
cases, was quite voluminous; we have but delineated its most prominent 
feature. Having for his client a personal friend, threatened to be vic- 
timized by a foul conspiracy for daring to perform one of the highest du- 
ties of a citizen, in bringing at least a supposed murderer to justice. Mr. 
Murphey in his defence, inspired by the theme, is said to have delivered 
a speech which has never been surpassed in the forensic displays of the 
State. Analysis, denunciation, wit, ridicule, pathos, invective were in 
turn poured forth with such telling effect that not only was the defendant 
triumphantly acquitted, but it would have been dangerous for the plain- 
tiff had the question of his life or death been in the hands of the jury. 


The audience alternately convulsed with laughter, bathed in tears, or 
burning with indignation were enraptured with his eloquence and could 
not be restrained from demonstrations of applause. 

Mr. Murphey delighted in the Equity practice of his profession, and 
was accustomed to speak of this branch of our Jurisprudence as the 
application of the rules of Moral Philosophy to the practical affairs of 
men. More of the pleadings in Equity causes within the sphere and 
time of his practice will be found in his handwriting, than in that of any 
other solicitor, and with two or three exceptions, among those named 
above, he was by far the most adept as an Equity Pleader. He wrote 
with facility and accuracy, even amid the crowd of courts, and confusion 
of clients, and his neat and peculiar chirography, to those a little accus- 
tomed to it was as legible as print. 

In the year 1818, he was elected by the General Assembly a Judge of 
the Superior Courts, and rode the circuits in that capacity for two years, 
when he resigned and returned to the practice of his profession. Under a 
clause in the criminal law establishing the present Supreme Court system, 
passed that session, which authorized the Governor by special commission 
to detail a Judge of the Superior Court to sit in stead of a Judge of the 
Supreme Court, in causes where any one of their number had been 
of counsel or had an interest in the result, he was commissioned by the 
Governor for this service, and presided in the Supreme Court in several 
causes, in place of Judge Henderson, who had been recently elected 
from the bar, This provision of the law, being afterwards thought to be 
in conflict with that clause of the constitution which requires the Judges 
of the Supreme Court to be elected by the General Assembly, was 
repealed. In his office as a Judge he well sustained his reputation for 
learning and ability which had been so well established at the bar, and 
attracted the admiration of the profession and the people by the courtesy, 
patience, dignity and justice, which characterized his administration of 
the laws. Before taking leave of his career as a lawyer it is proper to 
mention his tribute to his profession in three volumes of reports of the 
Supreme Court of the State, embracing the decisions of cases of interest 
from 1804 to 1819. 

From 1812 to 1818, inclusive, Mr. Murphey was continually a senator 
from the county of Orange in the General Assembly, and on this new 
theatre shone more conspicuously than he had done in his profession. 
He inaugurated a new era in the public policy of the State, and for many 
years exerted a greater influence in her counsels than any other citizen. 
Judging from the public documents whieh he has left behind him in 
advocacy of this policy, no man has ever brought into our Legislative 
halls a more ardent spirit of patriotism, a more thorough survey and 


comprehension of her situation and wants, or proposed bolder or more intel- 
ligent measures for her relief. Whether these measures failed from error 
in their conception or timidity in his contemporaries to meet and boldly sus- 
tain them, the historian must pronounce that his reports and other wri- 
tings in regard to them are the noblest monuments of philosophic states- 
manship to be found in our public archives since the days of the Revolu- 
tion. From 1815 to 1823, either as chairman of a committee in the 
Legislature or of the Board of Internal Improvement, he annually prepared 
a report on the public policy of the State, in relation to her improvment 
in the means of transportation, and in 1819 he published "a Memoir on 
Improvements contemplated, and the resources and finances of the State," 
dedicated to his friend John Branch then her Governor; any one of 
which papers would have done honor to DeWitt Clinton or J. C. Calhoun, 
the champions of Internal Improvement in the State and Federal Govern- 
ment, respectively, during this period. Fully appreciating the condition 
of the world, resulting from the general peace consequent on the battle 
of "Waterloo and the overthrow of the first Napoleon, since which time 
there has been a greater advance in all the useful arts, and diffusion of 
the comforts of life among mankind than in any five preceding centuries; 
he applied all the energies of his intrepid and well furnished mind to the 
task of devising how his native State should most profit in this universal 
calm, confer the greatest good on the greatest number of her people, and 
resume her proper rank in the Union, of which she was a member. His 
solution of this important problem, he seems to have summed up in three 
propositions, namely: First, by improving her means of transportation, in 
deepening her inlets from the ocean, opening her rivers for navigation, 
connecting these rivers by canals, and turnpike or McAdamized roads so as 
to concentrate all her trade at two or three points within her own limits. 
Second, by building up commercial cities of her own at these points, with 
a view to commercial independence of other States, to the better regula- 
tion and control of her currency and exchanges, and to cherish and stim- 
ulate a just State pride. Third, by a system of education commensurate 
with her necessities, embracing first — primary schools — second, academies 
for instruction in the higher branches — third, fostering the Universty 
ami greatly enlarging its accommodations and course of instruction — 
fourth, by an asylum for the deaf and dumb. On this last subject of ed- 
ucation, he made a report to the General Assembly in 1817 comprehending 
those several topics from which, since our limits will not permit us to recur 
t<> it BgaiA, we make one or two brief extracts as exhibitions of his style, 
hi.- public spirit and his noble benevolence. For the University then 
from causes which he details in a state of extreme depceflsioB he says : 
"when the pride of the State is awakening and an houorable ambition is 


cherished for her glory, an appeal is made to the patriotism and generous 
feelings of the legislature in favor of an institution, which in all civilized 
nations has been regarded as the nursery of moral greatness and the 
palladium of civil liberty. That people who cultivate the sciences and 
.the arts with most success, acquire a most enviable superiority over others. 
Learned men by their discussions and works give a lasting splendor to 
national character : and such is the enthusiasm of man, that there is not 
an individual, however humble in life his lot may be, who does not feel 
proud, to belong to a country honored with great men and magnificent 
institutions. It is due to North Carolina, it is due to the great men who 
first proposed the foundation of the University, to foster it with parental 
fondness, and to give to it an importance commensurate with the high 
destinies of the State." We may here remark that although much im- 
provement has been made, in the interim, even after the lapse of forty- 
odd year6, the outline of a system of studies in the University, which he 
therein proposed, has not yet been filled up. Of the necessity of public 
instruction for poor children, he says : " Such has always been and prob- 
ably always will be the allotment of human life that the poor will form 
a large portion of every community; and it is the duty of those who 
manage the affairs of a State to extend relief to the unfortunate part of 
our species in every way in their power. Providence in the impartial 
distribution of its favors, whilst it has denied to the poor many of the 
comforts of life, has generally bestowed upon them the blessing of intelli- 
gent children. Poverty is the school of genius; it is a school in which 
the active powers of man are developed and disciplined, and in which 
that moral courage is acquired which enables him to toil with difficulties, 
privations and want. From this school generally come forth those men 
who act the principal parts upon the theatre of life ; men who impress a 
character upon the age in which they live. But it is a school, which, if 
left to itself, runs wild — vice in all its depraved forms grow up in itr 
The State should take this school under her special charge, and nurturing 
the genius which there grows in rich luxuriance, give to it an honorable 
and profitable direction. Poor children are the peculiar property of the 
State, and by proper cultivation, they will constitute a fund of intellectual 
and moral worth, which 'will greatly subserve the public interest." 

His greatest and most persevering exertions, however, Were devoted to 
the subject of internal improvement. His reports and memoir on that 
and kindred topics were examined with high commendation in the year 
1822, in an article in the North American Review, then under the edi- 
torial charge of the Hon. Edward Everett. It must be borne in mind 
that in that day the modern resource of the Railroad for transportation at 
long distances had entered the contemplation of no one in Europe or 


America — sluices, canals, and turnpike roads were the only improvements 
deemed to be practical. To effect these in the most approved methods 
Mr. Hamilton Fulton, an engineer of much reputation, was brought into 
the service of the State from Europe, at a salary of twelve hundred pounds 
sterling (§0,000) per annum, who made surveys of all the harbors and 
rivers, and of many routes for roads in all sections of the State. The 
main features of the plan of Mr. Murphey, and to which he obtained the 
approbation of Mr. Fulton, after the improvement of inlets, at Nag's Head 
(if practicable), Ocracock, Beaufort, Swansborough and Wilmington, con- 
sisted in opening for batteau navigation the rivers Roanoke, Tar, Neuse, 
Cape Fear, Yadkin, Catawba, Broad and sundry tributaries, and by 
canals to join the Roanoke and Tar or Pamlico, and Neuse so as to ship 
the productions of the country watered by each of them from Beaufort ; 
and to unite by similar means the Cape Fear with Lumber river, and at a 
more northerly point with the Yadkin, and the Yadkin with the Catawba, 
so as to bring to the mouth of the Cape Fear the commerce of our whole 
watershed trending from the Blue Ridge, except that of Broad river 
(which was to be opened into South Carolina,) and thus making commer- 
cial marts of Fayetteville and Wilmington. Places and sections more re- 
mote from these waters were to be supplied by roads. The boldness and 
comprehensiveness of this plan, providing as it proposed to do, for the 
whole State, with the only facilities then known to science, must be seen 
by all. Whether it was practicable, and if so at what cost, was a question 
for engineers. It was in all probability practicable at a cost not exceeding 
the amount which up to this time the State has invested in Railroads, 
and if accomplished it would evidently have been a great advance beyond 
the cart and wagon, then the only means of transportation in use. Its 
very comprehensiveness, however, was probably the reason of its failure. 
To conciliate favor, inadequate appropriations for various parts of it in 
all sections of the State were made at once, and work was commenced 
under incompetent supervision, which resulted in failure. After a few 
years' trial the whole was abandoned, and the Engineer, whose salary had 
at no time been less than twice that of the Governor of the State, was 
discharged. Its miscarriage is the less to be regretted since the iron rail 
and steam car, then undeveloped in the womb of time, would have super- 
seded, if not supplanted, the most perfect works which it contemplated so 
far as regards inland transportation at least. But the fame of its author 
as a patriot, statesman and sage should be not dimmed by mistakes or 
failures in the details of its execution, or the advances made in the science 
of engineering in a subsequent age. The expenditures upon it from the 
State treasury, including the salaries of the principal engineer and assis- 
tants, did not exceed $50,000, and this was repaid tenfold in the topo- 


graphical and statistical information which it elicited and caused to be 
published, and in the loyal and true North Carolina patriotism aroused by 
Mr. Murphey's discussions of the subject in the hearts of her people. "We 
have recurred to this matter of expenditure with some care, for the rea- 
son, that before the subject ol internal improvement became popular in 
the State, it was the custom of its opponents to hold up Mr. Murphey's 
scheme of improvement as a kind of South-sea bubble, from which the 
Treasury had been well nigh rendered bankrupt. 

While immersed in endeavors to press forward those projects of im- 
provement, and at the same time assiduously laboring in his profession, 
either as a Judge on the Bench or a lawyer at the bar, Mr, Murphey con- 
ceived the purpose of writing the history of his native State. He had 
studied her interests by every light of political economy, and every record 
of the past within his reach — was personally acquainted with nearly every 
citizen of intelligence, and his talents, public spirit and engaging man- 
ners, had rendered him a favorite among the surviving officers and 
soldiers of the Revolution. This latter circumstance had made him 
acquainted with the traditions of that period, and the great injustice by 
omission and commission which the State had suffered at the hands of the 
writers of history. He seems to have undertaken this task with the 
same motives of zealous patriotism, which had inspired his legislative 
action. In a letter to Gen. Joseph Graham, of Lincoln, dated July 20th 
1821, he says: 

" Your letter to Colonel Conner first suggested to me the plan of a 
work which I will execute if I live. It is a work on the history, soil, 
climate, legislation, civil institutions, literature, &c, of this State. 
Soon after reading your letter, I turned my attention to the sub- 
ject in the few hours which I could snatch from business, and was sur- 
prised to find what abundant materials could, with care and diligence, be 
collected — materials which if well disposed would furnish matter for one 
of the most interesting works that has been published in this country. 
We want such a work. We neither know ourselves nor are we known 
to others. Such a work, well executed, would add very much to our 
standing in the Union, and make our State respectable in our own eyes. 
Amidst the cares and anxieties which surround me, I cannot cherish a 
hope, that I could do more than merely guide the labors of some man, 
who would take up the work after me, and prosecute it to perfection. I 
love North Carolina, and love her the more because so much injustice 
has been done to her. We want pride. We want independence. We 
want magnanimity. Knowing nothing of ourselves, we have nothing in 
our history to which we can turn with conscious pride. We know noth- 
ing of our State, and care nothing about it. We want some great stimu- 



lus to put us all in motion, and induce us to waive little jealousies, and 
combine in one general march to one great purpose." 

His habits of labor, his readiness as a writer, and addiction to literary 
exercises as a pleasure, the philosophical cast of his mind, and above all 
his sentiment of devotion to North Carolina, eminently fitted him for this 
enterprize; and he seems to have entered upon it with his characteristic 
industry and zeal. He gathered materials for the work from a great 
variety of sources, public and private, within and without the State. At his 
instance the Legislature, through the intervention of Mr. Gallatin, then the 
Minister of the United States in Great Britain, caused the office of the Board 
of Trade and Plantations and the State Paper office in London to be ex- 
plored, and an index of the documents therein pertaining to our colonial 
history, to be furnished — literary men in other States, including Mr. Madison 
and Mr. Jefferson, readily seconded his efforts by supplying information 
sought of them — the families of deceased public men in the State, includ- 
ing those of Governor Burke, Governor Samuel Johnston, Mr. Hooper, 
&c., opened all their papers to his inspection, and many officers of the 
Revolution, then living, among whom were Col. William Polk, Gen. Lenoir, 
Major Donoho, of Caswell, Gen. Graham, and divers others undertoook 
to contribute to him their personal reminiscences of the war. The memo- 
randa of the gentleman last named, prepared in accordance with the 
request of Mr. Murphey, were given to the public in the pages of our 
Magazine in the year 1856. Upon application of Mr. Murphey, by memo- 
rial, the General Assembly at the session of 1826 granted him authority 
to raise by lottery a sufficient sum, for the publication of his contemplated 
history, the plan of which he set forth in detail. We regret, that we 
have not at hand a copy of this memorial, to lay before our readers, the 
outline of the work as then prepared. It was more voluminous, and em- 
braced a greater variety of topics, than would have been preferred by the 
generality of readers, but its very magnitude showed the comprehension 
of his genius and the intrepidity of his mind. Beyond one or two chap- 
ters on the Indian tribes of the State, he appears to have done but 
little towards its composition, though his collection of materials, direct- 
ing attention to the subject, and rescuing from oblivion mueh that was- 
passing away, rendered the undertaking itself a great public benefit. 
Decayed health and a ruined fortune arrested him in mid career, put a 
stop to his favorite enterprize, and clouded with poverty and adversity 
the evening of his days. 

Among his public employments may be classed his mission to Tennes- 
see as the representative of the University in 1822. The chief endow- 
ments of the University from the State, consisted in escheats, or the es- 
tates of persons dying without heirs or next of kin, which passed to tho 


State by a prerogative of sovereignty. In her deed of cession to the United 
States of her Tennessee territory, North Carolina had reserved the right 
to satisfy the claims of her citizens for military service in the army of the 
Revolution, by grants of land in the ceded territory, and where her sol- 
diers had died leaving no heirs, or none who appeared and made claim 
within a limited period, their titles were considered as escheats, and vested 
by law in the Board of Trustees, and warrants were issued by the authori- 
ties of North Carolina, in the nanies of such soldiers for the benefit of 
the institution. The State of Tennessee took exception to these proceed- 
ings of North Carolina, alleging that they were in conflict with the provi- 
sions of the deed of cession, and since her admission into the Union, with 
ker sovereign rights as an independent State. The controversy became 
a serious one, and Mr. Murphey was sent to confer with the legislature of 
Tennessee respecting it, in the year 1822. He was received with the cour- 
tesy due to his high character, and the important interest he represented, 
and was heard upon the subject at the bar of the legislature, on two suc- 
cessive days. An adjustment of the dispute succeeded, by which a por- 
tion of the claims of the University were yielded for the benefit of a sim- 
ilar institution at Nashville, and the residue were confirmed. From the 
sales of the lands thus acquired, have arisen a large portion of the in- 
vestment in bank stocks, on which this institution is at present maintained. 
As a literary character, Mr. Murphey deserves to be classed among the 
first professional and public men of the State, and among those who, like 
himself, devoted their time laboriously to professional and public employ- 
ments, he has had few superiors in literature in the nation. In the Latin, 
Greek and French languages, he attained such proficiency, that till the 
close of his life he read the standard authors, with pleasure and for 
amusement, and with the best of the English classics, few were more fa- 
miliar. To this, though self-taught, he added no inconsiderable attain- 
ments in science. As an epistolary writer, he had no equal among his 
contemporaries, and in all his compositions there was an ease, simplicity, 
and at the same time, choieeness of expression, which showed him to be 
master of his native tongue. When it is known that a large part of his 
life was passed in taverns on the circuit, where he was immersed in busi- 
ness, or when not engaged in business, such was his proverbial urbanity 
and kindliness of nature, that his rooms were the resort of all whether of 
those seeking advice and consultation within or without the sphere of his 
profession, or of his circle of friends in every county, attracted by the 
charms of his conversation, his acquirements are a marvel to those less studi- 
ous, or less imbued with a true love of letters. His oration before the 
two Literary Societies of the University in 1827, is a fair exponent of 
his style in writing, his favorite studies, the subjects of his admiration, 


his enthusiastic American sentiment, his characteristic benevolence and 
kindness towards young men, and that unaffected modesty, which was so 
remarkable a virtue in his character. Yet it is tinged with a vein of sad- 
ness, as if life for him was approaching its twilight, and he were walking 
among the graves of the dead, some of them his comrades whom he was 
soon to follow. Notwithstanding it was the first in the series of these 
discourses before the societies, it has never been surpassed in appropriate- 
ness and interest by any of his successors, though among them have been, 
many of the most distinguished scholars in the State. Its commendation 
by Chief Justice Marshall, in a letter to the author published with the 
second edition, stamps its portraits of public characters with his approba- 
tion and renders it historical. 

To the possession of genius in an eminent degree, he united some of 
its infirmities. A sanguine temper, a daring confidence in results, a reli- 
ance on the apparent prosperity of the times, involved him in pecuniary 
obligations, many of them perhaps on speculation, which eventuated in 
disaster and swept away his estate. But a little later came an attack of 
chronic rheumatism, from which he suffered much, and was often inca- 
pacitated for business during the last half dozen years of his life. But 
during this season of adversity he struggled with a brave heart against 
the storms of fate. With a pallid cheek and disabled limbs, he made his 
appearance in the Courts where, as we have seen, his gifted mind occa- 
sionally shone out in all its meridian splendor, and when this was not 
practicable the hours of pain and misfortune were beguiled if not solaced 
by the pursuit of those noble studies which had been the delight of his 
leisure in the days of his prosperity. 

He died in Hillsborough, then his place of residence, on the 3d of Feb- 
ruary, 1832, and is interred in the grave yard of the town, a few feet from 
the door of the Presbyterian Church, and nearly in front of it. No mon- 
ument marks his resting-place. His sons, Dr. V. Morcau Murphey, of 
Macon, Mississippi, and Lieutenant P. U. Murphey, of the Navy of the 
T T nitcd States, are his only surviving children, 



[The following letter from a father to his son, then a member of the Sopho- 
more Class in this Institution, is replete with such good sense, expressed in 
clear, energetic, kind and appropriate terms that we are gratified to place it 
before our readers. — Eds. Mag.] 

Sampson, Sept. 12, 1840. 

My Dear John : — I have learned, with not less regret, than surprise, 
the late occurrences at Chapel Hill — I had hoped, I had so often lectured 
you on the indispensable necessity of application to your studies and obe- 
dience to the regulations and rules of College, that I should not hear of 
your neglecting the one, or infringing the other. 

I am much mortified in finding I have been mistaken — you surely can- 
not but know, that your education is to be your fortune, and the only 
inheritance you will ever receive. How, then, can you excuse your con- 
duct in the late combination, which you and others of your class, entered 
into, to set at defiance and openly violate a law of the College ? 

The lenity and good feelings of the Faculty, in permitting you to re- 
main, on your promise of future obedience, have saved you from disgrace 
and probably from ruin. I am aware of the grounds on which some, and 
perhaps all of you, attempt to excuse yourselves, viz : that the regulation 
was novel — unnecessary, and oppressive. These are false assumptions, to 
my knowledge. The same regulations existed (I know) thirty-five years 

They are not only necessary, but indispensable in ascertaining whether 
a student really knows his lesson, or not : — and it follows as a consequence, 
that a law of long standing and of imperious necessity cannot be op- 

In my day, a boy who would carry his book into the recitation room, with 
the view of skimming over the parts which would probably come to him would 
have been considered as forfeiting all pretensions to honorable distinction. 
And so it should always be. From the standing you held in the Freshman 
year, I hope at least, with you, there was no necessity for resorting to such a 
course. Why then should you with a view of countenancing the idle or 
the stupid, enter into a combination to violate a law, and incur the hazard 
of ruining your prospects in life? I name the idle, and stupid, because, 
I consider it perfectly certain, that every youth who is industrious and is 
not stupid can get the lessons prescribed in College, so as to make a re- 
spectable recitation. If he is too idle to get his lessons, he is not worth 
the pains and money bestowed on his education. If with industry he 
cannot get them, he is to be pitied and the sooner he is taken from school 


and put to some manual occupation, the better. You are now seventeen 
years old; and therefore old enough to reflect and to know, that if you 
have even a medium capacity with proper industry, you can make your- 
self respectable in any profession, and in time, enable yourself to make a 
decent living, and perhaps a fortune. You cannot be so unobserving as 
not to know the vast difference between the respectability, as well as the 
ease of making a fortune of the man whose mental acquirements are his 
working tools, and the man who depends upon manual labor. Mental la- 
bor acquires distinction which manual labor can never attain. Mental la- 
bor acquires fortune in a ratio, and with a facility which manual labor can 
never approach. You ought never (for a moment) to forget you have your 
own living to make. When I have educated you, and given you the op- 
portunity to fit yourself for usefulness in life, I have done with you, all 
therefore depends on yourself. You have the choice of becoming a re- 
spectable professional man, or of drudging through life at the tail of a 
plough or the helve of a grubbing-hoe. I trust you can, and will see the 
vast difference. Let me once more remind you of some rules for conduct 
which I have heretofore endeavored to impress on you. Remember, my 
child, this advice comes from your father, and of course can proceed from 
no motive but a wish for your welfare. Remember, too, it comes from a 
father who has seen much of the world, and has the experience of more 
than fifty years to guide his judgment. 

In the first place, you must assume and maintain that firmness and de- 
cision of conduct which will enable you to do what you know to be right, 
£nd to refuse to do anything which you believe to be wrong. Often this 
among the vicious, the idle and the thoughtless of those around you, will 
throw odium on you- You must not care for that. The virtuous and the 
reflecting portion of even your young companions will approve of it. All 
thinking men will commend you. All respectable and experienced men 
will praise you. Their commendation is worth all the ephemeral popularity 
which College can bestow. In the next place attend to your own busi- 
ness, and let nothing tempt you from it. Let other boys' affairs alone. 
This will of course keep you out of all combinations and free from the 
troubles and difficulties in which others may involve themselves j this 
again may brin^ odium on you, but your firmness must disregard it. You 
have a satisfactory answer in saying my father or tins it — my welfare 
depends on it. 

You must avoid the company oi the vicious, the dissipated and the 
idle. It is better for you, it is honorable to you, to be unpopular, w itli 
the vicious, the dissipated and the idle. It is evidence of your own good 
conduct. They may dislike you, and even hate you, but they cannot avoid 
respecting you, for the very conduct, which begets their dislike. 13ad 


company is the root of all evil, especially in College life. There, no com- 
pany, is better than the idle. Here again you will need all your firmness. 
No matter where he comes from, no matter what his standing is, if he is 
dissipated, if he is idle, never be intimate with him, never associate with 
him, beyond what politeness indispensably requires. You have always a 
reason, which ought to be satisfactory, for avoiding themj your business, 
your studies, require your attention. 

By observing these rules, maintaining studious habits, and a strict obser- 
vance of the laws of College, you cannot fail to make yourself a good 
scholar and insuring the respect of all who know you. Even of those 
who may dislike you, for your course. To you in after life, it is a matter 
of momentous consequence. 

$ Let me again remind you never seek to be popular in College, in the 
usual acceptation of the word. Let your conduct be such as to command 
respect, and you will have attained all that is desirable in that regard. 

I have seen your cousin Thomas' letter to his father regarding this mat- 
ter ; the grounds he assumes are perfectly untenable, and such as he ought 
to be ashamed of, and of which I hope he will repent. I fear he needs 
some of the above advice as to the company he keeps, and you may show 
him this letter. His course and conduct has given his father and mother 
great mortification and chagrin, as has yours me and your mother. 
. I am glad you have changed your room and gone into the village. You 
have not said in your letter to your mother, if you have a room-mate. You 
have been remiss and culpable in not having written me any acoount of 
this occurrence, and leaving me to find out its history as I could. I trust 
you will never again go into the West building, and if you cannot get a 
good room elsewhere you will always room in the village. The necessary 
additional expense of a few dollars is no consideration when put in 
competition of your being thrown into a bad neighborhood. I un- 
derstand your West building is always the favorite resort of the idle of 

I wish you distinctly to understand I entirely and thoroughly approve 
of Professor Phillips' conduct in this transaction, and though the course 
of the Faculty in permitting you and others who made the necessary re- 
cantations to remain, had relieved me from much trouble and distress, I 
am only surprised at their lenity towards you. The rebellious spirit shown 
by those concerned in the combination deserved instant dismission from 
the Institution. You at least, if you place any value on my regard, or on 
your own welfare, must remember you are not to set at defiance the au- 
thority of the laws and the Professors of the Institution in which I have 
placed you. Not even, though in your opinion, those laws are unnecessa* 
ry, or irksome, or burthensome. 


I have inclosed this letter, unsealed, to Gov. Swain that he may see 
the views I have expressed to you, and may know what I, as one of the 
trustees of the Institution, think regarding this matter. I trust I shall 
hear better accounts of you hereafter. 

Yours affectionately, "W. B. M. 


"This world is all a fleeting show," 
Its vanities we ne'er can know ; 
"We gaze upon them, then they're past 
But each more charming than the last. 

How oft it is that distant views 
Array our hopes in golden hues; 
We strive to grasp the objects fair 
But only seize the empty air. 

Not every scene hope gilds with joy 
Is always found without alloy; 
Not every flower that blooms so fair 
Diffuses sweets throughout the air. 

But as some half-remembered dream, 
Wo pass this life — a transient gleam; 
At morn a flower, at noon decayed — 
Made up of sunshine and of shade. 



(part IV.) 

The Legislature of 1769, as we have seen, protested with entire una- 
nimity agaiDst the violation of the Constitution and the most sacred prin- 
ciples of civil liberty, in the removal of trials for treason from the provin- 
ces to Great Britain. The Assembly of 1770 passed the Riot Act, 
which made it felony, without benefit of clergy, for any number of per- 
sons above ten to assemble for the purpose of disturbing the peace, and 
to remain assembled for more than an hour after being required by a Jus- 
tice of the Peace to disperse and return to their respective habitations. 
It was furthermore made felony for any number of persons above ten 
assembled together with an intention of disturbing the proceedings of 
any court of judicature, to assault or threaten any judge or officer, or to 
demolish any church, chapel, court house, prison or other house or 6ut- 

For such offences committed, before or after the passage of the act, the 
Attorney General was authorized to institute prosecutions in any Superior 
Court in the province, no matter how distant, and if within sixty days 
the defendants did not make their appearance, whether with or without 
notice, they might be proclaimed outlaws. The Governor called a special 
Court of Oyer and Terminer, to meet at New-Berne, on the 11th March, 
1771, to try offences created by this ex post facto statute. Bills of indict- 
ment were found against Herman Husband and sixty other persons for 
participation in the Hillsborough riots of the 24th and 25th September 
of the previous year. . Sonfe of the defendants resided at the distance of 
more than two hundred miles from New-Berne. The Attorney General 
had given his opinion to the Council, that the facts charged amounted 
only to a misdemeanor. The act transformed them to capital felonies and 
forfeiture of property and life, were the inevitable incidents. The counsel 
of the Board of Trade in England, to whom the statute was referred for 
examination, reported that the clause of outlawry was "altogether unfit 
for any part of the British empire." 

The' petition of the Regulators, at the previous session, to render office- 
holders ineligible to the General Assembly, was amply vindicated by the 
peculiar composition of the legislature of 1770, How many clerks, 
registers, sheriffs and other officers had seats we have no means of ascer- 
taining. We know however that Chief Justice Howard and Judge 
Moore, before whom Husband had been previously tried, and who was ex- 


pccted to be convicted under this act, were members, the former of the 
upper and the latter of the lower house, and that the vacancy created by 
the expulsion of Husband, was supplied by the election of the clerk of 
Orange. Armed guards were in attendance, under the orders of the 
Governor to secure quiet at the election. 

The Congress that framed the State Constitution in 1776, had ample 
evidence to warrant the declaration, "That the Legislative, Executive 
and Supreme Judicial powers of Government ought to be forever separate 
and distinct from each other." 

The proportion of the members of the Provincial Congress of 1776, 
which framed the State Constitution, who were Regulators, is unknown 
and incapable of ascertainment. General Person was at the head of 
the Granville delegation, and the Constitution as well as the De- 
claration of Rights, show the deep impress of the political school 
of which he was the most efficient member. Of the forty- seven sections 
of the Constitution, thirteen — more than a fourth — are the embodiment 
of fhe reforms sought for by the Regulators in 17C9. The most impor- 
tant safeguards of civil and religious liberty will be found in the jealous 
provisions of the 2d, 13th, 21st, 23d, 25th, 26th, 28th, 29th, 30th, 31st, 
32d, 34th and 41st sections. These, like — the Great Charter — the Peti- 
tion of Right, and other muniments of English liberty, constitute, in a 
most important degree, the philosophy of history. 

The 31st, 32d, 34th and 41st sections require more attention than mere 
numerical reference. Wo have had occasion in our previous chapters to 
refer to the well devised scheme to secure the maintenance and exclusive 
privileges of the established Church of England — the disposition made 
by Governor Tryon of the first common school fund — the peculiar char- 
acter of the only two public schools established anterior to the revolution — 
the extraordinary charter of Queen's College — the act authorizing Pres- 
byterian ministers to celebrate the rites of matrimony, and the repeal, by 
royal proclamation, of the act creating and endowing the college, and of 
that to extend privileges to the Presbyterian clergy. "We may here re- 
mark that the charter of Queen's College was rocnacted by the Assembly 
of 1773, but rejected by Covernor Martin, certainly in accordance with 
the views, and probably under direct instructions from the home govern- 

From this time forth the county of Mecklenburg, whose loyalty at an 
earlier day, was the subject of such high gratification to Governor Tryon, 
never faltered in the cause of independence. In seven years thereafter 
Lord Oornwaflifl found himself constrained to speak of Mecklenburg and 
luiwan, as the two most rebellious counties in America. 


The 31st section of the Constitution renders a clergyman of any de- 
nomination ineligible to the General Assembly. 

The 32d disqualifies those who deny the being of God, the truth of the 
Protestant religion, the divine authenticity either of the Old or New 
Testament, from holding any office or place of trust or profit, in the civil 
department of the government. 

The 34th section provides that there shall be no establishment of any 
one religious church or denomination in prefence to any other; that there 
shall be no compulsory attendance on or support of any house of worship, 
or minister of any denomination. The result is an entire and perpetual 
separation of church and State; the perfect equality of all Christian de- 
nominations, and the recognition of Christianity as the established religion 
of the State. 

The 41st section provides that a school or schools shall be established 
by the legislature for the convenient instruction of youth, with such sala- 
ries to the masters paid by the public, as may enable them to instruct at 
low prices, and all useful learning shall be duly encouraged and promoted 
in one or more universities. 

The royal government would not permit the establishment of any 
school or college unless in connection with and under the surveillance of 
the church The republican government annihilated the establishment, 
divorced the State from every species of denominational connection, ac- 
knowledged the Christian religion to be a part of the law of the land, 
and made it the imperative duty of the Legislature to establish schools 
and one or more universities and maintain them at the public expense. 

The first General Assembly elected under the State constitution met 
at New-Berne on the 8th cf April, 1777. The 20th chapter of the acts 
of the section is entitled " an act for incorporating the president and trus- 
tees of Liberty Hall in the county of Mecklenburg." It recognizes the 
former existence of Queen's College in the town of Charlotte, revives the 
corporation under the name of Liberty Hall, reappoints to a great extent 
the former trustees, authorizes the appointment of such professors and 
tutors as the trustees may deem expedient, permits them " to give certifi- 
cates to such students as shall leave the said Academy, certifying their 
literary merit and the progress they shall have made in useful knowledge, 
whether it be in learned languages, arts or sciences or all of them." 
Whilst certificates are expressly authorized, the power to confer degrees 
and authenticate them by diplomas, is withheld. 

The great body of the members of this General Assembly were mem- 
bers of the Provincial Congress which framed the Constitution. The 
light in which they regarded their powers and duties, under that instru- 


ment within three months after its adoption is clearly shown in the 10th 
and closing section of the act: 

"Provided, nevertheless, and further enacted, that this act or any 
therein contained shall not extend or be understood to make this academy 
one of those seminaries mentioned in the constitution, to oblige the State 
to support any president, professor or tutor of said academy, or other 
charge or expense thereof whatsoever; this act of incorporation having 
been obtained at the earnest prayer and entreaty of the said trustees and 
others who were desirous to contribute towards the support thereof." 

The citizens of Rowan and Orange in 1769, complained of the great 
extent of the western counties. Three new counties — Chatham, Guil- 
ford and Wake, were in the following year carved in whole or in part out 
of Orange. The Governor reports to the Secretary of State that "the 
measure was not merely required by the public convenience, but that the 
erecting of Guilford county out of Rowan and Orange counties / was, in 
the distracted state of the country, a truly political division, as it separated 
the. main body of the insurgents from Orange county and left them in 

Four days before the court of Oyer and Terminer met at New-Berne, 
to carry the riot act into execution, a settlement and amnesty had been 
arranged between the Regulators and the public officers of Rowan. Re- 
ferees were appointed to ascertain the amount of unlawful fees exacted, 
for which restitution should be made. This fair adjustment was repudi- 
ated and rebuked by the Governor. It was not even then perhaps too 
late, by the exhibition of clemency and forbearance to have saved the 
effusion of blood, and secured quiet and prosperity to the province. 

Very different counsels prevailed. The leading Regulators were n<>w 
outlaws. The southern portion of the province was prepared to sustain 
the strongest measures with unanimity and enthusiasm. The requisite 
funds and forces were at the command of the Governor, and the first men 
in the province, anxious to occupy conspicuous positions in his army. 

The subjoined letters of Governor Tryon exhibit the official narrative of 
events, from the adjournment of the General Assembly, to the close of 
his administration so fully and consecutively, that we have determined to 
present them without alteration or abridgement. 

New-Berne, the 12th April, 1771. 

I ii my dispatch of the 31st of January, No. GO, I 
informed your Lordship an attempt to rescue Herman Husband was ex- 
pected. Accordingly on the sixth of February, I received intelligence by 
express, that the insurgents were making preparations to come down 
to Ncwbcrnc to release Husband, and to lay the town in ashes, if op- 


posed in their design, and that they were to begin their march from Sandy 
Creek, (within their settlements) on the 11th of the same month*. I im- 
mediately dispatched orders to several regiments of militia to hold them- 
selves in readiness to march to the protection of Newberne. The Craven 
regiment was embodied and kept three days in town. The next day the 
7th, the court of Oyer and Terminer opened agreeable to commission 
issued 22d January, for the purpose of receiving indictments against, 
and hearing the trials of the regulators. On the occasion I took the 
opinion of Chief Justice Howard, whether it would not be adviseable to 
put Herman Husband on his tryal for the libel he published against Judge 
Moore, no witness yet appearing concerning the riots at Hillsborough. 
That from the jealousy generally prevailing among the common people 
at his confinement, I was apprehensive while Husband continued in gaol 
without being brought to tryal and the courts of law open, no vigorous* 
support could be relied on from the militia, but when he was found guilty 
of the charge there would be better grounds to keep him in prison until 
he had complied with the penalties of the law. The Chief Justice assured 
me it would be very proper that Husband should be forthwith brought- 
to tryal* and that he would take care that he was so. Accordingly the 
Deputy Attorney General, the principal being sick and absent from me 
ever since the last session of Assembly, prepared an indictment for the 
libel, and presented it Friday, the 8th of February, to the Grand Jury, 
who not finding the Bill, and the Chief Justice not seeing cause to bind 
Husband over to his good behavior, he discharged him from confinement 
the same evening. 

Col. Caswell's letter bearing date the 20th of February, inserted in 
the minutes of the Council Journal of the 23d of that month, will inform 
your Lordship of the sequel and consequence of Husband's release. 

Not being satisfied with the temper and disposition of this Grand 
Jury, nor pleased with the discharge of Husband, and further no evi- 
dence coming down from the back settlements to prosecute the insurgents 
agreeable to subpoenas sent them, this court was dismissed and a commis- 
sion issued the first of March, for a new court of Oyer and Terminer to 
be held here the 11th of March. Finding the reason the evidences did not 
appear resulted from the intimidations of the insurgents, who had threat- 
ened destruction to every man who should give evidence against them, 
I sent my Secretary expressly up to Hillsborough with a letter requiring 
the attendance of the witnesses, and at the same time giving them assur- 
ance of protection by a body of forces. I also sent circular letters to 
the sheriffs of the several counties within this district recommending to 
them on so important an occasion to make choice* of gentlemen of the 
first rank, property and probity in their respective counties. These 


measures had their desired effect. Mr. Edwards by his great diligence 
and activity brought' down fifteen witnesses from Hillsborough under the 
confidence of the protection of government. The Grand Jury was formed 
of the most respectable persons. The court was opened. The Deputy 
Attorney General and Mr. Gordon, whom I employed as assistant counsel 
for the crown, drew out and presented sixty-one indictments, every one 
of which were found without a dissenting voice. The Grand Jury to the 
number of twenty-three, after the business of the court was over, waited 
upon me, by appointment, at the palace, when I made them an offer of 
going in person to suppress the insurgents, if they thought the inhabi- 
tants of the province in general, and the counties in particular in which 
they reside, were hearty and willing to stand up in the cause of govern- 
ment, to compel the insurgents to obedience to the laws, to resent the in- 
sults offered to his Majesty's crown and dignity, and the outrages already 
committed, and still threatened against the constitution. They unani- 
mously and thankfully accepted my' proposal, promised me their interest 
and influence, and instantly assigned the association, which, with their 
presentment, I herewith transmit. Printed copies of these have been 
circulated through the province. In confidence, my Lord, of stfch sup- 
port, and seeing a few days before in the Wilmington Gazette, an associ- 
tion of similar purport and intent, entered into by the gentlemen on Cape 
Fear river, the next day, the 18th, I summoned his Majesty's Council, 
related to them some reasons that prompted me to offer my service, and 
took their advice on the expediency of raising forces to restore peace and 
stability to government. They approving the measures, I lost no time in 
sending requisitions to almost every county in the province for certain 
quotas of men, in appointing the time and place of their rendezvous res- 
pectively, and ordering the necessary preparations to be made for service. 
I have wrote to General Gage to request he would send me two field pieces 
to cover the passage of the forces across the broad rivers on which it is 
expected the insurgents will make their stand. 

To forward this business I weut myself last week to Wilmington, when 
I appointed Mr. Waddcll General- of all the forces raised or to be 
raised against the insurgents, and expect he will get seven hundred men 
from the western counties to serve under his immediate command, who 
will march them into the settlements of the insurgents by way of Salis- 
bury, while I bring up the forces from the southern and eastern parts 
and break into their settlements on the cast side of Orange county. 

In my excursion to Wilmington I had the satisfaction to find the gen- 
tlemen and inhabitants of Cape Fear unanimous and spirited in the cause, 
and the officers successful in recruiting. 

On the minutes of the council journal your Lordship may see au inter- 


cepted letter of Rednapp Howell, a leader in the councils of the regula- 
tors, it gives the fullest proof of the wicked designs of those people. 
The Judge's apology for their not attending their duty at the last 
Hillsborough court also stands on the minutes of the council. The con- 
duct and proceedings of the insurgents on the sixth of March last in and 
near Salisbury will be best understood by the letter of Col. Frohock and 
Col. Martin to me and the deposition of Mr. Avery, both which with my 
answer to the above letter accompanies this dispatch; as well as the gener- 
al orders sent to the commanding officers of regiments. The forces in 
this neighborhood I expect will march the 23rd instant, and join other 
divisions as they move up the country. 

I have communicated to Governor Bull and Mr. President Nelson my 
plan of operation that they may prevent the insurgents from taking shel- 
ter in the province of Virginia and South Carolina should they retreat to 
those Goverments. 

A principle of duty my Lord has embarked me at this time in this ser- 
vice. The country seems willing to seize the opportunity, and I cheerfully 
offer my zealous services, relying that the motive of this conduct will be 
honorably accepted by my most gracious Sovereign. 

Great Alamance Camp, 18th May, 1771. 
Earl Hillsborough: 

I have the happiness to inform your Lordship that it has pleased God 
to bless his Majesty's arms in this province with a signal victory over the 
regulators. The action begun before twelve o'clock on Thursday the 16th 
instant five miles to the westward of Great Alamance River, on the road 
leading from Hillsborough to Salisbury. The loss of our army, in killed, 
wounded and missing, amounts to about sixty men. We had but one 
officer killed and one dangerously wounded. The action lasted two hours 
but after about half an hour the enemy took to tree fighting and much 
annoyed the men who stood at the guns, which obliged me to cease the 
artillery for a short time and advance the first line to force the rebels 
from their covering ; this succeeded and we pursued them half a mile 
beyond their camp and took many of their horses and the little provision 
and ammunition they left behind them. This success I hope will lead 
soon to a perfect restoration of peace in this country, tho' had they suc- 
ceeded nothing but desolation and ravage would have spread itself over 
the country, the regulators having determined to cut off this army had 
they succeeded. 

The inclosed declaration to the troops will testify to his Majesty the 
obligations I lay under to them for their steady resolute and spirited be- 
havior. Some royal mark of favor I trust will be extended to the loyalty 


that has been exhibited by his Majesty's faithful subjects within this 

A particular detail of this expedition I shall transmit to lay before 
his Majesty as soon as I have settled this country in peace, hoping that 
the advantages now gained over a set of desperate and cruel enemies may 
meet with his Majesty's approbation and may finally terminate in giving 
a stability to this constitution which it has hitherto been a stranger to. 

The army under my command amounted officers included to upwards 
of eleven hundred, that of the rebels to two thousand. 

The two field pieces from Gen. Gage was of infinite service to us. 

I am, &c. 

P. S. — Gen Waddell with two hundred and fifty men was obliged on 
the 9th instant, about two miles to the eastward of the Yadkin, to retreat 
back to Salisbury, the regulators surrounding his forces and threatning 
to cut them to pieces, if they offered to advance to join the army under 
my command. 

I shall march to-morrow to the westward and in a week expect to join 
the General. 

New York, 1st August, 1771. 
Earl Hillsboro: 

On the 18th of May last I had the honor to transmit to your Lordship 
an account of the victory obtained on the auspicious 16th of the same 
month, over the rebels of North Carolina. I shall here, with as much 
brevity as possible, relate the principal events that attended the success 
of that day. On the 17th the day after the battle, I took the opinion of 
the gentlemen of the council present. Vidz't : Hon. John Rutherford, 
Lewis Dellossett, Robert Palmer, and Sam'l Cornell, Esqrs., whether it 
would not be advisable (in order to leave a door open for mercy) to issue 
a proclamation of pardon to all of the rebels, who should come into camp, 
surrender up their arms, take the oath of allegiance and oath of obligation 
to pay all taxes as well due as those that shall become so, and* to support 
and defend the laws of the land. 

This measure was unanimously advised and a proclamation issued accord- 
ingly. The happy effects of this proclamation (extended from time to- 
time for a few days) soon disarmed all opposition. The inhabitants came 
in by crowds to surrender themselves and by the 19th of June three 
thousand three hundred had come into camp and took the oaths of allegi- 
ance, &c, &C., to his Majesty and upwards of five hundred arms were 
surrendered up; many of those that surrendered asserted they were not 
in the battle, while others pretended to be in the battle without arms. 

As soon as I found the force of the rebellion was broke I detaohed 


parties in the neighborhood of the army and made requisitions of the 
settlers to bring in a certain quantity of flour and beeves according to 
the strength of the settlement or the necessities of the army, which 
requisitions were generally strictly complied with, in so much that the 
Commissary had not occasion to purchase any provisions for the troops 
from the 16th of May, until they quitted those settlements the 20th of 
June. On the 19th of May the army proceeded westward in order to 
join G-eneral Waddell with his troops then intrenched near Salisbury, 
and on the 4th of June we effected the junction about eight miles to the 
eastward of the Yadkin River, and marched the same day to the Mora- 
vian settlements; where on the sixth we commemorated his Majesty's 
birth-day and celebrated the victory at Alamance. Intelligence being 
brought that the counties of Tryon, Mecklenburg, and north-west part 
of Rowan, westward of the Yadkin were meditating hostilities, it was 
judged proper, by a council of war, that a strong detachment from the 
army should march through those parts, and compel the inhabitants to 
take the oath above mentioned, and to suppress any insurrection among 
them. Agreeable thereto, I appointed Gen. Waddell for that command 
with the troops he brought with him amounting to three hundred aud 
forty men from the counties of Mecklenburg, Rowan, Tryon, and Anson, 
reinforced with the four companies of the Orange, the company of Light 
Infantry from Cumberland county, and the Artillery company of sailors 
raised at Wilmington, with one of the brass field pieces, and six half 
swivel guns. The General marched the eighth of June to the westward, 
with orders from me after he. had performed the service aforesaid, to dis- 
band his troops; since his first day's march I have not had any intelligence 
of his measures or success; which will be communicated to your Lord- 
ship by Gov. Martin. On the ninth of June I returned with the army 
through the northern part of Orange county to Hillsborough, where 
the Judges were waiting at an especial court of Oyer and Terminer to 
£ry the prisoners taken in battle, twelve of whom were capitally convicted 
as traitors, and two acquitted. Of which twelve, six were executed the 
19th of June near the town of Hillsborough and by' the solicitation of 
the officers of the army, I suspended the execution of the other six till 
his Majesty's pleasure should be known, as sooa as I can transmit their 
names I shall solicit on their behalf, having in the hurry of obedience to 
comply with his Majesty's commands to repair to this government, left 
many papers at New-Berne for Govenor Martin relative to this service, 
which I now find I stand in need of. The executions being over, on the 
20th the army marched to the southward and as I had received the 18th 
of June (by one of the Judges) your Lordship's despatch, requiring me 
to take upon me without loss of time the government of New York, I 


left the army early the 20th arrived the 24th at New-Berne, and on the 30th 
embarked with my family for this country. Benjamin Merril a Captain of 
nilitia, at the hour of execution left it in charge to the officers to solicit 
me to petition his Majesty to grant his plantation and estate to his wife 
and eight children. He died under a thorough conviction of his crime 
and the justice of his sentence and addressed himself to the spectators 
to take warning by his suffering. His Majesty's indulgence to this request 
would, I am persuaded, be dutifully and affectionately received by his 
unhappy widow and children. 

This service, my Lord, with all the impediments and difficulties under 
which it was undertaken and prosecuted, has been attended with every 
desired success. The inhabitants cheerfully pay their taxes, are satisfied 
that Husband, Hunter and a few others have by misrepresentations mis- 
led them, and are convinced that they are much happier by losing the 
victory, than they would have been had they defeated his Majesty's forces. 
The eastern counties raised no men, owing to the northern treasurer 
refusing to answer my warrants on him payable to the Colonels of those 
counties to enable them to pay each volunteer forty shillings bounty mon- 
ey, and to furnish them with necessaries for the expedition, or even to 
issue his note, as the southern treasurer had done, to the sum of six thou- 
sand pounds (without which credit no men could have been raised) to be 
received by him in the payment of the contingent tax. I shall leave to 
your Lordship's reflections the tendency this expedition has had on the 
frontiers of every colony in British America, as well as that on North 
Carolina. When his Majesty is informed that this service was undertaken 
without money in the treasury to support it, no armory to furnish arms, 
nor magazines from whence we could be supplied with ammunition or 
draw provisions, and that his new raised troops acted with fidelity, honor 
and obedience to their King and country, I am sanguine enough to be- 
lieve they will receive some favorable testimonies from their Sovereign. 
They have had no other immediate encouragement than the forty shillings 
bounty money, which was necessary to leave with their families to hire 
husbandmen to plant their corn in^thcir absence. The pay of the troops, 
the provisions, wagons and every contingent service remains a demand on 
the public. A sum I estimate at not less than £40,000 currency : 
a load the province is absolutely incapable to discharge unless by a new 
emission of currency, or an aid from Parliament, both which I humbly 
beg leave to submit to his .'Majesty's wisdom. As the orders delivered to 
the troops will be explanatory of this service, I have the honor herewith 
to transmit them, also the petition of the insurgents to me, delivered the 
evening before the action, with my answer thereto. The particular re- 
turns of the strength of the army was left for Governor Martin. But if 


your Lordship will turn to the orders of the 20th of May, you will see 
£12-6 distributed among the non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the 
army : a sum calculated (by the returns) at 2s. Qd. per annum, which in 
the whole amounted to one thousand and nine men, exclusive of the offi- 
cers, thirty light horse and the nine men that were killed. 

I am, &c, &c. 
P. S. — I should have mentioned that one Few, an outlaw, taken in bat- 
tle was hanged the next day in camp, and that the houses and plantations 
of the outlaws we came near were laid waste and destroyed, and that the 
owners fled out of the province.* 

To the letters of Governor Tryon we have concluded to append accounts 
of the battle of Alamance of a semi-official character which we find in a 
London periodical — Scot's Magazine for 1771 : 

"Newbern, May 24th. On Wednesday last an express arrived in 
town from the Governor, with an account of his having had a battle with 
the Regulators, at Alamance in this province, and gaining a most signal 
and complete victory. The particulars of which, as near as we can 
collect from the several accounts of this decisive stroke, are as follows. — 
His Excellency having reached Hillsborough, with about 1300 of the 
troops, and finding the Regulators were at about forty miles distance 
above him, embodied, and in arms to oppose the provincial forces under 
his command, immediately marched from thence to attack them, in case 
they should refuse to comply with the terms he offered them; which 
were, to give up their principals, lay down their arms, and swear allegi- 
ance to his Majesty. On the 16th instant, being within a mile of them, 
his Excellency received a messenger from them with terms of an accom- 
modation : but they being wholly inadmissable, he marched to within a 
small distance of them, and formed in one line about half his men, the 
other half forming a second line at about 200 yards distance, by way of 

* How forcibly does this cold-hearted narrative recall to memory Southey's 
Legend of the Battle of Blenheim ! 

My father lived at Blenheim then, 

A little town hard by — 
They burnt his dwelling to the ground, 

And he was forced to fly. 
So with his wife and child he fled, 
Nor had he where to lay his head. 

With fire and sword the country 'round 

Was wasted far and wide, 
And many a childing mother then 

And new-born baby died. 
But things like these you know must be 
. At every famous victory. 


reserve. The Regulators, to the number of at least 2500, immediately 
formed within twenty or thirty paces distance, and behaved in a most 
daring and desperate manner. His Excellency again proposed terms to 
them, which they spurned at, and cried out for battle. He then imme- 
diately ordered the signal of battle to be given, which was a discharge of 
the artillery; when instantly ensued a very heavy and dreadful firing on 
both sides for near two hours and a half; when the Regulators, being 
hard pressed by our men, and sorely galled by the artillery, which played 
incessantly on them with grape-shot, gave way on all sides, and were 
pursued to the distance of a mile through the woods and bushes, our 
troops making great slaughter among them, as they did not make a regu- 
lar retreat, but ran in great confusion to all quarters from whence they 
apprehended the least danger. Those killed and wounded on our side in 
this battle, through the immediate interposition of Divine Providence, 
are very inconsiderable, the killed not exceeding ten, and the wounded 
about sixty, among whom is the Hon. Samuel Cornel, Esq ; of this town 
who received a slight wound in his thigh : but of the Regulators 300 
were found dead on the field the next morning, and a very great number 
wounded : about twenty or thirty were made prisoners : and the chief of 
their ammunition and baggage were taken, with a number of horses. 
The signal victory of this day, gained over a formidable body of lawless 
desperadoes, under Divine Providence, is much to be attributed to the 
cool, intrepid, and soldier-like behavior of the Governor, who was in the 
centre of the line during the whole engagement, and in the most immi- 
nent danger, having had his bayonet shot away with a musket ball." 
— North Carolina Gazette. 

"Whitehall, Aug. 3. The peace of the province of North Carolina 
having been for some time past disturbed, and violences, of the most 
outrageous and savage nature, having been committed, in the iroutier- 
countics, by a desperate body of settlers, styling themselves Regulators, 
who appeared in arms, in open defiance of law and authority; and all 
endeavours to persuade these deluded persons of the error of their 
conduct, and to a proper submission to government, having failed of their 
effect; his Majesty's Governor thought fit, with the advice, concurrence, 
and assistance of the council and assembly, and with the support of the 
principal persons of rank and authority in the colony, to raise a body of 
the militia, to repel these insurgents; and having put himself at the head 
of a detachment of the militia, amounting to 1100 men, he on the 16th 
of May, Come up with the main body of the insurgents, amounting to 
2,000; and after an action, which continued about two hours, gained a 
complete victory over them, pursuing thorn a mile beyond their camp, 


and taking many of their horses, and what provisions and ammunition 
they had left behind them. 

This action was about five miles to the westward of Great Alamance 
river, on the road leading from Hillsborough to Salisbury; and his Majes- 
ty's Governor speaks, in the strongest terms, of the bravery and resolution 
of the troops under his command; whose loss is stated to amount to 
about sixty private men killed, wounded, and missing, and one officer 
killed and one wounded ; but there is no return made of the loss sus- 
tained by the insurgents, which is supposed to have been considerable. 

The following was given by the Governor, in public orders, on the 17th 
of May, the day after the engagement. *, 

"The Governor, impressed with the most affectionate sense of grati- 
tude, gives thanks to both officers' and soldiers of the army, for the vig- 
orous and generous support they afforded him yesterday, in the battle 
near Alamance. It was to their valour and study conduct that he owes, 
under the providence of God, the signal victory obtained over obstinate 
and infatuated rebels. His Excellency sympathises with the loyalists for 
the brave men that fell and suffered in the action; but when he reflects, 
that the fate of the constitution depended on the success of the day, and 
the important services thereby rendered their king and country, he con- 
siders this loss, (though at present the cause of affliction to their relations 
and friends,) as a monument of lasting glory and honor to themselves 
and families. 

The dead to be interred at five o'clock this evening, in the front of 
the Park of Artillery; funeral service to be performed, with military 
honors, to the deceased; after the ceremony, prayers and thanksgivings 
for the signal victory it has pleased Providence yesterday to grant the 
army over the insurgents." — London Gazette. 

"Charleston, South Carolina, June 6th. Our last letters from 
North Carolina, some of which, dated yesterday morning, are just come 
to hand, represent the quiet of that province as in a fair way of being 
soon restored; upwards of 2000 of the Regulators having, since the 
battle of the 16th of May past, laid down their arms, upon Governor 
Tryon's proclamation, offering a pardon to all (except such as had been 
outlawed) that would immediately do so, pay their taxes, take the oath of 
allegiance, and refuse any further protection to the outlaws. These let- 
ters add, that the chief justice and assistant judges were gone to hold a 
court of Oyer and Terminer at Hillsborugh, for the trial of such out- 
laws as had been taken in battle and otherwise ; and that his Excellency 
had ordered one Mr. Few, who was an active officer in the Regulators 
army, and fought to the last, to be hanged at the head of the camp as 
soon as he was taken.' The disturbances in North Carolina, which aro 


now near terminating, began so long ago as in the year 1767. It is 
niu^h to the honor of Gov. Tryon, and the province over which he pre- 
sides, that all the men with him employed in repressing the outrages of 
the Regulators, are raised and paid by the country, and that his Excel- 
lency has not applied for regular troops, which he might readily have 

The order-book of General Waddeil is before us and we have ample 
materials to trace the movements, from day to day, during the campaign 
of the main body of the forces as well as the division under his command. 
But we have no space for such minuteness of detail. Those who desire 
additional information will find ample opportunity to indulge curiosity or 
research in the pages of Caruthers, Foote, Jones, Martin, Williamson and 
Wheeler. Few readers will desire more than is 30 lucidly exhibited in 
the admirable pages of Bancroft. To his impartiality, unwearied research 
and eminent ability, the history of North Carolina owes some of its most 
striking and attractive delineations. A letter from him, written in Lon- 
don on the 4th of July, 1848, first directed attention • to the history of 
these insurgents, subsequent to the battle of Alamance, and prompted the 
researches which trace their progress from that defeat to the triumph at 
King's Mountain. "The Regulators (he remarks) are on many accounts 
important. Their complaints were well founded and were so acknowledg- 
ed, though their oppressors were only nominally punished. They formed 
the connecting link between resistance to the Stamp Act, and the move- 
ment of 1775; and they also played a glorious part in taking possession 
of the Mississippi valley towards which they were carried irresistibly by 
their love of independence. It is a mi.stake if any have supposed that 
the Regulators were cowed down by their defeat at the Alamance. Like 
the mammoth they shook the bolt from their brow and crossed the moun- 

Judge Haywood, the historian of Tennessee, one of the most distin- 
guished jurists known in the annals of that and the parent State of North 
Caruli-na, was contemporaneous with the Regulators. If not one of them 
he sympathized deeply with them, and from familiar intercourse with 
their leading men had ample opportunity to ascertain their motives, and 
trace their history. He was the attorney general of this State as early as 
1700, and had even then no equals at our bar with the exception of Davie 
and Moore. His book, published iu 1823, states that East Tennessee be- 
gan to be permanently settled in the winter of 1768-0. "Ten families 
came from the in i-hborhood of the place where Raleigh now stands and 
settled on WataiiLca." The complaint of the Regulators that the western 
counties were enormously large will not be regarded as unfounded when 


it is remembered that though the distance from the neighborhood of 
Raleigh to Watauga may have been four hundred miles, Robertson and 
his colony only passed from the north-eastern corner of Orange to the 
extreme north-western settlement in the adjoining county of Rowan. We 
give Haywood's account of the circumstances which produced the emi- 
gration in his own language. His statements are adopted and additional 
evidence supplied in the recent History of Tennessee by Ramsay : 

"East Tennessee began to be permanently settled in the winter of 1768-9. 
Ten familes of these settlers came from the neighborhood of the place 
where Raleigh now stands, in North-Carolina, and settled on Watauga. 
This was the first settlement in East Tennesee. Soon afterwards it was 
augmented, by settlers from hollows in North Carolina, and from Virginia. 
About the years 1768, 1769, 1770, such was the reigning fashion of the 
times as eminently promoted the emigration of its people from North Car- 
olina. The trade of the country was in the hands of Scotch merchants, 
who came in shoals to get rich, and to get consequence. The people of 
the country were clothed in the goods they imported, and to be dressed 
otherwise was 'Scouted as a sign of barbarity and poverty. The poor man 
was treated with disdain, because unable to contribute to their emolument. 
He was excluded from their society, unless whew he was to be reminded 
of his insignificance, and to be told with brutal freedom of the low rank 
which he held. The rich were led into extravagant modes of living, far 
beyond what their incomes could support. Labour was proscribed as fit 
only for the degraded vulgar ; and every man in the country, of any stand- 
ing, vied with his neighbor in the splendor of his appearance, in the expen- 
ditures of his family, and in the frivolous amusements with which he past 
his time. These traders were taken for a superior class of beings, their 
dress was imitated, their manners, their amusements, even their hobling 
gait, and broad accent. The very women of the country believed that 
there was no dignity but in connexion with them. The governors of the 
province were alternately Scotch, or English, who favored their pretensions. 
The members of the Council were chiefly Scotch and the members of As- 
sembly also. To supply the means of the expensive living which was 
then fashionable, clerks of courts and lawyers demanded exorbitant fees 
for their services. The great excellency of a clerk consisted in making 
out the highest bill of costs, and yet keeping within the pale of the law. 
All sums over forty shillings were sued for, and recovered in courts of 
record. The business* was immense, and the extortions of clerks, lawyers, 
and tax-gatherers, fell with intolerable weight upon the people. Sheriffs 
in the collection of taxes exacted more than was due, and appropriated 
the surplus to their own use. The offenders were the men in power, who 
were appointed by the law to redress the wrongs of the people. Those 


were injured met and petitioned the legislature for relief, and made 
representations of the inal-practices, which they had suffered. Their pe- 
titions were rejected, and treated with disdain. Driven by oppression to 
desperation and madness, the people rose in bodies, under the title of 
Regulators. The royal forces under the command of Grovernor Tryon, 
met the llegulators near the Great Alamance, on the 16th May, 1771, 
and defeated them, killing above two hundred of them on the field of 
battle; some of them were taken by the victors and hanged; others took 
the oath of allegiance and returned home; others fled to Holston, where 
the dread of British power, at a subsequent period, made them tories. In 
these afflicting circumstances, it became necessary for men of property to 
come to the westward in quest of the means to repair the dilapidations of 
their broken fortunes, and for the poor to go somewhere in search of inde- 
pendence, and a share of respectability absolutely unattainable in the 
country of their nativity. In the wilderness beyond the mountains, they 
were promised at least exemption from the supercilious annoyance of those 
who claimed a preeminence above them. Under these incentives, full 
streams of emigration began to flow in various directions 'from the mis- 
governed province of JSprth Carolina. The day of retribution was not 
far behind, and when it came in the dawn of the revolution, the enraged 
populace, ever prone to extremes, exhibited many of those models of ex- 
cellence in match coats of tar and feathers, which frequently they were 
hardly restrained from decorating with the illumination of liquid flame. 
Is it meant to applaud such violence ? No, but to hold it iu abhorrence. 
Yet candor is obliged to confess, that as in every other misfortune, 
there is some speck of consolation, so, also, there was one in this, that if 
the rude fury of the people must fall somewhere, it did not upon this oc- 
casion miss the most deserving candidates for popular distinction. When 
the oath of allegiance to the new State government was offered to the 
people of North Carolina aa a test of distinction between the friends of 
the new state, who would take it, and its enemies who would not, this 
whole body of men, with very few exceptions, who had so lately been the 
tyrants of the country, refused to take the oath and left the United 
States. Amongst others who had withdrawn from the oppression whioh 
they had made fashionable, was Daniel Boon from the Yadkin, who re- 
moved in 17(10, or 177<>, and -lames Robertson, from Wake county, in 
North Carolina, early in 177<h He is the same person who will appear 
hereafter by his actions, to have merited all the eulogiuin, esteem and 
affection, which the most ardent of his countrymen have ever bestowed 
Upon him. Like almost all those in America who have ascended to emi- 
nent celebrity, he had not a noble lineage to boast of, nor the escutehc- 
oncd armorials of a splendid ancestry. But he had what was far more 


valuable, a sound mind, healthy constitution, robust a frame, a love of 
virtue, an intrepid soul, and an emulous desire for honest fame." 

An attentive consideration of the facts stated in the foregoing letters of 
Governor Tryon will enable the reader to form some conception of the 
ravages which marked the march of his forces from day to day. From 
the 16th of May to the 20th of June the whole body of his troops, amount- 
ing, with the division under General Waddell's command, to about 
sixteen hundred men, were subsisted on forced requisitions of provisions 
from the devastated settlements through which he passed. The settle- 
ment on Sandy Creek was among the earliest neighborhoods visited, and 
that received the most marked attention. "The army marched on the 
21st to Sandy Creek where they encamped for a week." 

One of these requisitions, in the hand writing of Secretary Edwards, 
with the sign manual of the Governor, is before us, and we can present no 
more forcible illustration of the character and policy of the colonial gov- 
ernment of that day than it exhibits : 

"I do hereby require you to furnish his Majesty's troops now marching 
under my command six wagon loads of flour from the people of your 
society, and also six able wagons and teams with sufficient drivers to at- 
tend the troops with the said flour. The wagons and teams will be re- 
turned when the service is over. 

By his Excellency's command, 

I. Edwards, P. Sec. 
To the people commonly called Quakers, living on Rocky River and Cane 

, Creek, and thereabouts in Orange county. 

Royal Camp, 20th May, 1771. 

John Pile is one of those people from whom this requisition is made, 
and it will be very agreeable to the Governor that his wagon and team be 
one of the six employed." 

Before entering upon the campaign the Governor had taken the pre- 
caution to notify Governor Bull of South Carolina and President Nelson 
of Virginia that " no shelter " should be allowed the fugitive insurgents 
in those provinces. The wild gorges of the Alleghanies presented the 
only hope of refuge. 

It is now time to return to Shubal Stearns, the founder of the Sandy 
Creek Baptist Church, and the probable author of "The Fan for Fan- 
■"ning." We had occasion to refer to him in the first ehapter in connec- 
tion with an estimate of the comparative numbers of the several Christian 
denominations in the province at the accession of Governor Tryon, and 
afterwards in relation to the mysterious publication mentioned above. 



Mr. Stearns was a native of Boston, joined the New-Lights in New 
England, was subsequently baptized and ordained as a gospel minister 
among the Separate Baptists in 1751. He removed to Berkeley county, 
Virginia, in 1754. From thence under the immediate guidance of the 
Holy Spirit, as he believed, he organized a colony of eight families, and 
sixteen communicants, and came in the following year to Sandy Creek. 
A small church was immediately erected. He is supposed to have pos- 
sessed more than ordinary attainments in general and theological learning; 
to have been a man of deep and earnest piety, and those qualities were 
rendered doubly effective by a wonderful fascination of voice and manner. 

"Very remarkable things (states Morgan Edwards, writing in 1772,) 
may be said of this Church worthy a place in Grillis' book, and inferior 
to no instance he gives of the modern success of the gospel in different 
parts of the world. It began with sixteen souls and in a short time in- 
creased to 606, spreading its branches to Deep River and Abbott's Creek, 
which branches are gone to other provinces and most of the members of 
this Church have followed them in so much that in 17 years it is reduced 
from 606 to 14 souls." ******** 

" The cause of this dispersion was the abuse of power which too much 
prevailed in the province, and caused the inhabitants at last to rise up in 
arms and fight for their privileges but being routed in May 16, 1771, they 
despaired of seeing better times and therefore quitted the province. It 
is said fifteen hundred families departed after the battle of Alamance. To 
my knowledge a great many more are only waiting to dispose of their 
plantations in order to follow them." 

Tidence Lane is mentioned by Ramsay as the founder of the earliest 
Baptist Church in Watauga. He organized a congregation in 1779. He 
is represented, in imitation of his prototype and spiritual father, Shubal 
Stearns, to have carried his flock with him when he removed from Sandy 
Creek to Washington. Purefoy, in his interesting history of the Sandy 
Creek Baptist Association, published within the last few months, and to 
which we are indebted for valuable information on the subject, states that 
the emigration to East Tennessee resulted in the formation of five Baptist 
Churches, which for several years belonged to the Saudy Creek but were 
subsequently organized into the Holston Association. 

Mr. Stearns did not long survive the dispersion of his flock. He died 
on the 20th of November, 1771, and was interred near the meeting-house, 
the scene of such sudden and remarkable vicissitudes in the progress of 
the Redeemer's Kingdom. It is perhaps too late to obtain materials for* 
a faithful record of his eventful history. Security of property and life 
for a scries of years impelled his followers to destroy rather than preserve 
memorials of the evil times upon which he had fallen — " Of whom the 


world was not worthy; they wandered in deserts, and in mountains, and in 
dens, and in cave sof the earth" — " being destitute, afflicted, tormented." 




June 5th, 1860. 

Young Gentlemen op the Graduating Class: 

I embrace this first opportunity to thank you for your kindness in in- 
viting me to preach on this occasion. To that invitation I am indebted 
for the privilege and pleasure of a first visit to the State of North Caro- 
lina, and to its noble University, at Chapel Hill; of which your State 
has had, now has, and is likely to have still more, such great reasons to 
be proud. 

Matthew xxii, 34 : But the Pharisees hearing that He had silenced the 
Sadducees, came together and one of them, a doctor of the law, asked Him, 
tempting Him : Master which is the great commandment in the law ? Jesus 
said to him : Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart, and 
with thy whole soul, and with thy whole mind. This is the greatest and first 
commandment, and the second is like to this : Thou shalt love thy neighbor as 
thyself. On these two commandments dependeth the whole law and the 

It might appear strange at first view that our divine Redeemer should 
have de«mcd it necessary to renew a precept, placing the affections of the 
human soul under obedience. It should seem but a necessary conse- 
quence that they who know God to be their creator, father and saviour, 
should love him by a spontaneous movement of their hearts without the 
necessity of a commandment to that effect. But it should be remembered 
that the precept as originally laid down in the book of Deuteronomy, and 
now so emphatically confirmed by the incarnate Son of God, was addressed 
to that fallen race whom he came to redeem and elevate. 

So far as we know, the angels themselves were not commanded to love 
their Creator. The principle of that love was inherent in their spiritual 
nature. No doubt a test was appointed by which in the exercise of their 
free will they might prove their fidelity to God, or their rebellion against 
Him. By this test they were tried. Having been created simultaneously, 
the trial or temptation which would prove their fidelity was one and the 


same. In the exercise of their free will some adhered to God; others 
resisted and would not serve. These latter were expelled from Heaven, 
and fell to rise no more. For them there was not, and there was not to 
be, at any time a saviour. 

Again, in the creation of our first parents in the garden of Paradise 
there is no evidence that God imposed on them any special obligation to 
love him. This would be necessarily implied, but it has not been specifi- 
cally commanded. Their test by which they should recognize the 
supremacy and sovereignty of their creator was embodied in a prohibi- 
tory precept forbidding them to taste of the fruit of the tree of the 
knowledge of good and evil. They were free, and in the exercise of 
their freedom they chose to violate the commandment of their God, and 
to involve themselves and their posterity in a ruin which would have been 
irremediable for time and for eternity if God had not so loved the world 
as to give His only begotten Son, that whosoever should believe in Him 
might not perish, but might have life everlasting. It is to their descend- 
ants, all maimed and wounded in their nature by the ravages of original 
and actual sin, that the precept was given in specific words, commanding 
them to love God and to love their neighbor. 

There is a great mystery involved in what I have just said. The right 
understanding of it furnishes a key for all other mysteries. It is this — 
Why God permitted that the noblest work of His creation, viz : angels 
and men, should have the power to rebel against Him, whilst all the 
other portions of His creation obey His laws with constant and unvarying 
fidelity? in other words, why God should have permitted sin, or at least 
not prevented it ? The answer to this is — so far as man may interpret 
the divine counsel — that he created both angels and men, and endowed 
them with such exalted faculties that an obedience of necessity on their 
part would have been unworthy of His infiinite majesty and of the dig- 
nity of their nature. 

There were but two alternatives. One would be the law of necessity 
by which they should have to move under perpetual compulsion, and thus 
stand before God, bowing reverence, as puppets on a wire bow at the touch 
of a spring. This order has been observed by the Almighty in the crea- 
tion of the material world, whether animate or inanimate. Thus the 
planet which we inhabit obeys God in its revolutions, in its seasons, in its 
fertility, in the beauty of its solid grounds, and the terrific majesty of its 
mighty oceans. Thus the other planets of our system move in their 
orbits with a constancy and regularity that has never been found at fault. 
Each is found precisely in the place at the time appointed according to 
the law which God has imposed upon them for their guidance. Thus 
also in reference to the stars, which His powerful hand has distributed 


and poised in their several places throughout the immensity of space. 
If God, therefore, had denied free will at their creation, either to angels 
or men, they would have fallen under a law similar to that which is 
applicable to the irrational works of Almighty God. Sin, indeed would 
have been thus prevented; but then intelligence would have been a su- 
perfluous burden, free will a mockery, and memory either useless or im- 
possible. There would be no rational being to offer freely its homage 
and adoration to its creator and sovereign. God would still remain in 
the solitude of His being, as He was previous to the creation of men or 
angels. He might "contemplate His works as they would stand out giv- 
ing evidence of His power, but among them all there would not be any per- 
son, or anything capable of rendering Him that soul-felt, rational, volun- 
tary homage which is due from all creatures, as a recognition of his infinite 
power and unspeakable perfection. Men and angels, and things whether 
animate or inanimate, would be under a law of necessity. Free will there 
could be none, and without free will there can be no rational or voluntary 
obedience, love or adoration towards God. 

As it is, all His works may be referred to as exemplifying His omnipo- 
tence and His glory. They do not understand themselves. But man, in 
the greatness of his intellect, can be their interpreter. He can read 
their bright pages, and even, if Heaven had not given him a better book, 
this alone would be sufficient to raise his soul and fix his heart in the 
contemplation of his divine author. 

But after all, it is not in the survey of this outward glorious world that 
man discovers those perfections of his Creator, which excite him to charity 
and love. When we consider His eternity, His infinite knowledge, His 
omnipotence, the wonders of His creation, we are filled with respect, with 
astonishment, with admiration ; our understanding is confounded, is over- 
whelmed, but the heart is not touched. It is only when we meditate 
upon His goodness, His mercy, and His charity towards His creatures 
that our hearts feel the first attraction of love, by which we are drawn to 
Him, and recognize that His love for us should be reciprocated on our 

Here, then, we begin to understand the reasonableness of the precept 
by which we are commanded to love Him with our whole heart, and with 
our whole soul, and with our whole mind — and our neighbors as ourselves. 

It is difficult, if not impossible, for us to know whether at any time we 
love God according to the force and energy which the evangelist employs 
in characterizing the nature of that love. Parents and children, and even 
friends, are conscious of the affection which binds them to each other. 
But this is in the natural order. It is tender. It is sustained, while it 
lasts, in a great measure, by the aid of the senses as well as the suscepti- 


Ability of our nature. The love which we owe to God, is not of this order, 
since we see Him not with the eyes Of the flesh, since we hear Him not 
•except through the echoes of His word. The love, therefore, that is due 
to Him, is of a supernatural character, and the precept of our Saviour 
does not imply that we shall be moved to deep sensibility by the operation 
of divine love in our hearts. It requires that we should love God as God, 
and man as our neighbor. Our blessed Saviour has abundantly explained 
this point by laying down the test of love such as the law requires. In 
the 14th chapter of St. John we are told : " He that hath my command- 
ments and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me. And he that loveth 
me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him and manifest myself 
to him." And again, in the same evangelist, we find the Saviour's words 
as follows : " If you keep my commandments you shall abide in my love, 
as I also have kept my Father's commandments, and do abide in His 

The test, therefore, laid nown by the Saviour himself shows that the 
fulfillment of the precept is not necessarily evidenced by sentiments or 
feelings which are present to us, and of which we are conscious at anytime 
but rather depends for its accomplishment upon the sterner virtues of 
self-denial and obedience to the commandments. 

This will require many sacrifices which it is impossible to make unless 
l»y the aid of divine grace, promised to us through the merits of Jesus 
Christ, for without Him we can do nothing. 

There is another point of view in which it would seem that the nature 
of man, even in his fall, is such that it is of itself prepared for the recep- 
tion of the precept contained in any text. His heart's life is love. The 
capacity of that love can embrace the boundaries of the world, and elevated 
by divine grace, can penetrate the heavens, and make its offerings at the 
foot of the throne of GTod himself. We all know this by experience, that 
we can love our parents, our kindred, our friends, our neighbors, our 
country, our fellow beings throughout the world. Of course, in propor- 
tion as these are more nearly related to us, our love, if I can so speak, is 
more ardent. But God has endowed our hearts with a capacity to extend, 
in principle, at least, our good will to men, and even to angels. And yet 
this capacity and the love itself remain undiminished, like the light and 
warmth of the sun, which constantly diffuse themselves over the world, 
and are never exhausted or diminished in the luminous fountain from 
which they proceed. This aptitude in the natural order would seem to 
have been a preparation for our duties in the supernatural. G-od has so 
created us that we could not divest ourselves of the desire to be happy. 
We seek to satisfy that desire by placing our affection upon objects en- 
tirely inadequate to the purpose. They are attractive, and in addition we 


invest them with properties of excellence by which we suppose that in 
their possession we should, find happiness. Sometimes we are not disap- 
pointed. But the duration of our felicity is always precarious and essen- 
tially brief. The object is removed from us — or it has not the qualities 
which we had ascribed to it — or it has not accomplished towards our 
felicity what we had anticipated — or our affection itself has undergone a 
change, and we find that our love yearns for something better, something 
more permanent, something more capable of filling up the void which we 
feel. Now, in reality, so immense is the capacity of love in the human 
heart that nothing can satisfy it fully, adequately and permanently except 
God, -who is unchangeable, infinitely lovely and perfect. Show me a man 
who, without forfeiting any just privilege of human affection really loves 
God, and I will point him out to you as one who is essentially happy. 
For another, who fixes his affections upon human things, no matter how 
excellent they may or seem to be, but who does not love God, real happi- 
ness is utterly impossible. And it is for this reason that St. Augustine 
exclaimed : " Thou hast made us for Thyself, God ! and our hearts 
cannot rest until they rest in Thee." 

Among Christians of every name it is well ascertained that meek-eyed 
Charity has never given rise to controversy. She has been recognized by 
all as the dove bearing amidst the distractions of the Christian world the 
olive branch of peace. All have recognized in her the descriptions of the 
heavenly virtue, as given by St. Paul : Charity is patient, is kind. Chari- 
ty envieth not, dealeth not perversely, is not puffed up. Now it is certain 
that the ground-work of charity is the love of God as commanded in the 
words of my text, and yet infidelity has not hesitated to raise its voice 
against this virtue, and to proclaim that it is impossible to love a God such 
as our religon represents him to be — that it is impossible to love a God 
who inspires fear into the hearts of men and punishes crime by an ever- 
lasting penalty. But we answer, if God did not punish crime on what 
basis could virtue and holiness found their hopes of His approval and 
of their recompense at His hands. No infidel has yet dared to deny the 
distinction between vice and virtue. The simplest notions of common 
justice indicate that God, as a legislator, exercises the double function of 
rewarding the one and punishing the other, otherwise the wicked and the 
just would be on a perfect equality in the Divine' presence. Crime would 
have no remorse, and virtue would be robbed of its motive and its hope. 
Where a wicked man, against the laws of heaven and earth, imbrues his 
hands in the blood of his brother, he is justly, by Divine and human law, 
condemned to forfeit his life. His country causes him to be executed, 
and if the infidel's argument were sound that would be a reason why we 
should not love our country. But he would say that, after all, it was only 


the cruel anticipation of a death which, in the natural order, would occur 
at no very distant period, but that God's penalty for unrepented crime is 
eternal. This, so far as his objection is concerned, is a fallacy. The ex- 
ecution of a man by the authority of his country is an act, so sar as he 
is concerned, reaching to eternity. He dies oftentimes impenitent, some- 
times blaspheming God, and pouring his maledictions on his fellow-beings. 
"We know what the sentence of Divine justice will be in his regard, but 
the execution of the sentence is not postponed on that account. Shall 
we, therefore, cease to love our country ? Assuredly not. But it would 
cease to deserve our patrotism if it did not make the distinction between 
virtue and vice — if it did not protect the good citizen and punish the 

I mention this illustration of the fallacy as well as the impiety that are 
generally blended together in the seductive pages of infidel writing, because, 
unhappily, falling into the hands of young men merging from college life, 
-they but too often produce impressions, or doubts, or hesitations, which it 
will take years and years oftentimes to vanquish and remove. They would 
do well, therefore, to avoid every species of written or of spoken infidelity. 
They would do well to cherish the simple belief of those lessons both of 
precept and example which were inculcated in the domestic circle of their 
homes and their university. Infidels may speak and write as they will, 
multiplying with seductive eloquence their words against religion, but 
educated youth should not permit such words to disturb in their regard 
the foundation of Christianity, for they are solid as the everlasting hills, 
and indestructible as the Divine architect by whom they were laid. Other 
things infidels and infidel writings shall pass away, but the foundation 
and the superstructure of Christianity — never. 

Having said so much on the first, on the greatest and the first com- 
mandment, we turn to the second, which is like to it — Thou shalt love 
thy neighbor as thyself. 

The fulfilment of this precept is, under all circumstances, difficult, and 
were it not that it depends on the first cammandment — the love of God — 
of which it is an inseparable appendix, I have no hesitation in saying 
that, in many cases, it would be impossible. And yet it is the special 
test by which Christ would have his deciples to be recognised. In the 
13th chapter of St. John He says : " A new commandment I give 
unto you — that ye love one another, as I have loved you, that you 
also love one another. By this shall all men know that ye are my 
disciples, if ye have love one for another." In the 15th chapter of 
the same Gospel our Saviour declares : " This is my commandment, that 
you love one another as I have loved you. Greater love than this no 
man hath, that a man lay down his life for his friends. You are my 


| friends, if you do the tilings that I command you." The sphere in which 
this virtue is to be exercised is precisely that which is occupied by our 
fallen race. This portion of the Divine precept could have no applica- 
tion either to our first parents or to the celestial spirits that surround the 
throne of Grod. Among them there is no opportunity for the exercise of 
fraternal charity — there are no tears to be dried away — no sorrows to be 
assuaged — no sufferings to be alleviated — no desolate orphans nor any 
destitute, aged or sick to be protected or comforted. But in this life, on 
the contrary, the very order of human existence would seem to have 
pointed out to man the necessity of mutual aid between those who need 
it and those who have the means to afford it. This is clear from the mo- 
ment we reflect that there is no member of the human family that is in- 
dependent by himself alone ; be he a king, or be he a beggar, the neces- 
sity of aid and sympathy from his fellow-beings is indispensible ; and this 
law pervades the whole human race, proving that man was created for 
society and not for solitude or selfishness. The human family exists by 
succession in the natural order, and not by a simultaneous creation. In 
the weakness of childhood, or in the feebleness of old age, we should 
perish promptly, were it not for the aid and protection that are furnished 
by our kindred, or our fellow-beings. In the moral order, we should grow 
up in ignorance of our God and of our duty, were we not provided with 
the means of instruction by those who were in life before us. Under 
these circumstances, it would seem but natural that mankind should, from 
the very necessity of the case, from a sense of their mutual dependence 
on each other, have coalesced in a common system of mutual aid and mu- 
tual benefit. We know from history, however, that the very reverse of 
ishis has been the ordinary condition of men whenever Divine Charity 
had not prepared the way for the right appreciation of the duties which 
' we owe one to another. Human nature was essentially the same at all 
times and in all places; and yet, if you go outside the boundaries of 
Christianity, you will find not a trace or an evidence of the benefits which 
charity has diffused among the followers of Christ. Humanity had not 
been extinguished — philosophy boasted itself as philanthropic, but this 
was only in pompous words, for nothing was in reality accomplished. 
Cruelty in legislation, hard-heartedness in social life, indifference to the 
sufferings of others, the oppression of the weak by the strong, the delibe- 
rate and authorized destruction by parents of their offspring, the power 
of life and death over their children and domestic dependants — these 
were all that humanity could accomplish, whilst it was unenlightened by 
Divine Charity, and unimpelled to do good by the precept and example 
of our Lord. It was into such a world that He introduced the Chris- 
tian religion, and by a new commandment inculcated especially the mu- 




tual duty of love and charity — a new commandment I give unto you,* 
that you love one another. This is my commandment, that you love one 
another. He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is 
that loveth me. And St. John, in the 4th chapter of his first epistle, 
says: "Let us, therefore, love God, because God hath first loved us. If 
any man say, I love God, and hateth his brother, he is a liar, for he that 
loveth not his brother, whom he seeth, how can love God, whom he seeth 
not, this commandment we have from God, that he who loveth God loves 
also his brother." From the period, therefore, when Christ imposed this 
new commandment upon his disciples there was light and hope for the 
world. After the ascension of our Eedeemer the Apostles and 
those who succeeded them in their ministry ceased not to inculcate 
this as an obligatory part of His religion, so that wherever the Gospel 
was preached charity became an essential portion of Christianity. It had 
to encounter the hostility of paganism and of human passions. Never- 
theless, it diffused its happy influence on every side. Even before the 
close of the persecutions by the Roman Emperors it had accomplish- 
ed wonders, both among the disciples themselves and the pagans by 
whom they were surrounded. Eusebius, in his Ecclesiastical History, 
tells us of the miracles of fraternal charity performed by the brethren 
during the pestilence, that desolated the Roman Empire for a period* of 
ten years, in the third century, in which they took care not only of their 
own members, but also of the suffering pagans, who had been abandoned by 
their own friends and relatives. And St. John Chrysostom, in his preface 
to the Epistle to the Phillippians, does not hesitate to say that the charity 
of the Christians exercised a most powerful influence in the conversion of 
the pagans. We know that Julien, the apostate, was bitter in his reproach- 
es against those who still adhered to the tottering gods of paganism, be- 
cause they permitted themselves to be so outstripped by the Galileans in" 
works of fraternal charity. 

I am aware that the precept of our Saviour on this subject, if misun- 
derstood, is liable to objection. For instance, we are commanded to love not 
only our neighbors but our enemies. Now, if this were understood to be 
a love such as a parent cherishes for his son, or mutual friends for each 
other, obedience to the precept would hardly be possible. But in this case 
. also our Divine Redeemer described the species of love which we are to 
entertain for our enemies. In the 5th chapter of St. Matthew He says : 
" You have heard that it hath been said thou shalt love thy neighbor and 
hate thy enemies; but I say to you, love your enemies. Do good to them 
that hate you, and pray for them that persecute and calumniate you.'' 
Now this is the species of love which is required in order to fulfill His 
precept. There are other passages connected with this subject, to which. 


exception has been taken. It has been said that the duty of doing unto 
others as we would that others should do unto us, if reduced into practice, 
would in many instances, be subversive of order in civil society, and tend to 
reduce all conditions of life to a certain species of general equality. No 
such consequence can be fairly deduced from the legitimate meaning of 
fraternal charity. Order and subordination it respects. Government is 
essential in the family and in the State, and no government can subsist in 
either without the distinction of conditions. But charity would reconcile 
and elevate them all into the beautiful harmony of Christian brotherhood. 
Such has been the effect of her influence from the days of Christ himself; 
her advance may seem to us to have been slow ; but it has ever been 
steady and progressive. Under her auspices every species of human suf- 
fering has beem to a great extent, provided for. She has operated in a 
two-fold manner; first, acting on individuals in their every-day life, pre- 
paring them to do good, and to relieve distress in a private way ; next, in 
inducing Christian to combine for accomplishing works of humanity 
through the means of association, and thus in every Christian land, whether 
of Europe or of America, public institutions have been erected for the relief 
of human wretchedness. She has provided homes and nurses, and food 
and clothing, and instruction for destitute orphans and abandoned infants 
— retreats for the aged — hospitals for the sick. With that ingeniousness 
which the love of God and man inspires, she has invented a language for 
the deaf and dumb, by which they can interchange thought with each 
other, the same as if the gift of speech and hearing had not been denied 
them. She has contrived a system of education by which the blind can 
read by touch of their fingers. Even the insane have not been forgotten in 
the scope of the love enjoined upon us by the commandment of Christ. 
It is true that many of these institutions have been founded and fostered 
by civil governments. But whence did such governments derive the 
feeling and convictions which have prompted them to make such provis- 
ions for the poor? Unquestionably they have descended to us from the 
precept of our Lord, for wherever that precept is unknown civil govern- 
ments have never attempted anything of the kind. The most civilized 
countries of paganism, such as Greece and Rome, never left behind them 
a single monument, I had almost said, of decent humanity. They ex- 
celled us, indeed, in works of art, which we still admire. But so far as 
the interest of humanity are concerned, all those works, including the 
admirable productions of Phidas and Praxiteles, are insignificant as com- 
pared with the single lunatic asylum, which crowns one of the summits 
of your beautiful capital. 

There have not been wanting those who have criticised and almost cen- 
sured this whole system of Christian charity and human benevolence. 


They have insisted that it encourages idleness and destroys that noble 
feeling of self-reliance on the exercise of which the prosperous and heal- 
thy condition of a community so much depends. Alas ! it is easy for 
those who have inherited or acquired by their own industry competency 
and wealth to criticise the condition of their less fortunate brethren. In 
some few instances such an abuse of public and private charity on the 
part of those who are its recipients may have taken place, but this is not 
a valid reason why the love of our neighbors should be discountenanced. 
It is not the poor alone, who abuse the gifts which Grod bestows upon 
them, whether by the hands of charity or through any other channel. 
Is not every gift of His liable to abuse? The light of the day — the 
darkness of the night — the wealth, of which His providence has made 
us the stewards — the health, without which life itself would become tire- 
some — do we not abuse them all? But God, who knows our nature, 
does not withhold those gifts because we occasionally abuse them. Let us 
extend the same principle to the poor, and hold in its merited estimation 
that great commandment of our Lord and Master, that as His disciples 
We should love one another. 

Young gentlemen of the graduating class, my task is done. I have 
endeavored to present to you, not according to the details of theology, 
but in a broad and general view of its benefits, the great precept of Chris- 
tian charity. I have pointed out the divine authority on which the pre- 
cept is founded, whether as it regards the love of Grod or the love of our 
neighbor. This has not been in that style of language, of oratory, or of 
eloquence to which you have been accustomed, or which befits the hall 
of science and such an audience as I see before me. For more than a 
third of a century it has been my duty to preach the word of God, but 
it was, almost always, to the willing ears and fervent hearts of the hum- 
ble and simple minded, who in their own fervor were prepared to hear 
and be edified at whatever might ber said. In speaking to them I have 
acquired the habit of imitating the simplicity of the gospel itself, caring 
little for ornaments of style, provided I could find terms calculated to 
convey ideas. If the ideas should be retained by my hearers, the lan- 
guage, which had been used as their vehicle, was of the slightest conse- 
quence. On this occasion, however, more attention to the language, as 
well as to the idea, might have been given with great propriety. I have 
at least, given you proof of my good-will; and if I have communicated 
ideas that may rise up in your memory hereafter, prompting you to love 
God and your neighbor, I shall feel myself highly rewarded. In the 
mean time, I thank you for that patience and attention which you have 
exhibited during my discourse. You are now about to go forth and enter 
upon the busy scenes of active life. It is the wish and the hope of all 

I860.] THE veil o'er juturity. 45 

your nearer friends, and it is mine also, that you will so deport yourselves 
on the new theatre of life as to reflect credit upon your distinguished 
alma mater, he a source of comfort and legitimate pride to your parents 
and your family, and an honor to the great country which rightfully ex- 
pects much from her noble sons who have had the benefits of such an 
education as it has been your privilege to receive. Another wish and 
hope, which I may be allowed to express in my own name, is that God 
will protect you, pour upon you his choicest blessings in this life, and enable 
you to reach that better life, in another world, for which you were created. 



The flowers that deck our garden bed 
Would bloom — but could not gladden, 

The fragrance which their petals shed 
Alas ! would only sadden. 

Their beauties could not rapture eyes 

That never rest from weeping, 
And never gazed in pleased surprise, 

Nor closed in tranquil sleeping. 

The verdant woods would be but drear, 
And e'en the streamlet, gliding 

So merrily and gaily near, 
Our grief would be deriding. 

The cooling summer winds would bear 

No healing, soothing power, 
As soon would scorched Sirocco air 

Revive a drooping flower. 

No blessings Heaven has ever given 

"Would gild for us the morrow, 
If from our hearts the veil was riven 

Which screens all future sorrow. 




The man, who becomes disgusted with the world and tears himself from 
all friendly associations and seeks a home where he may be excluded from 
all society, may awaken in our bosoms a feeling of awe, of sympathy or 
of pity, but can never inspire us with .admiration or esteem. It seldom 
happens, indeed, that the misanthrope's hate of mankind is unrequited. 
His hate of the world and the world's hate of him are mutual. If it be 
true that love begets love, it is equally so that hate begets hate. The 
hermit, driven to his seclusion by excessive religious zeal, may inspire us 
with a reverential fear, as he stands with upturned eyes and deeply fur-, 
rowed brow, and gives vent to his frenzy in a hurried discourse upon the 
mysterious ways of Providence and an exhortation to devote our lives to 
God's service alone. The victim of defeated ambition or of disappointed 
love, may awaken our sympathy while he recites with burning tears the 
story of his wrongs and disappointments ; may excite our pity as he re- 
counts his sufferings. But neither can command our admiration — neither 
will win our esteem. The world has in one sense but little sympathy with 
him who denies in himself the exercise of all social affections. A prin- 
ciple of humanity planted in the heart of every man may make us feel sorry 
for his miseries, and prompt us to assist him in distress ; but between him 
and ourselves there is no conformity of sentiment. And where this is 
wanting, love cannot exist. No man who lives to himself alone can rea- 
sonably expect to win the esteem of society. Esteem depends upon merit ; 
it is won either by intrinsic qualities or by the actual performance of 
good deeds. The world is quick to perceive the uselessness of him who 
makes not even an effort to benefit society, and loth to cherish a regard 
for him, who in its opinion does not deserve it. Nor is he who is at 
enmity with mankind, happy in himself. Indeed in the enjoyment of the 
love and respect of society does much of our happiness consist. Yet there 
are some men who seem to think misanthropy a mark of excellence or of 
sound sense; and deem the world unjust for not recognizing it as such. 
They walk in a world of their own, absorbed in their own gloomy thoughts, 
and deem him fortunate for whom their faces brighten with a smile. And 
to a man of this temperament surely the world must be gloomy. He 
imagines himself slighted when men honor him not above others ; he de- 
rives no pleasure from the love of friends, finds no congenial spirit, no 
companion whose heart throbs in unison with his nwn, w ;« ™™ v>™r»i. 


ing over past misfortunes and imaginary ills, as, if he expected to find 
happiness in them. Imagination surrounds him with a throng of demons, 
and at every one he meets, and at every word uttered by his fellows, his 
lip is curled in scorn. In the privacy of his room, visions of horror float 
through his mind; objects, to other eyes pleasant and beautiful, become 
frightful spectres in his path, and how often does he sigh for oblivion to 
the past and damnation to the future ! On his brow is the scowl of misery, 
and in his heart rankle the shafts of despair. To his eyes the lovely face 
of nature no longer gives delight; to his ears the voice of Spring and the 
gladsome carols of birds are forever hushed; and too often alas ! he shakes 
the hand of defiance in the face of the Almighty. 

Excessive self-esteem and a perverted imagination naturally lead to 
these results. A man of extreme sensitiveness will often mistake a well- 
meant sally of wit for a bitter sarcasm, a smile of approval for a sneer of 
derision, and often attributes the kindest act of friendship to the meanest 
motive. If we scrutinize deeply the passions and failings of the misan- 
thrope, we will find that the cause of his misery lies almost always in 
himself, and not in the world's treatment of him. Every man is apt to 
form in his own mind a certain standard of virtue and propriety, and 
commonly each man's ideal is too high, and approaches too nearly to per- 
fection, to be found in this world of imperfections. It very rarely happens 
that any man's standard of benevolence, for example, is met with. The 
natural consequence is, that when a man of sanguine temperament in his 
intercourse with the world, meets with falsehood where he expected to 
find honesty, with selfishness instead of generosity, he is apt to fall into a 
state of melancholy as painful as it is unreasonable. His disappointment 
becomes more and more deeply impressed upon his mind, and he gradu- 
ally contracts disgust at the world and dislike to society. Disappointment 
in affairs of the heart, also, often produces misanthropy. Some men are 
so peculiarly constituted that they can never love but one ; and to this 
one they devote the whole love of their heart. In her smiles alone they 
seek their happiness. She is the- object of their every thought, the being 
for whom all their prayers are offered. In her presence, earth is a para- 
dise ; without her love, life is a burden ; the grave a desired goal. Failing 
to win the object of his deepest affections, a man of such a passionate dis- 
position suffers the extremest misery. Love of the fair being is supplant- 
ed by hate of the world, and his 'hate becomes as fixed and as intense as 
was his love. He retires in ahorrence from society, and indulges in sol- 
itude his gloomy reflections. 

Yet the remedy in either case I have mentioned is simple and may be 
easily applied. A determined effort of the will is all that is requisite to 
its application. Surely self-love is a worthy passion ; yet when it degen- 


erates into selfishness, as it is liable to do, it becomes disgusting. A con- 
stant association, not with the gay and the giddy, but with the sedate and 
the thoughtful, will often counteract the baneful effects which inordinate 
self-esteem, unchecked, invariably produces. He who constantly associates 
with superiors cannot possibly estimate his own talents too highly ; for 
the contrast between the merits of others and his own is too obvious to be 
overlooked even by the most superficial. Yet he who has never met a 
superior should not on that account suppose that one cannot be found. 
Even if one surpass all within the range of his acquaintance, it does not 
follow that he has no superiors. The claims to superiority of him whom 
we consider the greatest man are ever contested by some other. And it 
may be safely said at least of the most of us, that we have many superiors. 
Nor should any one imagine that because he has one enemy, all men are 
his enemies. Indeed, he who has no enemies, can scarcely find a 
friend ; and the bitterer the persecutions of the one, the more devoted are 
the affections of the other. No man was ever so degraded, none so exalt- 
ed that he could not boast a friend. If one deceives us, we should not 
therefore imagine that all others are alike deceivers ; but we should rather 
be glad that his deception has been detected, and learn a lesson of cau- 
tiousness in our choice of associates. It is the heart of one but little ac- 
quainted with human nature to expect to find his standard of excellence 
realized. Perfection belongs not to man. We may often have occasion 
to lament the follies and insensibilities of men wlom we meet in life ; 
often may we turn away in disgust or abhorrence at their deeds. But we 
should remember that such men are not fair representatives of all ; that 
there are men who would scorn to do a wrong, men worthy of our love. And 
let us seek their society instead of rendering ourselves miserable by for- 
ever contemplating the sins and worthlessness of the degraded and the 
mean. If we would have others love us, we must love others. And we 
should ever keep in mind that in order to be happy, we must seek happiness 
and seek it too with untiring perseverance and undying hope ; and not sit 
with folded arms and wait patiently till it come of its own accord to us. 
For he who cherishes such a hope will find it a delusion, and that misery 
is wed to idleness as well as guilt. If a man contemplates in sorrow the 
depravity of human nature, let him exert himself for its improvement. 
Let him whose spirit is bowed beneath afflictions, reflect that he is still in 
the enjoyment of many blessings, and be thankful that God has not afflict- 
ed him more severely. Let him who derives no pleasure from the love 
of friends seek his happiness in the favor of God. 

I860.] editors' table. 49 



To the Public : — With, many thanks to our class-mates for having honored 
us with the Editorship of the Magazine, and with grateful acknowledgements 
to our immediate predecessors for the many improvements they have wrought 
upon our College organ, we put on our official dignity and step forth to the 
discharge of our duties. "We present ourselves to you with buoyant hopes and 
sanguine expectations ; yet not as old and experienced writers who regardless 
of your approbation would fearlessly commit their literary bark to the storms 
of criticism ; but, untried as we are, we begin our first voyage with a quiver- 
ing pen and anxious heart. We are, as all men ought to be, modest and 
somewhat distrustful of our ability ; yet we feel quite competent for the task 
before us if the critics' arrows are not showered upon us too profusely. One 
thing then we wish to impress upon the minds of the scrutinizing public is 
that we are as yet unfledged, hitherto mere twinkling stars as it were in the 
literary firmament ; but since it is our intention to shine steady for the next 
twelve months, we ask you not to extinguish us by ungenerous attacks upon 
our productions. There should always be a recompense for deeds of a praise- 
worthy character and if the intrinsic worth of our periodical is not meritorious, 
our design is good, and if we should fail to elicit the public approbation we 
ought not to receive its condemnation or discouragement. 

To stimulate our fellow-students to emulation — to offer them an opportunity 
to train their minds for lives of honor and usefulness — to incite a rivalry in 
the art of composition with a view to the cultivation of a literary taste — these 
are the inducements we hold out and the end we hope to promote. Besides this, 
the first pages of our Magazine shall be devoted to biographical and historical 
sketches, which we feel confident will be read with no little pleasure by those who 
are connected with and feel an interest in the past history of North Carolina. 
Surely enough, however, has been said as to the object of our Magazine, suffice 
it to say that besides the exponent of College thought, it is the escutcheon upon 
which in after years we hope North Carolina will be proud to see chronicled 
some of the scattered fragments of her most glorious deeds. 

As the prosperity of all undertakings depend more or less upon their finan- 
cial condition, it may not be inappropriate to say something about ours. For 
many years after the establishment of our Magazine it labored under the dis- 
advantages of a deranged treasury, and indeed it has not been very long ago 
since the same shamefnl cause came near drawing over it the veil of oblivion," 
Now, we are happy to inform the public, that it rests upon a firm foundation. 
The Literary Societies have been kind enough to place their shoulders to the 
wheel, and for the past year have rolled it on successfully beyond expectation. 
Those would-be subscribers, then, need no longer feign financial derangement 
as an excuse ; for we pledge ourselves to issue the usual numbers even at our 
own private expense. 



One thing which perhaps it would be our interest not to mentionbut is it 
our inclination, and for our candidness we hope to receive pardon. It is a 
lamentable fact that periodicals now-a-days unless they savor of politics, 
receive the cold shoulder in almost every community. In North Carolina, 
as well as in other parts of our country, this doctrine will apply in a no less 
degree. "We are unable to account for it, unless it be the legitimate result of 
an age of political degeneracy. "We have always thought that literary pur- 
suits were indispensable to the attainment of real eminence in this sphere, 
and it would be the part of wisdom, since it seems evident that every little 
upstart has a wonderful proclivity for some political hobby, to <direct our 
attention to those higher and more ennobling pursuits of humanity — pursuits 
which are alone capable of making the wise, true and disinterested politician. 
Then let North Carolina, lead the van in striving to instil into her sons a 
desire for those literary endowments, without which, but few ever reach emi- 
nence beyond mediocrity. If she will encourage our efforts by subscribing 
to the Magazine, although our attempts may be feeble, we shall feel as 
though we are making the proper steps to scatter the seeds of literature. "We 
are much gratified in stating that our fellow-students have exhibited great 
unanimity in supporting us ; and we have good reasons to believe that many 
will contribute to our advancement in other ways than financially. We have 
many able writers among us, and from them we shall expect much aid, as 
our success depends in a measure upon their exertions. We have said that 
the Magazine would be conducted after the manner of our predecessors both 
in style and matter, yet we would not insinuate that we in any respect, think 
we have attained perfection, but assure you if any change for the better is 
perceived there is energy enough in the corps to leave it not undone. 

There is an inducement for those interested in college affairs to take the Mag- 
azine which has perhaps never before been mentioned. Since the publication 
of the "Chapel Hill Gazette" has ceased, ours is the most authentic, and the 
only medium nearer than Hillsboro' through which the public can become 
acquainted with the transactions of the University. We would remind those 
of our fellow-students who have refused to give a helping hand of the pleas- 
ure to be experienced by preserving the Magazine, and in after years referring 
to it as a souvenir of their college career. It would call to mind many things 
which would be a source of delightful contemplation ; old friends and asso- 
ciates, scenes and transactions in which perhaps they had acted a part, though 
almost effaced from memory by time and absence, would be made fresh and 
vivid again. 

"We are about to close our salutatory without giving our lady friends even 
a passing notice. Pardon us, "fair ones," for we have always been in the 
habit of reserving "sweet things" for the last. If at any time during our 
term of office you are threatened with symptoms of the "blue-stocking" dis- 
ease, apply the columns of our Magazine, which will always prove an infalli- 
ble remedy. At any rate bestow smiles of approbation upon our efforts, 
and we shall feel capable if not make the attempt to scale the highest ram- 
parts of literature. 

With a sincere appeal to the generosity of all our friends we close. If 

I860.] editors' table. 51 

success crown our efforts we shall only feel proud of what we have done, if 
it should be otherwise we hope to find consolation in the conscientious belief 
of having done our best. 

Local Matters. — It used to be that to spend a summer vacation on Chapel 
Hill was something pleasant and desirable, but since the facilities for traveling 
have been so much increased every student seems to have caught the prevail- 
ing mania for visiting those places of attraction where they think the time 
will pass off the most agreeably. This was remarkably the case last vacation, 
for never before was Chapel Hill so completely destitute of her usual routine 
of vacation amusements. In justice, however, to our village friends who were 
kind enough to give parties the week following Commencement, we, in behalf 
of the students, return our sincere thanks. After this week the place was 
unusually dull. Some of our Commencement belles — fearing perhaps a sud- 
den reaction, or too heavily burdened with its enviable spoils to bear them 
away without recreation — contributed much to the enjoyment of these little 
parties. After this tapering off as it were everybody, even some of our village 
ladies, readily yielded to the resistless sway of prevailing custom. Some were 
eager to hear and see the heaving billows of the sublime Atlantic, and bathe 
their limbs in its briny waters ; others preferred to breathe the fresh invig- 
orating mountain air, and indulge their fancy upon its picturesque scenery ; 
a third class went to tread the thronged pavements and hear the buzy hum of 
Northern cities, and to walk perhaps the gun-wales and explore the cabin of 
the Great Eastern. We believe they have nearly all returned, and each with 
a rich, rare and interesting tale. As these are nearly all places of poetical 
inspiration, we predict soon to see many effusions about the "lofty peaks" 
and cloud-capped summits of Blue Eidge, and the foaming billows and grand 
sound of old "ocean's roar." 

Nothing of importance has occurred in College affairs this session ; every- 
thing seems to be rolling on calmly and smoothly. The number of new stu- 
dents is not quite as large as is customary at the beginning of fall sessions. 
This is owing, perhaps, in a measure to the Faculty's fixed determination to 
raise the relative grade of scholarship in the University; in consequence of 
which the applicants are not so readily admitted into the classes as formerly. 

The Freshman Class numbers forty-eight; three only have succeeded in 
entering the Junior, and a comparatively small number the Sophomore. 

We have seen but little of the Fresh as they have been dodging and squat- 
ting about in order to evade the doggings of imperious Sophs, though at a 
general glance we believe they have the appearance of intelligence and good 
looks. They act and look" as though they had just been cut loose from their 
mothers' "apron strings," and not likely soon to become contaminated by 
any College corruption. We believe, however, that there exists at this time 
but few corrupting agencies in College, as it is evidently undergoing a great 
moral reformation. In addition to this we have it from good authority that 
the Chairs of the University are more ably filled, and the Faculty better ar- 
ranged than they have been for many years. 


Owing to some miscalculation we were somewhat disappointed in regard to 
the completion of our new buildings, which was to have occurred by the he- 
ginning of this session. We understand they will he ready for occupants in 
a very short time. When they are completed much will he added to the al- 
ready good looks of our Campus ; it will have the appearance of a considerable 
village within itself there being in all eight large brick buildings. % 

Though it has been some time ago, yet we are not disposed to let the 4th of 
July at Chapel Hill pass entirely unnoticed. About twelve o'clock the free 
and independant sons and daughters of this place and vicinity met in the 
College Chapel to celebrate the returning anniversary of their country's lib- 
erty. Although their number was small compared with the vast assemblages 
scattered over this broad land of ours, yet their hearts seemed to be not less 
sincere. The same feeling of veneration which that day throbbed in the 
breast of assembled millions had convened them together also, to offer up 
devotion on a day of general thanks-giving for a common good. The day 
was very warm and oppressive, but a more quiet and orderly performance 
was rarely ever witnessed. There was no wild enthusiasm displayed ; but a 
holy religious feeling seemed to prevail — a feeling more characteristic of the 
solemnity of the day than the excitement usually exhhibited. The exercises 
w%re opened with prayer by Rev. Mr. Forbes. The Mecklenburg Decla- 
ration of Independence was read by Mr. Joseph H. Saunders, of Chapel 
Hill, and the National Declaration by Mr. A. G. Moore, of La. Mr. J. E. 
Butts, of Ga. then in a few appropriate remarks introduced Samuel F. 
Phillips, Esq., of Chapel Hill, as orator of the day. We wish we felt competent 
to give a full and accurate synopsis of Mr. Phillips' speech ; buf; owing to the 
length of time since its delivery, and a want of space we are afraid to under- 
take the task, lest we should fail to do it justice. Suffice it to say that with 
a graceful delivery and a clear full voice he soon rivited the attention of his 
audience, who listened with unflaging interest during the whole hour of his 
speech. He left the old hackneyed style of the 4th of July orations, and 
discoursed on a theme not more interesting to his hearers than appropriate to 
the existing state of affairs in our political world. At night the "grand and 
brilliant" display of fire works came off which consisted principally of Ro- 
man candles and sky-rockets. Although the performance was largely atten- 
ded it seemed to afford more amusement for children than any body else. 

Official. — As it would be too laborious and expensive a task to address 
privately each subscriber to the last volume of the Magazine, we have adopted 
this means of requesting a continuance of their favor. We send the Magazine 
to all those who extended their patronage to the last corps of Editors, and 
ask those wishing it discontinued to inform us either by letter or by returning 
the first number. The failing to do one or the other of these alternatives will 
be taken as an evidence of their willingness to continue subscribers, and we 
shall expect them to pay the usual subscription fee. 

I860.] editors' table. 58 

Archbishop Hughes' Sermon. — We invite the attention of our readers to 
a careful perusal qf Archbishop Hughes sermon, delivered before the graduat- 
ing class last commencement. On account of the almost universal prejudice 
prevailing in a protestant country against Mr. Hughes' christian faith, we 
regret that we have seen and heard what we thought not only ungenerous but 
unjust criticisms relative to his late visit to our University. 

In order that these impressions may be corrected, we lay before our readers, 
not exactly the words employed on that occasion, but the sum and substance 
of his sermon, and let it speak for itself. We venture to say that it is as pure 
gospel as ever fell upon the ears of any audience, and his garb and the ser- 
vices, before and after its delivery, were of such a character that even the 
most fastidious could not have cause to complain. A more intelligent and 
densely crowded audience we have never seen in our College Chapel. 

Among the distinguished listeners were, besides Ex-Gov. Swain, President 
of the University, four other gentlemen who had been Governor of the State, 
namely: Messrs. Manly, Graham, Morehead and Ellis, and Judges Battle, Manly, 
and Biggs, and quite a number of members of Congress and the Legislature of 
the State. The Rt. Bev. Bishop Lynch of Charleston and Rev. F. McNeirny, 
of New York, were also in attendance ; besides many other literary and cler- 
ical gentlemen. We understand that they were all highly pleased with the 
sermon, and readily pronounced it one of the very highest order. His Grace 
tarried but a short time with us, and during his stay was the guest of Professor 
Hubbard of the University. 

Changes in the Faculty. — By the resignation of Messrs. S. S. Jackson 
and John W. Graham, which occurred at the close of last session, our Uni- 
versity was deprived of two of her ablest Tutors. We understand they 
have left us with the intention of practicing Law. As they commanded while 
here universal esteem so also they carry away with them our best wishes. 
May they reap a rich harvest in their new field of action, and may the same 
success crown their efforts there as did here. While we are sorry to part 
with them, we are pleased to compliment the Trustees on the selection of 
Messrs. George B. Johnston, Tutor of Greek*, George P. Bryan, Tutor of 
Latin, and Iowa Royster, Tutor of Elocution ; all of whom we feel confident 
will fill their respective Tutorships in a manner highly creditable to them- 
selves and their Alma Mater. These gentlemen were but a short time ago 
mingling amongst us as students, but they are now to act in a capacity en- 
tirely different. They have only to take the position as teachers that they 
did as students, and the fullest expectation of their friends will be realized. 

Apology. — An apology is due our readers for devoting so much of this 
Number to what they might call dry matter. We promise a greater variety 
in our next. Many good contributions have been received, but their publica- 
tion has been necessarily deferred. 


The Swain Peize. — As the Prize System established by our predecessors 
seems to have had the desired effect, namely : a stimulus in* the art of compo- 
sition we are induced to carry it on ; though with a few slight alterations. 
It has been the good fortune of the Magazine during the past ydar to become 
owner of the steel plate of Gov. Swain, and it is our intention to have a 
number of engravings printed from time to time, as the demand may require, 
and placed in the University Book-Store, and other suitable places for sale. 
The proceeds of these sales are to be devoted to the purchase of the above 
named prize. We have resolved to offer but one prize and that to be award- 
ed to the best contribution during the year, Editors excluded. The prize 
shall be worth thirty dollars, and we leave it entirely optionary with the 
successful competitor to chose between a medal, or the same amount in books. 
By the addition of a name, and as we imagine a sufficient guarantee for the 
solvency of the prize system, we are persuaded, that we are placing it on a 
more desirable as well as a more permanent basis. 

While we feel confident, that the proceeds of this establishment will more 
than purchase the prize — as every student especially the graduating class 
will be anxious to procure the engraving of the President of the University; 
yet in case we are deceived we pledge ourselves to supply the deficiency from 
our private funds. 

Death of an Old Servant. — We lament the painful duty of chronicling 
ihe death of our oldest and most faithful College servant, David Barham, 
which occurred about the middle of last vacation. For thirty-four years he 
has acted in this capacity, serving young men of every hue of character with 
an honest, gentlemanly and satisfactory deportment rarely known. He had 
almost a national acquaintance, and all the old graduates of the Institution 
who see this slight mark of our esteem will not fail to remember him. The 
students and especially the Faculty not only deplore his death but experience 
|n it a great loss. We find a notice of his death in the " Fayetteville Observer " 
;by ** A Friend," which so appropriately bespeaks his true character that we 
Jbtave taken the liberty to insert it without the least alteration or abridgment: 

*' At iOhapel Hill about mid-day of midsummer, 1860, David Barham, since 
1820 a faithful and highly esteemed servant of the University. He was about 
58 years of age, Dave was an honest, intelligent and good-tempered man, 
marked by some of the best traits of a gentleman. He will be greatly missed 
in Clrapel Hill, and generally lamented by all who knew him ; more especially 
by the Faculty and the gentlemen upon some or other of whom for more than 
thirty years past, during their College days, he was a trusty attendant. He 
came to Chapel Hill to serve a young master, at that time a merchant in this 
village, and after a year or two was introduced into College by Dr. Mitchell 
upon whom he had previously been a waiter. I heard Dave say about the 
time of Dr. Mitchell's death, and before we knew of it at Chapel Hill, that 
during his thirty years' connection with that gentleman he bad never received 

I860.] editors' table 55 

an unwind word from Mm, which, considering their constant intercourse as 
master and servant, was no. small tribute to both. Although a considerable 
and shrewd trader amongst the young men of College, and for one of his station 
a man of decided intelligence and good judgment, very singularly Dave 
never availed himself of his abundant opportunities for learning to write. His 
father was a native African. 

To those students of the University who have gone to the bar it may be not 
uninteresting to recognize their humble friend in the "Dave" mentioned in 
the leading case of Smith v Barham, 2 Dev. Eq., 420. His name is there con- 
nected with an important dictrine then first established, I believe, and now 
familiar to the profession. There is not in all the reports recorded the name 
of a man who for his opportunities was worthier or who filled the place to 
which he was assigned more completely, Farewell to him." 

Literary Notice. — One of the most interesting and useful publications 
which comes to our sanctum is the Scientific American, a weekly publication, 
devoted to popular science, new inventions, and the whole range of mechanic 
and manufacturing arts. The Scientfic American, has been published for 
fifteen years, by the well-known Patent Solicitors, Messrs. Munn &Co. 37 
Park Row, New- York ; and has yearly increased in interest and circulation, 
.until it has attained, we understand nearly 30,000 subscribers, which is the 
best of evidence that the publication is appreciated by the reading public. 

To those of our readers who may not be familiar with the character of the 
paper, we will state some of the subjects of which it treats. Its illustrated 
descriptions of all the most important improvements in steam and agricultural 
machinery, will commend it to the Engineer and Farmer, while the new house- 
hold inventions and shop tools which are illustrated by engravings and des- 
cribed in its columns, with the practical receipts contained in every number, 
renders the work desirable to housekeepers, and almost indispensable to 
every mechanic or smith who has a shop for manufacturing new work, or 
'repairing old. 

The Scientific American is universally regarded as the inventor's advocate 
and monitor ; the repository of American inventions, and the great authority 
on law, and all business connected with Patents. The Official List of Claims, 
as issued weekly from the Patent Office, in "Washington, are published regu- 
larly in its columns. All the most important Patents issued by the United 
States Patent Office are illustrated and described in its pages, thus forming 
an unrivalled history of American inventions. i 

It is not only the best, but the largest and cheapest paper devoted to Science, 
Mechanics, Manufacturers, and the Useful Arts published in the world. 
Hon. Judge Mason, formerly Commissioner of Patents, is not only engaged 
with the publishers in their immense Patent Agency department, but as, a 
writer on Patent Laws and Practice, his ability is forcibly portrayed m the 
columns of this paper. 


The Scientific American is published once a week, (every Saturday,) each 
number containing 16 pages of Letterpress, and from 10 to 12 original En- 
gravings of New Inventions, consisting of the most, improved Tools, Engines, 
Mills, Agricultural Machines and Household Utensils, making 52 numbers in 
a year, comprising 832 pages, and over 500 original engravings, printed on 
heavy, fine paper, in a form expressly for binding, and all for $2 per annum 

A New Volume commences on the 1st of July, and we hope a large num- 
ber of our townsmen will avail themselves of the present opportunity to sub- 
scribe. By remitting $2 by mail to the publishers, Munn & Co. 37 Park Row, 
New- York, they will send you their paper one year, at the end of which time 
you will have a volume which you would not part with for treble its cost. 
The publishers express their willingness to mail a single copy of the paper to 
such as may wish to see it without charge. 

Distinguished Visitors. — We were honored some time ago by a visit from 
Gen. Joseph Lane, of Oregon, to our University. His stay was quite short 
owing to his intention to visit, besides other portions, that part of the State 
which is the spot of his birth and early youth. He was the guest while here 
of his cousin our worthy President, which we suppose was his principal object 
in honoring us with his presence. By the solicitation of a committee appoint- 
ed he addressed the citizens of Chapel Hill in a short speech. Though we 
did not have the pleasure of hearing him we understand he explained the 
object of his visit to his old homestead, and then touching upon the leading 
politics of the day closed with a short review of his own. The fatigue of 
traveling seems somewhat to have impaired his health, and he says that 
although the hot weather and making speeches may have slightly altered his 
physical constitution it has in no way effected his political. 

The General was kind enough before he left to give us his name and five 
dollars for the Magazine. We say this not in a boastful spirit, but merely to 
let other publications know that they hav'nt got all the " big " subscribers. 

Judge Wright, of the Supreme Court of Tennessee, has also sojourned at 
our halls of learning since the beginning of the session. We are sorry that 
coming to as healthy a place as ours he was unfortunate enough to be pros- 
trated for a few days by sickness. His attack, however, was not of a serious 
nature, but after a few days care and confinement he regained, we believe, his 
usual health. 

A Change in the Corps. — Mr. Bradford having ceased his connection 
with College, and thereby resigning the office of Editor, an election was held 
on Monday, July 30th for the purpose of supplying the vacancy. The result 
was the choice of Mr. David W. Simmons, of Onslow, whom we welcome into 
our body as one worthy and competent to share its many responsibilities. 

I860.] editors' table. 57 

The Prize Awarded. — We publish below the report of the committee ap- 
pointed to award the prize for the best contribution to the last volume of the 
Magazine. We regret that by some means or other the original report was 
misplaced, and the following is only the sum and substance of it as near as 
one of the committee could write down from memory. There wereseveral arti- 
cles besides the prize complimented the names of which could not be posi- 
tively remembered. The author of the successful essay was Mr. Hugh Strong 
of South Carolina. The prize awarded was Washington Irving's complete 
works, and Mr. Strong received it amidst considerable enthusiasm. 

The following is the report: 

The committee regret that others than members of the Faculty were not 
chosen to make the decision, but as under the circumstances no other arrange- 
ment seemed possible, they have endeavored to perform impartially the task 
assigned them. On a careful examination of the essays submitted to them, 
they were unanimously of the opinion that none had attained the standard of 
excellence which the Editors must have contemplated in offering the prizes, 
they therefore decided to confer but one of the two which were offered. They 
assign the second premium to the essay in the Number for April entitled 
" The Mind — Its Pleasures when well Cultivated," as being on the whole the 
best of those in competition. The committee would further add, that they 
think the system of prizes has worked well, and would recommend its contin- 


F. M. HUBBARD, \ Committee. 


A Word to the Modest. — We have heard it asserted, and indeed know it 
to be so, that there are many — perhaps good writers — who would contribute 
to the Magazine were it not for the fear of having their pieces rejected, and 
their names exposed — not to the public — but only the editors. We must 
pronounce this class extremely modest and if their ability must be estimated 
accordingly we imagine that they must have some exceedingly meritorious 
articles. To remedy this, however we would say, that you may drop your 
pieces in the "box" with your name written on the inside of a sealed envel- 
ope, and we promise not to break the seal unless the article is received. 
Then no longer consign your productions to your private drawers, but do as 
we have said and you save your modesty with the pleasing prospect of seeing 
your thoughts in print. 

Married. — On the morning of the 19th of June, in Christ (Episcopal) Church 
Raleigh, Mr. George B. Johnston, of Edenton, and of the graduating class of 
1859, to Miss Annie T. Johnson, of that place. 

In Goldsboro' on the 19th of July, Mr. James Smith, of Fayetteville, and 
formerly of the present Junior Class, to Miss Rachel Roberts, of that place. 


Exchanges. — The following Magazine exchanges have come to us since the 
last issue of the Magazine : Medical Journal of North Carolina, for June ; 
Harvard Magazine, two numbers, June and July ; Yale Literary Magazine 
for June ; New York Teacher, for July and August ; Centre College Maganine 
for June; Kentucky Military Institute Magazine for June; Belait College 
Monthly for June and July ; Parthenian or Young Ladies' Magazine, Baltimore, 
for September ; Rutzers College Quarterly, for July ; Erskine Collegiate Re- 
corder, for July ; Blackwood's Edinburg Magazine, for June ; Kenyon Colle- 
gian, for May; North Carolina Journal of Education, for July; Virginia 
University Magazine, for June. 

Among these Magazines our attention was most forcibly arrested by thfr 
appearance of the "Parthenian" edited by the young ladies of the Baltimore 
Female College. It is the most neatly executed thing of any that comes to 
our Sanctum. The September Number contains an account of their last 
Commencement, and the different essays of those young ladies who were 
candidates for distinction. We find some of the pieces excellent, and Ave do 
not hesitate in recommending the "Parthenian" to our readers. 

We acknowledge the following receipts since 1st of July : T. W. Cooper, 
$2.00, Wm. M. Brooks, $2.00 Jno. W. Mebane, $2.00, S. F. Patterson $2.00, 
Miss B. C. Lemly, $2.00, E. W. Jones, $2.00, J. T. Douglas, $2.00, B. G. Worth, 
$2.00 J. R. Lindsay, $2.00 John Armstrong, $2.00 R. H. Lee, 2.00 E. T. Mc- 
Keethan, $2.00, Gen. Jos. Lane, $5.00 




We are compelled to place before our readers a more abridged record of last 
Commencement than we should wish ; partly owing to the scanty accounts 
of reporters and partly because if it were longer it would be impossible for 
it all to appear in this number. We feel our indebtedness to several State 
papers for the material aid they have rendered us in making out the following. 
The exercises of Commencement opened on monday evening June 4th with 
declamations by the competitors of the Freshman class ; to wit: 

1. Irish Enthusiasm— Whiteside. Julius C. Mitchell, Alabama. 

2. Defence of O'Connell — Sheil. Richard H. Smith, Scotland Neck. 
-3. Battle of Ivry — Macaulay. Wesley L. Battle, Chapel Hill. 

4. The South — Simms. Wm. H. Reeves, Tennessee. 

•5. National Hatred — Choate. G. Lawrence Washington, Kinston. 

16. Lone Star of Texas — Webb. Marandy R. Willeford, Texas. 

1. The Platform of the Constitution — Webster. J. T. Harris, Franklin Co. 

2. Monument in Independence Square — Rayner. R. D. Graham, Hillsboro'. 

3. Mahmoud II. Wm. J. White, Warrenton. 

4. Mississippi Contested Election — Prentiss. J. H. McGilvary, Fayetteville. 

5. Feelings of an American towards England — I. Royster. Norman L. 
Shaw, Harrellsville. 

The efforts of these young gentlemen were very creditable to them. Indeed, 
it was the best declamation we have heard from Freshmen for years. Where 
so many did very well, it may be invidious to draw distinctions ; but it is only 
just to record the fact that Messrs. Willeford and Harris secured marked 
attention to their efforts. 

On Tuesday evening (the day being occupied in the examination of the 
Senior Class in Political Economy and Civil Engineering) the Chapel was 
crowded to hear the Sermon of Archbishop Hughes, of New York. The Ser- 
mon was considered by all who heard it as eminently appropriate. He spoke 
for nearly two hours, and was listened to throughout with marked attention. 
As we publish the Sermon further comment is unnecessary. 

On Wednesday the Annual Address before the two Literary Societies was 
delivered by John Pool, Esq., of Elizabeth City. Mr. Pool was introduced on 
this occasion in a remarkably neat and appropriate manner, by Mr. E. J. 
Hale, of the Senior Class, as the representative of the Philanthropic Society. 
His address chastely, concisely, clearly and pointedly set before the 
young people of the assembly not merely the advantages, but the indispensa- 
ble necessity of a rigid training in intellectual exercises in order to the proper 
discharge of their duties in after life. Our country needs not so much men 
who have much learning as men who can use aright what learning they have. 
This power over one's mental possessions can be secured only by a patient 


continuance in exercises of continuous thought and constant communion wit^ 
the minds of the active and liberal thinkers of the world. Good books writ- 
ten by great men are among the best companions with which a young man 
can surround himself. By their aid and incentives he will be encouraged to 
extend the boundaries of science in its various departments. So will virtue 
have free scope to manifest its principles and extend its life, and liberty will 
diffuse its blessings over all the children of wrong and oppression. 

Mr. Pool graduated at Chapel Hill in 1847, when President Polk visited the 
University. While a student he practiced what as "the Orator" he enjoined, 
and his marked success in life shows that his precepts were most proper, both 
in their philosophy and in their application. 

The Sophomore competitors, on Wednesday night, were as follows : 

1. The Washington Monument — Winthrop. Wm. W. Jones, Henderson. 

2. Development of Southern Resources — Garland. A. C. Jones, Texas. 

3. Speech of Spartacus — Kellog. John H. Bass, Georgia. 

4. Destruction of Jerusalem — Headley. Wm. Biggs, Williamston. 

5. Irish Aliens and English Victories — Sheil. S. J Andrews, Greensboro*. 

6. Parrhasius — Willis. John W. Hinsdale, Fayetteville. 

1. The Invasion of States — Hunter. Henry C. Wall, Richmond Co. 

2. Adams and Jefferson — Everett. Ruel A. Stancill, Mississippi. 

3. New Orleans — Maffit. James H. Polk,. Tennessee. 

4. The Abolition Party — Barksdale. Thomas G. Skinner, Perquimans Co, 

5. Results of Abolition Teachings — Vorhees. Thomas W. Taylor, Gran- 
ville County. 

6. Plea for the Union— Baldwin. Wm. M. Fetter, Chapel Hill. 

This exhibition was not equal to that of the Freshman Class. We forbear 
making any discriminations or comments, as they labored under a great dis- 
advantage. An unusual storm occurred, which disconcerted the audience and 
disturbed the quiet of the occasion. 

During the intermission between the two sections of the Sophomore 
declaimers Mr. Hugh Strong, of South Carolina, received the prize awarded 
by the Editors for the best contribution to the Magazine, during the previous 
collegiate year. Gov. Ellis delivered it in a few very appropriate remarks. 
The full report of the committee of award can be found in an other part of 
our editorial. 

Thursday was devoted to the exercises of the Graduating Class, the reading 
of the Annual Report and conferring Degrees. The exercises were opened 
with singing and prayer, after which those members of the Class who received 
the first and second distinctions, declaimed speeches prepared by them for the 
occasion, as follows : 

Latin Salutatory — Iowa Royster, Raleigh. 

Where Eloquence flourishes, Liberty must dwell — Junius Cullen Battle, 
Chapel Hill. 

Moral Courage — James Kelly, Moore County. 

Man Worship — Erasmus Decatur Scales, Rockingham County. 


The Origin of Love — a Poem — Sam'l Park Weir, Greensboro.' 

Literary Vanity — William John King, Louisburg. 

The Sentiment of Honor — Wm. Joseph Headen, Chatham County. 

Emulation — its office in the work of Education — Thomas Watson Cooper r 
Bertie County. 

The desire of applause as a principle of action — George Pettigrew Bryan, 

The Social Duties of Man — Wm. Martin Brooks, Chatham County. 

The Study of Men — Hugh Strong, South Carolina. 

Common Sense — Lewis Bond, Tennessee. 


Extemporaneous Speaking — Chas. Carroll Pool, Elizabth City. 

Industry and Civilization — George Lovick Wilson, Newbern. 

Influence of Speculative Minds — Wm, Augustus Wooster, Wilmington. 

Mr. Brooks being sick did not appear on the stage, but his colleagues ac- 
quitted themselves with much credit. Mr. Royster spoke so clearly, with such 
propriety of enunciation, emphasis and manner, that almost every body 
thought the salutatory intelligible. Messrs. Wilson and Wooster were also- 
listened to with pleasure by a crowded house. 

The Alumni Association presented nothing this year for the instruction or 
amusement of the public. It may have been thought the savour of Dr. Hooper's' 
dadress ought to last longer than one year. The attendance of the Alumni was 
not so numerous as it often is ; or, if present, they did not present themselves 
when the representatives of their class were called for. Perhaps those who 
thus shrink from public gaze are bachelors, who, as rolling years push back 
the year of their graduation, are ashamed to show themselves, conscious of 
having no parvus Jidus preparing to fill papa's place at college. B. F. Moore, 
Esq., of Raleigh, is the President of the Association for the coming year, and 
Messrs. R. J, Smith, G. F. Davidson, J. Pool, R. H. Graves, J. Horner and 
Thomas Hill, are its Vice Presidents. 

The report of the Board of Examiners was submitted and read by Judge 

The Annual Report was then read by the President of the Faculty, from 
which it appeared the first distinction was awarded to Messrs. Battle, Bryan, 
Hale, Pool, Royster, Strong, Wilson and Wooster. The second to Messrs. 
Bond, Brooks, T. W. Cooper, Headen, James Kelly, King, Scales and Weir, 
and the third to Messrs. Baird, Borden, Bruce, Daniel, Fain, Fogle, Graham, 
Hardin, E. Martin, Rial and Thorp. 

Messrs. Battle and Jamo.s Kelly were counted as absent from no one of the 
4500 attendances on duty -required of them in the four years of a College 
course. Mr. Pool was never absent in four years when he was on the Hill. 
Mr. Strong was never absent or tardy when it was possible for him to attend. 
Mr. Thorp had not been absent during the last two years. Messrs. Barbee, 
Nicholson, Thorp and Wilson were rarely absent in the four years. Messrs. 
Baird, Barrett, Bond, Brooks, Bruce, Cole, Cooper, T. W. Cooper, Graham, 


Headen, McCallum, Mimms, Kial, Royster, Scales, Wallace and Wooster 
were the next most punctual members of this Class. 

Among the eighty-eight Juniors, the Jii'st grade in scholarship was assigned 
to Messrs. Allen, R. S. Clark, Simmons, Stewart and E. E. Wright. 

The second was obtained by Messrs. Butts, Dowd, Knight, Maverick and 
Van Wyck. 

The third was won by Messrs. A. T. Bowie, Coffin, Currie, W. E. Davis, 
Dobbin, Garrett, Halliburton, T. Haughton, Lightfoot, Marshall, Nicholson, 
•J. P. Parker, Parks, Ross and Timberlake. 

Mr. Hobson reached the first rank in all his studies, save Mathematics, 
where he was among the second men. Mr. Pugh reached it in none save 

Mr James Parker has not been absent from any duty in three years. Mr. R. T. 
Murphy had not been absent until three weeks ago, when he became very .ill 
Messrs. R. Clark, Dobbin and Hogan have never been absent except when 
sick. The next most punctual are Messrs. Allen, Bullock, Dowd, J. Harris, 
Hicks, Horney, Knight, Michie, J. P. Parker, Simmons, Stedman and E. E. 

The ninety-nine Sophomores are half way through their course. At pres- 
ent the best scholars among them are Messrs. Bartlett, Gains, Hassell, Hins- 
dale, Patterson and Taylor. 

The second best are Messrs. Andrews, Armstrong, Bellamy, Broadfoot, 
Cameron, Fort, Foscue, E. Martin, Mclver, J. E. Moore, Timberlake and Young. 

The third best^are Messrs. Blain, Clark, Covington, Fitzgerald, Fletcher, 
McFadyen, McQueen, McLaurin, McMillan, A. J. Moore, M. Moore, Ray, 
Russell, S. Smith, Staton, Wall, and W. Whitfield. 

Mr. A. G. Moore was worthy of the first distinctian in French. 

In this class, Messrs. Bellamy, Hassell, Parker, J. Parker, and Patterson, 
have not been absent from their duties in two years. Messrs. Bartlett, Broad- 
foot, Cameron, Doss, Fort, Wm. J. Smith and S. W. Smith, have not been 
absent during the year just past. Mr. Blocker was not absent during the last 
session. Messrs. Andrews, Shaw, Covington, Gorrell, Hadly, McQueen, Polk, 
W. Whitfield and Young have also been quite punctual. The next most punc- 
tual were Messrs. Armstrong, Blain, Boyd, Cherry, Clark, Fletcher, Hinsdale, 
Holt, King, Richardson, Russell, Sutton and Whitfield. 

There were sixty-nine Freshmen, and among these the first distinction 
-was assigned toMessrs. Henderson, McAfee, Peebles, Washington and Young. 

The second, to Messrs. Craige, Graham, Kelly, J. B. Mitchell, A. M. 
Moore, Perry and Thurmond. 

The third, to Messrs. Battle, Carr, Franklin, Harris, Johnson, N. Kelly, 
Lane, Morrow, Ryan, Smith, Thomson, White and Willeford. 

Mr. Scales attained the third rank in Mathematics, and the first in the 
other departments. Mr. Kenneday won a second rank in Mathematics, and 
Messrs. Mathews and Reeves a third rank. 

Messrs. Bunn, Franklin, Harris, Johns, Pool, Reeves, Scales, and Tyson 
have been perfectly punctual during the year; Messrs. Barrett, Kelly, N. 
Kelly and Young during last session. Messrs. Battle, Carr, Clement, McAfee, 


J. C. Mitchell, G. B. Moore, Peebles, Royster, Ryan, Shaw, Smith, Thur- 
mond, "Washington and Watkins were rarely absent during the year. 

The secundum gradum petentes were Messrs. R. "W. Anderson, T. C. Belcher, 
the Rev. A. D. Betts, R. Bingham, G. M. Duskin, E. J. Gaines, Jos. W. 
Graham, J. Guion, T. N. Hill, T. S. Kenan, J. E. Lindsay, J. E. Logan, R. 
H. Marsh, J. Manning, A. McLaughlin, J. C. McLaughlin, H. McMillin, C. 
A. Mitchell, H. Mullins, J, M. Richmond, J. L. Steward, D. Stewart, Jr., H. 
R. Thorp, J. Venable, J. Wilson, graduates of three years standing. 

The degree of LL.B. was granted to Messrs W. L. Alexander, John W. 
Graham, S. S. Jackson and J. L. Steward. 

The degree of B. S. was conferred on Messrs. J. L. Douglas, R. L. Hailey, 
J. A. Prudhomme, G. C. Smith, and S. K. Watkins as graduates of "The 
School for the application of Science to the Arts." 

A diploma then was given to each member of the Class, by the President, 
and with each diploma a handsome volume of the Holy Scriptures. 

Messrs. Alexander Kirkland and Sidney Smith, who were providentially 
prevented from graduating with their class in 1859, were also counted as 
Bachelors of Arts at this time. 

Mr. Edward J. Hale, of Fayetteville, then arose, and in a very neat vale- 
dictory, returned thanks to the Trustees, President and Faculty of the Insti- 
tution for the many courtesies extended to the members of his Class during 
their college term, and bade his fellow-students and class-mates an affection- 
ate farewell. He acquitted himself in every respect with honor. The meta- 
phor'with which he began his address was striking and very appropriate. He 
and his class-mates were as the waters of. a river, which, stayed by the rush- 
ing tide, linger awhile in their banks ere they are spread abroad over the 
wide ocean before them. 

The exercises closed with sacred music and prayer. 

During the whole week, and between every speech the ears of the audience 
were frequently regaled by the loud, sweet strains of music from the Rich- 
mond Armory Band. 

The Marshals for this Commencement were Mr. Joshaa G. Wright, of 
Wilmington, Chief, and Messrs. R. Lawrence, Coffin, of Miss., Guilford Nich- 
olson, of Halifax, Wm. Van Wyck, Jr., of South Carolina, and Joel P. Walker, 
of Mississippi, Assistants. The good order maintained throughout the week 
was gratifying to the friends of the University, and the prompt courtesy, yet 
the decided energy of these gentlemen contributed much to this happy result. 

At night, came off the Grand Ball in honor to the graduating class. The 
management of this affair, and the entertainment connected therewith was 
entrusted to Messrs. G. B. Hunt, of Miss., James N. Thompson, of Leasburg, 
Spier Whitaker, Jr., of Iowa, and Nicholas L. Williams, of Yadkin. It was 
largely attended and we believe reflected credit upon these gentlemen. Thus 
ended the Commence ment of 1860, at Chapel Hill. May it be* long remem- 
bered by all who participated in its festivities and gayeties. 



Philanthropic Society, July 28, 1860. 
Whereas, intelligence has been received by the Philanthropic Society of the 
death of our once esteemed and beloved fellow-member, Nicholas B. Shannon, 
of Miss., who has but recently departed from our midst with such high hopes 
only to be blighted in the end. Therefore, 

Resolved, that, while we bow in meek submission to the decrees of an all- 
wise Providence, we can not but grieve over his untimely end, and sincerely 
regret that one so promising should thus be cut off in the morning of life. 

Resolved, that our Society of which he was a worthy member has lost a 
warm and zealous friend. 

Resolved, that we tender our heartfelt sympathies to his bereaved family. 
Resolved, that a copy of these resolutions be sent to the family of the 
•deceased, Raleigh Standard, Mississippi papers and the University Magazine. 

J. W. HINSDALE, ] f 

Dialectic Society, July 29th, 1860. 
It is with feelings of the deepest sorrow that the Dialectic Society has 
lieard of the death of William Cary Dowd, our late fellow-member. One 
who left us but a short time ago bearing with him in modest triumph all the 
honors that college could bestow and something to him dearer than all these, 
the love of friends, the respect of instructors and the kindest wishes of all 
with whom he was associated. The Society looked forward with the greatest 
pleasure to the time when we should enroll his name on the list of those who 
leaving us with auspices less propitious, have become good, and great and 
wise ; and also to the time when a generous people should entwine his brow 
with such honors as few among us could hope to win, yea, well could we say, 

" None knew him but to love him," 
Nor named him but to praise. 

Yes, he's gone. The loved of all who knew him is gone before he could 
prove to the world that he was a man. Therefore, 

Resolved, That the Dialectic Society, while she bows implicitly to the will 
of Him, who doeth all things well, cannot but deeply feel and deplore the 
loss of her much loved son, to whose laborious exertion and commanding 
talent she owes, in a considerable degree, her present prosperity and reputa- 
tion, and whose untimely end has deprived us of that rich reward, which, 
his life so promisingly begun, would have reflected upon her. , 

Resolved, That the Society tenders her heartfelt sympathies to the rela- 
tives of the deceased and joins equally in their grief for her loss has been al- 
most as great as theirs. She encourages them to be submissive and look to 
Him who alone can console, since she entertains the cheerful belief and 
hope, that, he for whom they mourn, has gone to a brighter abode to receive 
the rewards of a short yet pious and useful life. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the family of the de- 
ceased, also to the University Magazine, Raleigh Register, with request 
to publish them. 

J. M. HOBSON, [ g 







A LWAYS on hand a supply of TEXT BOOKS— also Theological, Law, Med- 
-^*- ical and Miscellaneous BOOKS ; Gift Books, Albums, Autograph Books, 
Bibles, Prayer Books, Hymn Books, for all denominations. He also invites 
attention to his stock of superior STATIONERY, comprising a great variety 
of the finest English, French and American Letter and Note PAPER ; En- 
velopes, Visiting Cards, Blank Books, Patent Adhesive Letter Files, &c, &c. 
Mathematical Instruments, Writing Desks, Port Folios, Strings for the Violin 
and Guitar, of the best quality; Engravings, Lithographs, &c. 

Hgp' Visiting Cards engraved to order. NEW BOOKS received and for sale 
as soon as published. 

JB@- A full supply of OIL and WATER COLORS always on hand. 


Mutual Life Insurance and Trust Company. 

'"PHIS COMPANY offers inducements to the public which few possess. It 
-*• is economical in its management, and prompt in the payment of its losses. 

The insured for life are its members, and they participate in its profits, 
not only upon the premiums paid in, but also on a large and increasing 
deposit capital kept in active operation. 

A dividend of 95 per cent, at the last annual meeting of the Company, was 
declared, and carried to the credit of the Life Members of the Company. 

Those desiring an insurance upon their own lives, or on the lives of their 
slaves, will please address D. P. WEIR, Treasurer, 

Jan. I860.— tf. ■ Greensboro' , N. C. 

Edgeworth Female Seminary, 


THE nineteenth annual session of this Institution commenced on the 3rd of 
August, 1859. 
The course of study is thorough and systematic, embracing everything 
necessary to a complete, solid and ornamental education. The Buildings 
are so arranged as to combine the comforts of a HOME with the advantages 
of a SCHOOL. Instructors of the highest qualifications are employed in each 
of the Departments. 

Board, including washing, lights, and fuel, per session of five months, $60 00 

Tuition in the regular classes, 20 00 

Catalogues containing all necessary information respecting the course of 
Instruction, Terms, &c, will be forwarded on application to 

Oct. 1859.— tf. Greensboro', N. C. 


THIS PREPARATION has the property of rendering the Hair SOFT and 
GLOSSY, at the same time that, by its tonic and stimulant properties, it 
tends to arrest its premature decay. To accomplish this it should be rubbed 
thoroughly into the roots, at least once a day. It will remove and prevent 
dandruff; it will stop the itching from the bite of insects. It causes the hair 
to assume a darker appearance. It is easily applied. Prepared by 

R. B. SAUNDERS, Druggist, Chapel Hill, N. C. 
Who has constantly on hand a general assortment of Drugs, Medicines, 
Paints, Oils, Window-Glass, Dye Stuffs, Brushes, Perfumery, Fancy Articles, 
&c, &c. * March, 1860. 



IDmVIaXBa", HUDSON efe 0O„ 9 


258, 259 and 260 Broadway, 

HIW ¥©1-E e 

TyE desire to call the attention of gentlemen of the University to this the 
most extensive Clothing House in the Union. Facilities unequalled by 
any other firm in the trade render our establishment the fountain head of gar- 
ments of taste and elegance. 

A . commands entrusted to us will meet with prompt attention, and will be 
executed in our well known superior style. 

t NewYork, February 1st, 1860. 





S prepared to execute at short order all manner of printing on exceedingly 
moderate terms. Particular attention paid to the printing of catalogues, 
addresses, pamphlets, reports, invitation cards, &c. 

He has on hand a large stock of cards, bronzes, colored inks, and other 
materials, which, with his long experience in the business, will enable him to 
compete with any similar establishment in the State or elsewhere. 

w \T±Et±t±xxs 0£*,3?e3.s» At Si j&&jt ^aoIs.. 

All kinds of Sheriff's, Clerks', and Constables' blanks on hand or supplied 
at short notice at 75 cents per quire, cash. When a large quantity is ordered 
a discount of 10 per cent, will be allowed. 

All he asks is a trial to give satisfaction. 


Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, 

D. J. EZZELL, Operator. 

Fayetteville Street, Raleigh, 

E. HUNT, Operator. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAITS taken from Daguerreotypes, Miniatures, 
x or from life, finely finished in Oil Colors on Canvas, thereby rendered per- 
fectly durable, and making beautiful paintings, at prices ranging from $20 to 
$80. These portraits can be enlarged to any size, and such changes or altera- 
tions made as may be desired. Mr. Andrews, the Artist who colors these 
pictures being an experienced Portrait Painter and a fine colorist, all who wish 
a finely executed work of art should call at the old established gallery on Fay- 
etteville street, and those preferring portraits painted from life would do well 
to give Mr. A. a call. Persons having Daguerreotypes of deceased friends can, 
by giving the color of the hair, eyes and complexion, secure a permanent and 
life-like Portrait. Photographs can be finished in Water Colors, Pastelle, 
or Crayon, at prices ranging from $10 to $30. The plain Photograph from 
$2 to $10. Melainotypes for Lockets, Cases, Rings and Pins. Ambrotypes, 
Vignettes, Neillographs, ior sending in letters, &c, taken in all weathers. 


■ « » * ■ 



2. TO MISS LIZZIE, (Poetry,) 77 


4. SHELLEY, 85 





9. MY REVERIE, 108 



12. "I STILL LIVE,' 115 

13. EDITORS' TABLE— Portrait of Gen'l Lane; Local; 

Exchanges ; Notice ; A Judicial Argument ; Indus- 
try and Genius; Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion; Correction; 117 — 127 

14. TRIBUTES OF RESPECT, [White— Badgett,] 28 


As we receive a good many letters asking the price, &c, of the Magazine, 
to save time and trouble we publish below all necessary information. 

The Magazine is issued regularly at the beginning of each month (except- 
ing January and July.) TERMS: For single copies $2 per annum invariably 
in advance; six copies $10; and for clubs of more than ten a reasonable de- 
duction will be made. 

J8@^ All letters should be addressed to the " Editors of the North Carolina 
University Magazine." 

We acknowledge the following receipts since first of August. W. F. 
Alderman, $2.00, Thos. Douglass, $2.00, Francis Gillam, $2.00, Col. II. 
W. Harrington, $2.00, J. C. McClelland, $2.00, Rev. Jas. Phillips, $2.00, 
W. L. Pomeroy, $2.00, Rev. Charles Phillips, $4.00 Hon. D. L. Swain, 
$2.00, T. Lucius Smith, $2.00, A. Wesson, $2.00, Geo. B. Hunt, $2.00, 
Allen T. Bowie, $2.00, John Mclver, $1.00, Barrett, $2.00, John L. 
Haughton, $2.00, B. J. Wesson, $2.00, Whitner, $2.00, W. Battle,$.200, 
R. B. Graham, $2.00, Ramsey, 1.00, L. R. Ray, $2.00, Wittich, $2.00, 
Long, $2, Hargrove, $2, Martin, $2, Speight, $1.00, Dr. R. Winborne, 
$2, Col. E. W. Montfort, $2, D. W. Simmons, Sr., $2, Jos. C. Bellamy, 
$2, Hon. Henry T. Clark, $2. 

fig§" The publisher would state that circumstances over which he had 
no control prevented the appearance of the n Magazine " at the proper 
time. He will endeavor to issue it punctually in future. 








Vol. X. SEPTEMBER, 1860. No. 2. 




It is a matter for congratulation to see the increasing interest manifes- 
ted in the cause of education. The institutions under which we live im- 
pose a necessity for a general diffusion of correct and useful knowledge. 
It may he, therefore, that a sense of patriotic duty, as well as of moral 
and religious ohligation, prompts the zeal shown in all parts of the 
country in establishing and maintaining seminaries of learning. 

This assembly, here to-day, participating in the annual festival of our 
University, comes to approve the faithfulness of teachers and to encourage 
students to diligence. Public attention thus directed to the proficiency of 
merit and to the short-comings of indolence, by presenting an immediate 
motive for exertion, becomes an incentive to honorable emulation. Such 
encouragement is of no small importance to those who come here fresh 
from the gentle influences and indulgent care of parental hands, to find 
the thoughtless ease and irresponsibilty of childhood interrupted by a sterner 
discipline. Those best skilled in the training of youth testify to its 
utility. The constitution of the human mind, requires some attainable 
object in view — some tangible reward of profit or praise — before it can 
overcome its natural inclination to ease, and bend to the reality of irksome 
toil. The anticipation of future returns for the sacrifices of the present 
must be strengthened by some occasional realization, in order to bring 
out the best energies of any human character. The knight, fighting 
among the hills of Palestine, though fired with religous zeal and striking 
in the name of his God and his honor, must needs seek some nearer 
recompense in the approving smiles of his lady. So the eyes of approving 


friends, and the visits of a generous public to greet success with honorable 
applause, gives to the mind of the student new vigor and to his fainting 
heart fresh courage for the task before him. 

The college course so far from being a pathway of flowers should be 
one of rigid training. The education here obtained is preparatory to the 
great battle of life, and meant to fit you to become faithful and efficient 
soldiers. To advance with profit and honor requires no small amount of 
labor, perseverance and self denial. The mere acquisition of knowledge 
should not be the primary object. Useful and varied information is cer- 
tainly a very desirable incident of your literary and scientific studies. 
But the leading purpose should be to train and discipline the mind — 
to call it from vagueness and uncertainty to precision and system — that 
its wandering powers may be collected at will and concentrated upon a 
single point — thus bringing into practical use its entire activity and 
strength. Facts and rules committed to the uncertain keeping of the 
memory are comparatively useless acquirements. The mind must be 
made to grasp the principles, and to work out as much as possible by its 
own exertions, the logical deductions which lead to the truths that it 
would store away for future use. By no other means can it be qualified 
to enter successfully upon practical investigation or to rely with any 
degree of confidence upon the result of its own labors. This work is not 
in the power of teachers. Their judicious guidance and encouragement 
may facilitate, but can never insure the leading benefits of a proper edu- 
cation. A careful selection of studies and a well planned routine of 
intellectual exercises afford much assistance; but after all it rests with the 
student himself. It is a struggle for mastery over his truant thoughts, to 
make them the subservient instruments of his will — and the victory cannot 
be gained without a fixed determination to pursue it with unfaltering 
purpose. The talisman to success is labor — determined, unflinching labor, 
until it becomes a habit — a second nature — a positive pleasure. Without 
it there can be no high degree of mental training. Only by repeated 
labor are the muscles and eye of the artist trained to works of skill and 
beauty. By such, the gladiator prepared himself for the deadly lists, 
and the aspirant for the olive crown became a victor at the, Olympic 
games. The aspirant for intellectual excellence cannot learn too early, 
that his more exalted aim can be reached by no less arduous means. 
He will find no road to it over which the rich may roll in chariots of ease 
while the poor walk in weai'y toil. Nor can he receive it as a birthright. 
It will not descend with the manor and the castle and the liveried 
servants. Neither can the work be done by hired laborers. But, day 
by day, and step by step, with patience and labor, he must work out for 
himself the rewards of success. If he attempt to recline upon a bed of 

I860.] mr. pool's address. 67 

roses, or listen to the siren of ease when she sounds her deluding notes, 
he will never feel the palm of victory press his brow. 

Nor can there be any safe reliance upon the native powers of the intel- 
lect, however great. It is too often true, that the most highly gifted are the 
most apt to neglect the proper cultivation of their endowments. Natural gifts 
of the most brilliant order may be neglected and misapplied, until they 
become rather a curse than a blessing to their possessor — serving only to 
make him appreciate more keenly the high estate from which he has fallen — 
sharpening the pangs of remorse, and adding to the bitterness of regret, 
the shame of self-condemnation. All are alike subject to the overruling 
necessity of depending on self-denying labor for the attainment of excel- 
lence in any department of life. In the private engagements, in tht 
learned professions, in literature, science and the arts, it operates with the 
same binding and uravoidable certainty. Circumstances may give advan- 
tages, or chance may elevate for a time, but it serves only to make defects 
more conspicuous, and to increase the mortification of failure. Nothing 
but individual effort can secure individual excellence. And this is espe- 
cially applicable to the student, who would bring into usefulness, by 
wholesome discipline, those exalted gifts with which Providence has en- 
dowed man so eminently above all the rest of creation. But it is an 
object worthy of his best exertions, and within the reach of every one 
who brings requisite diligence to the undertaking. 

It is difficult to over-estimate the power of systematic effort — the 
magic of concentrated thought. To a mind well trained, obstacles be- 
come playthings, and seeming impossibilities vanish on its approach. 
Instead of begging a pitiful tribute it commands the trophies of triumph. 
It is this training that imparts to the correctly educated man such facility 
in the management of the ordinary concerns of life, and such readiness 
in the discharge of duties the most arduous. Without it, by an uncom- 
mon activity and natural quickness of mind, some manage to get along 
with tolerable success. .With some ingenuity and a few flashes of fancy, 
they may turn attention from the shameful confusion into which they are 
betrayed by the want of consecutive thought. They may throw upon a 
matter in hand a kind of flickering light, with now and then a ray of 
borrowed radiance to penetrate the mist in which they are involved. 
With some applause, they may play around a subject without ever giving 
it a manly grasp. But these are mere scintillations of intellect. They 
catch the empty praise of the ignorant, but can never command the solid 
approbation of those whose esteem is so gratifying to a man of parts — nor 
can they secure that which is so much sweeter than all to the cultivated 
man — the consciousness of intellectual strength and the pride of mental 


Every young man feels that the main object of life is to discharge all 
its duties with faithfulness and honor. With his mind well-trained, he is 
prepared to enter upon those duties in any sphere. If he choose any of 
the learned professions, he brings to the mastery of its principles the 
undivided powers of his intellect. Its honors and emoluments are within 
his reach, and wait upon his bidding. He will readily outstrip the many 
who press into the race before they have trained themselves to run it. 
If his country call him to her councils, he is able to stand among her 
benefactors with pride and dignity. If he engage in the unostentatious, 
but not less honorable, pursuits of humble life, he is saved from manifold 
perplexities that befall his less fortunate neighbors. Method and pre- 
cision mark his arrangements, securing in their operation, satisfaction and 
success. Properly trained and cultivated men are the pride of a nation. 
To them must be intrusted the intricate affairs of government, requiring 
acuteness of mind and a well-balanced judgment. Judicial duties, espe- 
cially, require that close, discriminating and consecutive thought which can 
result only from a patient and thorough discipline of the mind. With- 
out men so qualified, any government fails in many of its most important 
ends; and instead of securing right and upholding truth, justice becomes 
but a hazard in its tribunals — and ultimately it must be overwhelmed with 
confusion and disgrace. Happy is the nation and fortunate the age that 
prepares for its youths the means of fitting themselves to discharge the 
duties of its exalted stations, and by generous encouragement inspires 
them to train ther&selves for a career of usefulness and honor. The high- 
souled, aspiring young men of our land! They are the jewels of the 
Republic, the repository of its hopes, the defenders of its destiny! It is 
for them to be the benefactors of the age. May they prove faithful to 
their trust, and firm in noble resolve to discharge it to the honor and 
glory of their country. 

But, in addition to public usefulness, educated men may exert a most 
beneficial private influence. They may elevate the social standard of 
morals and manners — give tone and character to the circles in which they 
move — restrain inclination to vice, and by the valued encouragement of 
their approbation promote whatsoever is virtuous and good. And this 
private influence upon the masses of the people is no less important than 
powerful. The human mind is inclined to be subservient, and to bow 
before the manifestation of superior intelligence and virtue. The great 
mass of mind requires some master spirit to think for it, and furnish it a 
model of conduct. Most men look up, for guidance, to some one whose 
acquirements and virtues have attracted their attention. Those who im- 
prove the advantages of a liberal education thus become lights for others 
to follow, leading them on to whatever is for social improvement and the 
public good. 

I860.] mr. pool's address. 69 

Our peculiar political system requires elevating and virtuous influences 
upon the masses. With us every man is repeatedly called upon to be- 
come an active and equal participant in the rights and duties of the body 
politic. The people impress their character upon the government that 
emanates from them. If controlled by vicious influences, they may easily 
overturn the foundations of society; and unfortunately such influences are 
seldom wanting. To combat them in the private as well as the public 
walks of life is a duty required at the hands of educated men. All that 
is desirable in life depends upon the proper management of the feelings 
and obligations by which society is bound together. None are able to 
appreciate the extreme calamity which attends the disruption of social 
order, until they have experienced its misfortunes. The claims of affec- 
tion — the advantages of private property — the protection of life — and 
indeed, every blessing which renders civilized existence more desirable 
than that of a savage, is sacrificed before the demon of social discord. 
The responsibility for the preservation of social order and of the blessings 
of political and religious liberty, rests upon those who have enjoyed supe- 
rior educational advantages. Let the appreciation of this, stimulate you 
in your efforts to advance in preparatory attainment. Duty, patriotism and 
interest unite in urging you to diligence. With manly purpose and 
cheerful hearts, may you push on to the realization of the brilliant hopes 
that are centered in you. "A youth of labor" will surely be crowned by 
an age of honor. May no regret for opportunities neglected and the prime 
of life wasted, hang over your heads to cloud declining years, and haunt 
the walks of after-life with phantoms of remorse and shame. A duty 
well performed is no less a blessing to ourselves than a profit to others. 
Though it involve the sacrifice of present ease and require submission to 
the inconvenience of uncongenial toil, steady perseverance will bring a 
recompense more than commensurate with all the privations endured, in 
the unrivaled pleasure of self-approbation, and the consciousness of a well 
acted part and a life well spent. 

These. considerations of duty and usefulness have, doubtless, had their 
due weight upon your conduct while here preparing yourselves to enter 
actively upon the theatre of life. But there is another view perhaps 
more closely connected with your individual happiness, which should 
prompt you in your literary labors. You must expect to meet in your 
course through the world, with disappointments and misfortunes. They 
are unfailing incidents of earthly existence. No heart can be successfully 
nerved against their depressing influence. Amid them all there is no 
retreat, apart from religion, to be relied upon with so much certainty as 
that which every man may prepare and possess within himself — a clear 
conscience and the resources of intellectual enjoyment. They are posses- 


sions of which no man can deprive him — above the contingencies of chance 
and change — a part of his being — essentially his, by virtue of no human 
statute, but in obedience to the immutable laws of Nature and of Nature's 
'G-od. And though he may not, as suggested by Cicero, carry them with 
him as a personal possession into the realms of the future world, surely 
the cultivation of the intellect partakes of divinity, and ennobles and 
-elevates and refines that wouderful principle within us, which we are 
taught must live forever. A taste once formed for literary pursuits is of 
priceless value. A rich field is spread before the votary, and he is invi- 
ted to partake of the refined pleasures that are found in its walks. He 
has a world of his own into which he may retire, when pressed too hardly 
by the stern realities of that around him. It is peopled with the brightest 
creations of human fancy and decked with the legacies of the greatest 
and purest minds of earth. The present may be set aside for the feel- 
ings of other men and other times. There is food for all the higher 
emotions and impulses of the heart to entertain and please while it 
enriches with the accumulated stores of the wisdom of ages. 

It is to be regretted that such taste has not been more generally 
diffused in this country. Its beneficial effects would soon manifest them- 
selves upon the character of our people, purifying the tone of conversa- 
tion — improving social intercourse, and elevating the standard of morals 
.and manners. 

In your course, thus far, you have already met these pleasures. Your 
toils have been enlivened in searching out half-hidden gems of thought, 
and your weary minds refreshed in grasping exalted sentiments and elu- 
cidating beautiful truths. You have learned that even upon the dreaded 
cliff and among the rough rocks, many a modest little rose hides its blush- 
ing head — many a limpid fountain gushes out to delight the traveller 
with its gentle murmur — and many a sylvan grotto invites him to short 
repose beneath its scented shades. In learning it is not distance but 
approach that 

" Lends enchantment to the view, 

And robes the mountain in its azure hue." 

Is it not intellectual feasting to read with understanding the classic 
writers in their native tongues, and without an interpreter to hold com- 
munion with the illustrious dead? — to hear the very accents of the 
matchless eloquence of Athens and Rome — to reverence the deep philos- 
ophy of Socrates, or listen to the sweet love-notes of Pindar ? — to appre- 
ciate the withering sarcasm of Juvenal, partake of the heroic enthusiasm of 
Virgil, and revel in the manly beauties of Horace? There is indeed sub- 
limity in thus holding converse with the philosophers and orators and 
poets of ancient times — in pondering over their wisdom, imbibing their 

I860.] MR. pool's address. 71 

spirit, loving their beauties, and becoming familiar with their emotions — 
until we feel that between us and them, there has scarcely been 

" A single earnest throb 
Of Time's old iron heart." 

I cannot urge upon you too earnestly the practical usefulness of culti- 
vating such taste. It is commenced here, and should be pursued through 
after life in whatever sphere you move, as the most delightful and satis- 
factory of that circle of innocent pleasures which Addison so wisely 
recommends us to enlarge. It improves the mind and refines the feelings, 
while it affords the most satisfactory recreation amid the cares and toils 
of life. Vicious habits have few charms for the man who delights to 
spend his leisure hours in pursuits like these — while all the nobler and 
higher impulses and aims find ready access to his heart. It gives addi- 
tional sweetness to the joys of youth, strengthens the worthy purposes of 
maturer manhood, and consoles declining age in its sober walk "upon the 
shores of that great ocean it must sail so soon." 

And, because more particular reference has been made to manly duties, 
it is not meant to be intimated that the same training and taste is not 
equally important to the cultivated lady. Her thorough education should 
not be neglected. Though she hope not to amass wealth by enterprise 
and well-planned speculation— nor by her eloquence to command the 
"applause of listening Senates" — still, she may have her reward in the 
sweet pleasures of literary pursuits and in the praise of a well-ordered 

But in addressing an assembly of educated young men, it must not be 
overlooked that probably many among them are ambitious to have their names 
enrolled among the great of the earth. Looking above the humbler posi- 
tions in life, they gaze upon the dazzling promises of fame, rising in the 
dim future, and inflaming the energies of the soul in pursuit of the exalted 
ends which the day-dreams of imagination present as attainable realities. 
If prompted by worthy motives this ambition merits sympathy and en- 
couragement. The young are too often taught to regard such impulses as- 
pointing only to empty visions, deluding their followers with vain hopes, 
ever receding on approach, and making the heart sick with repeated dis- 
appointments. Such may be the experience of the faint-hearted, who 
grow weary by the way and loiter and turn back. But there are number- 
less examples teaching a different lesson. All depends upon the man 
himself. Steady perseverance will surmount the most formidable obsta- 
cles — and difficulties vanish at the touch of diligent application. Success, 
though withheld for a time, must sooner or later follow in the train of 
faithful exertion. 

All that has been said in reference to mental training applies with still 


greater force to him who would press after the rewards of successful am- 
bition. His mind must furnish the armor and the weapons for the con- 
flict. His steel must be tempered in the furnace of self-denial, and bur- 
nished by the dreary toil of many a midnight watching. The temptations 
of pleasure and ease are the lurking foes that hang upon his way and seek 
to surprise him at every turn. His visor must never be raised at their 
approach, and the out-posts of thought must be guarded with never- 
flagging vigilance. There must be resistance and labor — a constant 
bivouac of the reason and will, until he has mastered himself. His mind 
must, indeed, be to him a kingdom — a kingdom, in which an iron law is 
administered by a stern, unflinching judge — and he must be the abso- 
lute despot, whose word is that law, and whose will is that judge. But 
when he is once seated upon his intellectual throne, he is a king indeed — 

" A king of thought, a potentate, 
Of glorious spiritual state — 
A king of thought, a king of mind — 
Realms unmapped and undefined — 
Crowned by God's imperial hand, 
Before him as a king to stand." 

To a mind thus trained, failure can scarcely be predicted in any un- 
dertaking within the compass of human means. It proceeds with such 
far-seeing precision' and force, that its way seems paved in advance,* and 
circumstances combine to favor its schemes. What seems darkness to 
others becomes light on its approach — confusion becomes system, and 
hazard certainty. Destiny is sometimes credited with its achievements; 
and indeed, fortune doe's seem, at times, conscious of a master's presence, 
changing her frowns into unexpected and almost servile smiles. 

It matters little in what road the talents of a man thus trained are 
turned. Usefulness and honor are before him in every direction. The 
false teachings of pretenders, the errors of ignorance, and the designed 
innovations and abuses of selfish schemers are everywhere to be met and 
reformed. Theology, science and general literature, and the learned pro- 
fessions equally invite his labors and hold out their bright promises of 
reward. I offer no advice in the choice of pursuits; but it is to be re- 
gretted, that in this country, political aspirations have so much engrossed 
the talent of youth and turned it from other fields of labor. Under our 
peculiar political system, the honors and emoluments of office being open 
to every grade and class, early ambition has been blinded to the more 
certain and durable fame attainable in other pursuits. Political eminence 
and fame are subject to the detractions of calumny and the misrepresenta- 
tions of partizan prejudice. The magic powers of the orator are limited in 
their operation, and his renown seldom survives the changing sentiments of 
a few generations; while eminent writers in theology, law and general liter- 

I860.] mr. pool's address. 73 

ature, hand down their names as household words to posterity, and the 
achievements of science continue for ages to enlighten and .improve man- 
kind. If the inclination of the best talent of our country to seek the po- 
litical arena, as the theatre of its exertions, could be restrained, it would 
soon remove the principal defect in our national character. Our literary 
progress has not been commensurate with our advancement in material 
greatness and political weight. It presents a national want, and those who 
supply it will secure to themselves undying fame. Our country has been 
the pioneer in those great principles of civil right which now characterize 
the spirit of the age, and we must trust to the present generation of as- 
piring young men to attain for it the same preeminence in other things 
which contribute to a nation's glory. 

The fields of romance and poetry offer an inviting harvest. Whoever 
takes to himself the first position of American genius, in this branch of 
literature, will acquire a name as bright as any in the annals of the world. 
And why may not America have a place as elevated, in this department, 
as any other land ? She has as much to inspire the imagination and kindle 
the flame of the Muses. Her mountains are unsurpassed in grandeur 
and beauty — and lovely streams flow from their bosoms, with murmuring 
cadence as sweet as ever lulled the Arcadian shepherd to repose or min- 
gled with the soft notes of his pastoral reed. There are scenes of as 
glorious deeds as heralds ever sounded in the triumphal procession of re- 
turning conquerors. There rural loves are as warm and pure. The an- 
gels who visited, near Eden, the* daughters of men, found 'no lovelier 
spots or cooler shades, or fairer forms, or warmer hearts. They are all 
here, inviting a minstrel to sing their praise. And, above all, liberty has 
made them her home, and having erected here the blessed temple of her 
retreat, awaits some bright genius to arise and herald the enchantment of 
her new abode. 

The different branches of science have their peculiar attractions. In 
chemistry, mathematics and sound philosophy, modern advancement has 
far exceeded the wisdom of ancient times. England and other countries 
have run up a record of immortal names. Let us rival their greatness, 
and yield to them no longer the highest places in the temple of fame. 
Ambition cannot covet a renown more lasting than his who gains emi- 
nence in unlocking the mysterious truths of nature. In this we can 
already boast many practical achievements which have conferred real 
benefits on mankind, opening to the world new themes of investigation 
and making their impress upon the age. But much remains still to be 
done. Geology is in its infancy, and scarce emerging from the unfoun- 
ded prejudices with which its early revelations were received. Many are 
laboring to add to th*e store of its facts, or are drawing valuable deduc- 



tions from its established truths. There are many "favored localities" in 
this country, inviting an explorer to bring them to the attention of the 
world. Intimately connected with natural history and comparative anat- 
omy and the leading principles of chemistry, it requires much acuteness of 
perception, close observation of hidden relations, and withal the most 
laborious and patient research. But its ultimate development promises 
such an insight into the wonderful history of the earth, with all its myr- 
iad forms of life, marking the beginning and end of measureless periods 
and recording the work of the great creative hand in the rise and fall of 
species and dynasties in the vegetable and animal kingdom, long before 
the human intellect shone upon the scene, that it may well challenge the 
best exertions of talent, and hold out to the successful explorer the pros- 
pect of renown commensurate with civilization, and as immortal as that 
of the hero wearing the laurels of a hundred battles. 

But, I am not advising the choice of pursuits. Every man must con- 
sult his inclination and the leading points of his own character. If 
crowned by piety and other requisite virtues, great attainment can no- 
where be more worthily employed than in the sublime labors of the pulpit 
and its incidental duties. The mysteries of revelation are food for the 
closest thought. While the human heart is inclined to evil, there will be 
necessity for the best efforts of thoroughly trained ability to enforce those 
great truths upon which depends the welfare of nations, no less than of 
individuals. Infidelity assuming milder names, will continue to lurk in. 
high places, undermining the foundations of morality and sowing the' 
seeds of vice. It is not so much among the more ignorant classes; for there 
the natural impulses of the heart are not checked by that skepticism 
which too often attends a little learning half mastered and falsely under- 
stood. It is chiefly among those who, having some pretension to acquire- 
ments, have yet not had the leisure or inclination to push it to that elevated 
point from which the surrounding view would humble them at the utter in- 
significance of human knowledge; and where amid the floating mists and 
the infinity of incomprehensible truths, they would feel the necessity for a 
higher hand to direct and guide : — where bowing before visible mysteries 
beyond the farthest grasp of their nature, they would humbly appreciate 
the wisdom which has revealed so much, and be struck with wonder and 
admiration at the sublime simplicity by which it is brought within the 
compass of human thought. To be learned only to that point where con- 
ceit begets doubts of all things beyond its reach, is equally unfortunate 
to the man himself and to those under the influence of his fancied eleva- 
tion. It casts upon nature a pall of darkness, hushing its struggling sug- 
gestions and leading to despondency and moral ruin. The skepticism of 
the partially learned is the stronghold to be attacked, and once carried, 

I860.] mr. pool's address. 75 

infidelity loses its respectability, having no abode but in the heart of re- 
volting depravity, or in the baseless visions of the monomaniac's dreams. 
The man of well trained powers, commanding from the partially learned 
attention and respect, is often able to impress them with sound doctrine 
when enforced by clear reasoning and dressed in the drapery of genius. 
He may expand their narrow views by superior learning, and by logical 
precision lead them up to a purer height, where the appeals of eloquence 
and the force of his character may open a way for the holy rays of truth 
and reason. True greatness can have no nobler purpose, nor one requir- 
ing a more careful cultivation of its t endowments. What can exceed the 
glory of him, who, having trained himself with much labor, and having 
warred with vice and ignorance and laid broad and deep the foundations 
of purity and truth, rests from his toil, to exchange the crown of moral 
and intellectual splendor which he has won in this world, for the brighter 
crown promised in the world to come ? 

But those who seek eminence in this country look principally to politi- 
cal elevation. The gates of honor being open to capability and virtue in 
every grade of life, there will continue to be many aspirants. Perhaps 
it should not be discouraged. There can be no loftier aim than a place among 
the honored rulers of a nation of freemen — to merit their honest preference 
and assist in directing their progress to national greatness and prosperity. 
This age and country present not only an opportunity, but an actual need for 
the exercise of the highest moral and intellectual excellence to which human 
nature can attain. Prepare then to deserve the confidence of your country, 
and let no consideration ever tempt you to betray it. Be ready to sacri- 
fice personal ambition to public duty. Be slow to give ear to temporary 
excitements, and never swerve from right to appease the threatening 
clamors of faction. We have a country great and free ; none has ever 
presented a career so glorious, or conferred in the same length of time so 
many blessings upon mankind. The influence of its institutions has 
spread into every land where civilization finds a home, and the fruits of its 
industry have clothed and fed suffering millions. The oppressed of everv 
land stretch their arms to us, and prefer for our welfare their earnest peti- 
tions to heaven. Every heart that throbs in a human bosom, has an in- 
terest staked. Our past is bright and glorious — in the present are threaten- 
ing clouds — the future is darkness. Where are the high-souled youths 
in whose hearts is cherished the manly purpose to train themselves in 
wisdom and virtue, to take charge of that future and gild it with the 
light of the past? Their names shall be among the brightest on the 
scrolls of fame, and all the tongues and kindreds of the earth shall .call 
them blessed. And when those who now tread the scene shall have passed 
away and left to your keeping the precious destiny of the States united 


and free, let no link drop from that golden chain — cling to your inheri- 
tance in every particle of the soil hallowed by the blood of your fathers, 
divide not their renown, for it is yours, and acknowledge no banner but 
that which reflects from its stars the remembrance of their glory. 

But whatever your aim, the matter of first importance is the formation 
of a right character. The only sure foundation is uncompromising integ- 
rity. Whatever is built upon any other, will be undermined by the cur- 
rents of temptation, or overthrown by the storms of passion. The seduc- 
tions of temporary interest and the blandishments of vice keep their 
sleepless vigils to entice and betray. In the walks of private life cultivate 
the social virtues, and they will light your households with incalculable 
blessings. If you tread the road of ambition, bear before you the shield 
of integrity and truth, and it will repel the assaults of your enemies. If 
misfortunes befall you, the proudest consolation is a clean heart and an 
honor untarnished. Bear ever in mind, that to be truly great or useful 
or happy, we must be truly good. Of all training, the best is the training 
of the heart. Intellectual splendor dies with the things of earth, but 
intellectual purity is an inheritance for eternity. 

I860.] TO MISS LIZZIE. 77 

TO MISS LIZZIE *• *******. 

BY H. S. • 

There was a soft and pensive grace, 
A cast of thought upon her face, 
That suited well the forehead high, 
The eye-lash dark and downcast eye ; 
The mild expression spoke a mind 
In duty firm, composed, resigned. — Scott 


And innocence 
Combin'd in one sweet form, 

Like Love's keen dart, 

Must pierce that heart 
That feels life's current warm. 

In heart sincere, 

In Woman's sphere, 
A bright exemplar you, 

By all admir'd, 

By all desir'd, 
For worth possess' d by few. 

When silence reigns, 

And Luna wanes 
Behind a western sky, 

A spirit wakes, 

The stillness breaks, 
And breathes an angel nigh, 

For absence here, 

Cannot impair, 
Affection - strong in hearts, 

Inclined to feel 

For others' weal, 
Since nature it imparts. 

May golden dreams 

Of limpid streams, 
And flow'ry vales be found, 

Both real and true, 

Laid up for you 
Throughout life's busy round. 


May grief and care 

Their subtle snare, 
Ne'er spread for you the while, 

So fair and kind, 

You feel inclin'd 
To catch Dame Fortune's smile. 

May love divine 

Your heart incline, 
To walk in Wisdom's ways, 

While blooming health, 

Unvalued wealth, 
Shall crown your youthful days. 

And when you're old, 

Life's sorrows told, 
May you in peace consign 

To kindred dust, 

The flesh, — its trust 
Commit to Hands Divine : 

Around whose throne, 

With joy, unknown 
To mortals here, may you 

Forever praise 

The wond'rous ways 
Of Him who's ever true. 




In a village of eastern Carolina there lived not many years ago a man 
who, on account of the peculiarities of his character, not only heeame 
celebrated throughout the house in which he was born, (as even common 
babies do) but actually extended his fame beyond the limits of the village 
which had the honor of being his birth-place. It should seem to be the 
duty of every man who wishes to contribute to the happiness and pros- 
perity of his country, to rescue the name and deeds of this illustrious per- 
sonage from the oblivion to which ignorance and indolence seem ready to 
consign them, and to place them before the public, whose admiration of 
this great genius and esteem for his ennobling qualities cannot fail to be 
excited. Indeed, the man of whom I speak is too important a personage 
to be lost to posterity; and it would be a disgrace to our age to allow his 
name to pass away from earth without an honorable record upon the his- 
toric page. And here I will take occasion to express my great surprise 
that, among the countless volumes which annually issue from the press, not 
one has given us the least information concerning this remarkable man. 
Authors— -all writers of whatever description, as it seems, from precon- 
certed agreement (and to their shame be it spoken) have hitherto with- 
held from him that meed of praise which he so justly merits. Historians 
are evidently becoming too remiss in their duty, and the satirist who 
would castigate their insolence and impel them to the full performance of 
their duty, would no doubt receive universal applause. 

To Write a history of this man is most unquestionably an arduous task. 
His eventful career, his many adventures, his many lessons of wisdom and 
his many eccentricities of character, would furnish subject-matter for more 
volumes I presume, than many of us wonld be willing to read. Yet his 
biography must be written, and I am determined that I, for one, shall 
not leave myself liable to incur the censure of succeeding generations for 
not performing my part in this philanthropic work. I am conscious that 
my labor will not be without reward. I have long contemplated the perfor- 
mance of this task and with many anticipations of pleasure; yet hitherto 
insurmountable obstacles have prevented my putting my design into exe- 
cution, for which I assure you, kind reader, I have shed many bitter 
tears and spent many sleepless nights. But fortune has at last favored me , 
and I gladly seize this opportunity to write at least a portion of the history 
of this extraordinary man. Let me assure you, however, before I begin, 
that this history is authentic. It has been my privilege oftentimes to 


converse with, men who were eye-witnesses of the scenes and events to be 
detailed hereafter, and I once had the honor of addressing in person the 
subject of these brief memoirs. 

In writing the biography of genius and talent, it is customary, I 
believe, among all to begin at the birth of the subject of your memoir, 
giving some account of his genealogy and parentage. As I do not wish 
to depart from so long an established custom and one so reasonably adop- 
ted, I shall begin as usual at the birth of my hero; omitting, however, 
all unnecessary discussion about ancestral honors and titles, as such are too 
well known and too firmly established to require any further repetition 
or proof in this place. It is sufficient to say that our hero has never 
been found unworthy of the family honors which his forefathers won, as 
the sequel will show. 

'Twas a beautiful starry night in August when our hero first opened 
his eyes upon the world. His father was not as yet very far advanced in 
age,* and of course was terribly pleased with the new-born babe. It was 
unanimously agreed that the infant should receive the name of Harry 
Harris, after his father, of whose features and complexion his aunty said 
he formed a perfect image. , 

A few moments after the important event had taken place, the delight- 
ed father excused himself and walked out doors with the avowed inten- 
tion of getting a drink of fresh water, but no doubt with the further 
purpose of giving full vent to his outbursting feelings, thanking Grod for 
his mercy and kindness, and congratulating himself upon the present for- 
tune and future prospects of his little family. Sitting upon the door step, 
he chanced to gaze up into the heavens; and what must have been his sur- 
prise when he saw for the first time that only six stars were visible in the 
cluster where he had formerly supposed there were seven, and which 
indeed was designated by the appellation of " The seven stars." Upon 
viewing this strange and inexplicable phenomenon, as it certainly was 
to him, the thought flashed upon his mind that the missing star had been 
metamorphosed into a spirit, and had taken up its abode in the body of 
his only son. Strange as it. may seem, this belief fastened itself upon 
his mind; and he immediately communicated it to his dearer half, who, 
submissive wife that she was, immediately yielded to his opinion, and 
they both concluded the child would be a prophet. In vain did they 
unite their efforts to produce the same conviction in the minds of their 
neighbors. Yet equally vain were the endeavors of their neighbors, on 

*Certain would-be men of celebrity' have, with unblushing impudence, 
asserted that the honorable parent could, at this time, count only sixteen 
hairs upon his chin. We shall make no reply to the false statements of these 
malicious individuals. We only know that if that honorable man were now 
living, he would repel with just contempt the ungenerous insinuation. 


the contrary, to convince the deluded husband and wife that the memorable 
night on which their child was born was not the first time that one of the 
Pleiades was invisible. Mr. Harris and his gentle lady insisted that they 
had always before seen and distinctly counted seven stars, and that it was 
a fact most remarkable that one of those stars should first disappear on 
the very night when their child was born ; and that, moreover, it was 
reasonable to suppose that unless it had been really transferred to their 
child, it would have appeared again. Besides, said they, one could readily 
discern that there was a peculiar brilliancy in the baby's little eyes, that 
there was something really grand and sublime in the manner in which he 
raised his tiny hands as if to unseen angels hovering near. "Who," 
they asked "ever saw a form of such faultless symmetry? That finely 
chiseled mouth, that prominent forehead, the very image of his worthy 
sire!" Such arguments/ their neighbors confessed, were incontrovertible; 
yet like many other men, they lacked much of acting in conformity with 
their deliberate convictions. Time passed away. Day after day the de- 
luded parents regarded the infant prodigy with more and more excessive 
fondness, which in the course of a few months almost amounted to 

One day, while good Mrs. Harris was out doors milking the cow, or 
performing some of her other duties as housewife, her beloved husband 
came runing out of the house, holding the baby above his head, and ap- 
parently transported with delight. " Wife," said he, " our child is a 
poet] The first two words it uttered will rhyme* My stars! — Listen ! Did 
you hear that?" And the child said "Bah! bah!" utterly unconscious 
however that by those simple ejaculations, he was sending such joy to the 
hearts of his parents. 

'Twould be useless for me to undertake to write an account of all the 
adventures the young "prophet" met with before he attained to the years 
of maturity. To tell how he bit his mother's breast in revenge for every 
spanking — how he stole his mother's sugar and eat her preserves — how he 
pulled Billy Jones' ears for shooting his " knucks " — how he sucked the 
cow when he had the opportunity — how he loved to kill a chicken — how 
he loved to put powder in his father's pipe — how he loved to soap his face 
with his father's shaving brush — to write an account of all these adven- 
tures would extend my history beyond the prescribed limits. Suffice it 
to say that acts such as those I have enumerated dispelled the illusion 
which his birth had produced, and his parents gradually came to the very 
rational conclusion that he was neither a prophet nor a poet. What a 
pity it is that all fathers and mothers will not undeceive themselves with 
respect to the opinion they hold of the virtues, talents and acquirements 
of their children ! 



In order to make this history truly useful and instructive, I shall 
omit all the trivial events of Harry's boyhood, and pass on to a 
later period, when he began to take an active part in the concerns of 
life. Though an extraordinary example of uncommon precocity of genius, 
he by no means exhibited in youth those great traits of character "which 
made him distinguished in manhood. 'Twoulcl be unjust to pass judgment 
upon the merits of his whole life, by simply taking into the consideration 
the events which transpired at a period before his dormant energies had 
been roused into action, and his great intellectual powers developed. It 
was only in the capacity of a man that he became celebrated; it is upon 
the philosophy of his maturer years that he rests his claims for immor- 

Harry, then, is now a man. His step, though faltering and slow, bears 
the dignity of age ; his eye, though age has somewhat dimmed its radi- 
ance, is still beaming with intelligence. In the community in which he 
lives, old Harry, as he is commonly called, is well known by all. A few 
years ago it was my good fortune to visit the village in which he resides. 
I found the people very hospitable to strangers, and soon after my arrival 
I formed many friendships, which have continued without interruption up 
to the present time. My friends were very kind in showing me all the 
curiosities of the place and giving me a history of their most distinguished 
fellow-citizens. They informed me that the subject of this memoir was 
by far the most learned man of the community, and insisted that I should 
pay him a visit, assuring me that he would receive me most cordially. 
To accepting this proposition I was not very averse, and accordingly a 
day was appointed for the purpose above mentioned. My friends having 
assembled at the proper time, we proceeded on our way towards Mr. Harris' 
quarters. While walking up the street, I observed a large crowd collect- 
ed on the side-walk; and all were apparently engaged in the discussion 
of some important question. Having come within speaking distance, I 
heard one of the crowd exclaim, "why, Harry, don't you believe the world 
is round ?" Immediately old Harry arose from his chair in the greatest 
excitement and made the following speech : " I cannot see to save my life 
how you can say the world is round! Why, look around you! Don't you 
see it is flat? It's very true that there are hills and valleys, but upon the 
whole it is as flat as my foot ! I know it is round this way" — turning on 
his heel and following with his hand the circle of the sensible horizon, 
"but the ground is flat. And any man that denies it tells an infernal 
lie! The earth is shaped just like a button — and any man with two eyes 
can see it." Several of the most ignorant of the crowd began to grin at old 
Harry's wisdom, but none dared laugh outright for fear of incurring old 
Harry's indignation. Someone of the. crowd then asked in a subdued 


tone, " Well, Harry, don't you believe the world turns round V Old 
Harry with the greatest indignation replied, " No, I'll swear I don't. 
Why, don't you know that if the world turned over, we'd all fall off? 
Two hundred yards from here, there is a mill-pond ten feet deep ; and if 
the world turned over, you know yourself as well as I do that that mill- 
pond would be emptied upon us and drown us all ! If the world turns 
over, why don't the water spill out of the river ? I would like to know, 
too, if any man can stand upon his head. No, Sir! If any man tells 
me that the earth turns over, I immediately brand him as a liar and a 
fool, and every body knows it I" Now Harry was guardian for a certain 
young man, his nephew, called Billy H. H. Jones, who it seems was as 
ignorant as the rest of old Harry's fellow-townsmen. Scarcely had old 
Harry concluded his philosophical remarks, when Billy Jones, his ward, 
came up. Some one asked, " Billy, don't you believe tbe world is round 
and turns over?" "Yes," said Billy, "don't you?" At these words, old 
Harry's wrath boiled over. Advancing towards Billy, he raised his 
hand in a threatening manner and said, "I have been sending you to 
school for the last ten years, and you haven't yet learnt tlat the 
world is flat! I always thought you were a fool and now I know it. 
This is all the thanks I get for the pains I've taken with you ever since 
you were a child. Gro off, go ! I won't be guardian lor you any longer.'' 
The crowd in their ignorance could no longer restrain their laughter; 
every one burst into convulsions. Old Harry left in disgust, and retired 
to his room. My friends took advantage of this opportunity to conduct 
me into his honor's presence. We found the old gentleman quietly 
s iated in his rocking chair, probably revolving in his mind the best method 
of eradicating the gross errors and hurtful prejudices which had become 
so deeply rooted in the minds of his fellows. Our reception was very 
gratifying both to my friends and myself. All the preliminary formali- 
ties being over, we ail took seats at the request of our worthy host, and 
were soon engaged in general conversation. Meantime, I employed every 
moment to the best advantage, endeavoring to impress indeliibly upon 
•my mind the features and expression of the distinguished gentleman's 
countenance, and closely inspecting the most minute parts of his apparel, 
so far as I could do so without being offensive or violating the unalterable 
laws of etiquette. I was thus careful in my observations, because my 
friends informed me that Mr. Harris never appeared in a different dress, 
not intending to insinuate by this, however, that he had but one. A 
short observation was sufficient to convince me that he was a great econ- 
omist. The warm weather rendered it entirely unnecessary to wear a 
coat, and accordingly he exhorted all to follow his example in going 
without one. His shirt was made of cheap osnaburgs, but I could not 


see the economy, as I afterwards confessed to him, in having the collar 
to extend over his shoulders to his elbows. His shoes were made of — < 
well really I don't know what — 'they look like a mule's back with all the 
hair turned the wrong way. He says that by not having them blacked, 
(and let young America listen and be wise) he not only saves all the expense 
of buying blacking, but that the shoes themselves last longer without it. 
He gives it as a truth, fully to be relied upon, that one pair once served 
him four years, three months and nineteen days. Another unanswerable 
proof of his remarkable, wisdom as an economist, is his manner of pro- 
curing smoking tobacco, for he is quite fond of the nauseous weed. The 
process which is very simple, is as follows: after chewing it and enjoying 
it in that way as long as he chooses, he takes the cud (or quid, as it is 
sometimes called) from his mouth and places it in the sun to dry; all the 
moisture soon leaves it, and then the tobacco is left already cut up and 
prepared for smoking. Nor is this the only way in which he manifests 
his prudent frugality. He does not go to the expense of purchasing 
some costly iron chest, in which to place his money, of which, by the 
way, he has no small quantity. But he more rationally buries part of it 
in the ground, at no expense and where none but he can disturb it; and 
the rest he carries in a very old piece of a pair of suspenders, which 
were probably worn and thrown aside fifty years ago. Many other proofs 
I might give of his judicious economy, but deem it unnecessary. His 
reputation as an economist is too firmly established to be questioned or 

Mr. Harris is also a man of remarkable benevolence. In the course 
of the conversation I held with him during my brief visit, I inquired of 
him the reason why he learned to use tobacco; for, as is well known, the 
love Of tobacco is not natural but always acquired. Now I had, previous 
to this and on different occasions, taken the liberty to ask many others 
the same question in relation to themselves, but hitherto had obtained no 
satisfactory answer. But the reply of old Harry was as philosophical 
as it was satisfactory. He informed me that in his earliest youth he had 
contracted a great abhorrence to flies, and even at that period had deter- 
mined to employ all the means he could invent for their destruction. 
"They are nuisances" said he, "and I spent many days in the greatest 
anxiety to devise some plan by which to rid the town of these loathsome 
creatures. Spiders, I knew, were their most bitter enemies, but they 
have not dexterity and strength enough to destroy them all. 1 determined 
to assist them in their philanthropic work, and for this purpose was I 
long engaged in contriving some effectual means which I might employ. 
I spared no pains and was willing to undergo any sacrifice in order to 
accomplish the end in view. A great many means were suggested to my 

I860.] SHELLEY. 85 

mind, deeply and thoroughly considered, and all after mature deliberation 
rejected. I finally however hit upon the plan of using tobacco. The 
manner in which I proposed to effect my purpose was this : I would first 
spit, upon the fly, which would render him unable to escape, and then I 
would crush him with my foot. The plan completely succeeded, as you 
may readily see." And really it seemed that he had reduced spitting 
upon flies to a science. Three hours in the day were usually employed 
in this work. And though the number of flies still alive did not really 
seem to grow less, still the quantity old Harry killed was enormos;'and he 
continued his work from day to day, without weariness or despondency, 
happy in the assurance that he was doing society a kindness. 

I have many more interesting facts to record, kind reader, illustrative 
of old Harry's other virtues ; which shall be reserved for a succeeding 
chapter. Meanwhile, I exhort you to meditate upon what you have al- 
ready read, and improve thereby. 



Nearly forty years have passed since the urn containing the ashes of 
Shelley was placed in the burial ground at Rome. The wild waves of 
the Mediterranean roar as loudly and lash the shore as furiously as the day 
they closed over his bright locks but instead of drawing forth strains of 
melody as sweet as they were sublime all is lost on the dull ear of misery 
and oppression; for the age of poetry has emphatically passed and his 
death marked that era. 

The history of Shelley presents many of those strange eccentricities of 
character so often seen in genius and these can be traced in all his writ- 
ings, which, unlike those of most authors, are a true index to his soul. 
With a firy disposition he united an ardent love of liberty and a perfect 
contempt for that petty aristocracy which would elevate one portion of 
society above another. Although of high lineage he cast aside the dis- 
tinction, the hopes of a fortune and peerage and chose rather to walk in 
the humbler paths of life. Of a philosophical turn of mind the whole 
study of his life was truth, and although he may have been mistaken in 
many instances, yet he was rigid in his investigations and sincere in his 
belief. His imagination was intensely vivid, his conceptions were pure 
and elevated and his colorings were of that ethereal kind which bewilder 


rather than fascinate. Even in youth prompted hy. his intense love of 
liberty, his deep interest in the human race, and his heroic disposition he 
sought to revolutionize society and to instill into man broader and more 
liberal views. His thirst for knowledge was insatiable and he bent every 
energy of his mind to its acquisition. Love was his ruling principle, 
while beauty and sublimity were the very elements of his existence. 

The outward person was an index of the genius that dwelt within. 
" His complexion, fair, golden, and freckled, seemed transparent with 
inward light." His clear blue eyes shone with an unnatural brilliancy and 
his auburn locks curled gracefully over a forehead high and broad. His 
face was inclined to be handsome but corroding care had even in youth 
blighted the tender bloom that overspread it, in which youth and genius 
strove with manly beauty. His form was slender and graceful but by 
intense study it bent beneath the weight it was too delicate to sustain. 
Such in general is an outline of Shelley's character and person. 

A man of sush rare combinations would hardly fail to be mistaken by a 
cold and calculating world. His code of morals was too nice and his idea 
of mankind too refined; a fact that he learned in after life by sad experi- 
ence. His earnest search for truth when but eighteen years of age and 
while at College caused him to write a piece on the "Necssity of Athe- 
ism." For this he was expelled from College. It was not intended as 
an exponent of his views but rather an inquiry which he hoped would be 
satisfactorily answered. Or even if it had been his avowed sentiments 
their manner of proceeding was in no wise calculated to reclaim him but 
gave him the appearance of a martyr to freedom of thought and as such 
he viewed himself. If instead, they had shown to his views a degree of 
allowance due to the thoughtlessness of youth and had pointed out his 
wrong I doubt not that he would have been an entirely different man. 
If we wish to regenerate it must be done by milder means. When the 
mind has become established in any doctrine and especially one so ardent 
as his it is impossible to convince it of error by assailing its creed with 
abuse and contempt. Pride is wounded and instead of examining 
whether your contempt be well grounded it endeavors to justify itself, 
and looking entirely on one side it magnifies every absurdity into a truth 
and every truth into a virtue. By yielding it would confess that it had 
been mistaken and by changing it would show too great a versatility. 
We must avoid the collision of interest and passions, and the peevish- 
ness of self-opinion which are the greatest obstacles to improvement and 
conviction. Instead of attacking the lion in his den and arousing his 
fury we must lure him to obedience by gentle means. We must lead 
rather than drive, pursuade rather than convince; for experience has 
abundantly proven that if you convince a man against his will he is still 


I860.] SHELLEY. 87 

of the same opinion. It is needless to say that this was the ease with 
Shelley; and it was the beginning of those sorrows which cast a gloom 
over the remainder of a life begun with such pleasing prospects of useful- 
ness. After his expulsion his father wrote him word either to deny the 
sentiments he had so publicly expressed or never again to return home. 
He refused to deny them and accordingly at eighteen he was cast upon the 
world alone and unbefriended. This unnatural treatment congealed the 
very fountains of his heart and embittered the remainder of his life. 

Even in his skepticism, though the age was full of it, he has but few 
sympathizers. The elements of his mind were of too fiery a quality to 
be contented with the true or even probable but he went beyond all 
bounds and dealt with the strange and improbable. By flying to the 
extremes of skepticism he startled those who were so inclined and made 
them shrink back upon their bigotry and superstition. He mingled the 
doubtful with the truthful, clothed the real in an unnatural garb and 
gave such a hazy, obscure coloring to his most fascinating pictures that 
he failed to lure even the ignorant and unthinking who are generally the 
most devoted followers of any new creed. 

He was mistaken in the nature of man, gave little or no deference to 
the opinions of others, and relied too implicitly upon the strength of his 
superior genius. He wished to accomplish with his verse and prose 
what was impossible or could only be done by the warm and gentle im- 
pulses of the human heart. His love of freedom was shocked at the sight 
of men clinging to crude dogmas as base as they were futile, and he pined 
at the sight of two persons dragging out a miserable life together simply 
because the rules of society required (' that those linked in life should be 
parted by death only." He fearlessly discussed the subject of marriage 
and was in favor of abolishing an institution which perverted the very 
sentiments it professed to instill. His failure to accomplish his extrava- 
gant dreams perhaps made him sensible of some deficiencies in the airy 
walks that he attempted; this served to irritate and imbitter his soul, and 
he strove to right the past by still more daring efforts and wilder flights 
of the imagination. 

That Shelley had many faults none will pretend to deny, yet when we 
examine his character closely we cannot but sympathize with him. He 
was emphatically a being of imagination and he lived in an ideal world 
fashioned according to his own diseased mind. He reared a baseless 
fabric supported by strange absurdities, and when he sought to rest on it, 
it tumbled to the earth and left him an object of ridicule rather than of 
pity. But when we see him stung by the viper he had nurtured in his 
bosom or swept by the tornado he had unconsciously brooded, we should 
forget his wrongs and remember him only as a human being ; for even in. 


his misery there was something nohle and majestic and in his despair he 
shone with unearthly sublimity. 

Queen Mob was among the first poems he ever wrote. This was com 
posed when he was eighteen years of age and seems to have been written 
with pretty much the same intent as the " Necessity of Atheism." It is 
the outbreak of juvenal talent eager to try its as yet unfledged wings. 
We are struck every-where with the dazzling hues, profusive colorings, 
and aerial brigtness that pervade the entire poem. Yet there are detached 
portions of singular beauty and deep philosophy. It is difficult to dis- 
cover his real sentiments. He acknowledges a superior being or rather 
influence, which strikes at Atheism; but at the same time he makes that 
influence subservient to certain immutable rules or. laws. Thus 

"Not a thought, a will, an act, 
Nor working of the tyrants raoocty mind, 
Nor one misgiving of the slaves who boast 
Their servitude to hide the shame they feel, 
Nor the events enchaining every will, 
That from the depths of unrecorded time 
Have drawn all-influencing virtue, pass 
Unrecognised or unforeseen by thee, 
Soul of the Universe." 

If he had stopped here none could have accused him of Atheism but 
the following passage discloses his sympathies for that doctrine and the 
strange workings of his mind : 

"Spirit of Nature! all sufficing Power. 
Necessity ! thou mother of the world ! 
Unlike the God of human error, thou 
Requirest no prayers nor praises ; the caprice 
Of man's weak will belongs no more to thee 
Than do the changeful passions of his breast 
To thy unvarying harmony. * * * * * 

All that the wide world contains 

Are but thy passive instruments, and thou 
Regardest them all with an impartial eye 
Whose joy or pain thy nature cannot feel, 
Because thou hast no human sense 
Because thou art not human mind." 

He seem to verge upon the Berklean theory yet not fully convinced of 
it. He admits the existence of his own mind through consciousness but 
denies the existence of any other; he therefore rules the universe alone 
as regards others, yet it is guided and guarded by the " spirit of Nature." 
In another of his poems he plainly declares his belief in this theory : 

"This whole 

Of suns, and worlds, and men, and beasts and flowers, 

With all the silent and tempestuous workings 

By which they have been, are, or cease to be, 

Is but a vision! all that it inherits 

Are motes of a sick eye, bubbles and dreams." 


This] poem (Queen Mab) was not intended for publication and he 
made every effort in after life to suppress it. Yet the foul harpies that 
preyed upon his reputation basely quoted it against him in the suit that 
deprived him of his children. "Alastor; or the spirit of Solitude" is 
one of his finest poems and I think shows more clearly than any the vain 
and empty longings of his mind. There is not that gaudy and 
unnatural coloring in it which is found in the most of his poems and his 
metaphors are. better selected and more harmonious. 

Pie seems to have become sensible in some degree that he neither 
understood the world nor was understood by it; that he was unintelligible 
to himself and to it, because his expectations were vain and irrational 
and his perceptions diseased and prejudiced. He was conscious that he 
was a foreigner on earth and a wanderer, but still he could not compre- 
hend why the world could not enjoy that millennial state for which it 
was so peculiarly adapted and which he firmly believed it would enjoy if 
the system he advocated were adopted. This supposed blindness irritated 
him and he mourned that he shonld be in a garden . containing all the 
elements of beauty, sublimity and ecstatic bliss capable at any mo- 
ment of being realized and yet not enjoyed because of the blindness and 
depravity of the world. This to a certain degree was true but his doc- 
trine was very far from leading to this result but tended rather to loosen 
those bonds of affection and regard which knit society together and 
promote' man's happiness. 

The tragedy of the Cenci is considered to be his master-piece. This 
piece is no creation of the fancy but is founded on History and its na- 
ture suited the bias of his peculiar genius. He could here indulge his 
favorite theme in setting forth religion in its most corrupt state, and, 
prone to extremes, there was never made a more fearful exhibition of its 
baneful influence. It clearly shows the baseness of which the heart is 
capable when screened by a false religion and the enormous crimes which 
it will commit when for a few dollars it can gain absolution. The prin- 
cipal'character, Francesco Cenci, was in reality an Atheist; for he ac- 
knowledged no other God than the priest and when he had committed his 
black crimes he made atonement to him. His immense wealth and the 
venality of the church gave him the power of committing acts which 
would certainly warrant the demon in saying, 

•' Metliinks they have here little need for me." 
The inhuman and brutish father, the angelic beauty and deep affection 
of Beatrice and her extreme sufferings, the patience and constancy of 
Lucretia and the base cold heart of the priest make the tragedy highly 
pathetic, but the soul is benumbed by the unnatural though just patri- 
cide, the base perjury and secret assassination to prevent discovery and 



at last the detection and melancholy execution of mother, son and daugh- 
ter. The whole piece is highly tragical and Shelley has given in it the 
unmistakable evidence of superior genius. He wrote many other pieces 
among the best of which are Revolt of Islam, Prometheus Unbound, 
Prince Athanse, &c. In all his writings you can trace the character,, and peculiar beliefs of the author, all aiming at the same unknown, 
unattainable something. 

After ail, Shelley was an honest man and he rigidly practiced what he 
taught. His expulsion from college for what he considered freedom of 
thought was the turning point in his life. His disappointment in his 
early attachment which immediately followed this and the unnatural 
treatment of his father stirred the very depths of his heart and for ever 
adulterated the fountain of his soul. His early and unfortunate mar- 
riage prompted entirely by gratitude and sympathy, the unhappy connec- 
tion and at last separation were a severe affliction. But his happy mar- 
riage afterwards to one whom he sincerely loved tended to heal the 
wounds inflicted and make more inviting the future pathway of life. 
But slander and vile hypocrisy at last exiled him from his native shore, 
perjury deprived him of the care and education of his children and at 
last he sunk beneath the surging billows, the lightning's glare and thun- 
der's roar his only requiem — elements in which his soul delighted to 
dwell and where his genius shone with greatest splendor. 


BY R. 

There is a period in every man's history that makes a more lasting 
impression than any other — especially in youth when the heart is suscept- 
ible of gentle impressions. This short sketch shall be confined to about 
two years; these having been the most eventful of my whole existence, a 
fact upon which I shall leave you to decide after the narration. 

In my fifteenth year I removed with my father to the wilds of T , 

whither my feelings had ever inclined from my first knowledge of its rich 
lands, beautiful prairies, and, above all, the abundance of game that fed 
upon these " beautiful flower-gardens." On arriving we settled in the 
woods with no neighbor in several miles. Here began a change of life 
not dreamed of by me, and forming no part of the "brilliant castles" 


constructed previously to our arrival. Anticipated plesasure seemed to 
vanish as the dazzling mirage of the desert and stern reality to stare me 
in the face; for instead of shouldering my gun and spending my time in 
the woods in search of game, I took the axe and walked in among the 
stately fathers of the forest, there to wield my instrument of death. This 
was ideed a sudden transition from the sublime to the ridiculous — from 
pleasure to pain — from bright anticipations to stern realities. In my case 
the millennium had come; for the gun if not the sword was converted 
into the axe and other implements necessary to the pioneer. Being thus 
thwarted 1 humbly submitted and went to work with a merry if not 
contented heart. The land was thinly timbered and consequently a farm 
was soon opened — houses built — and other necessaries attended to. As 
soon as the " first rub " was over and all were tolerably well protected 
from December's cold blasts, I was allowed more liberty and could now 
and then exchange the odious axe for the gun, which after all t did not 
prove so directly opposite to present use and comfort. 

Those who have never lived in a new country know nothing of its 
privations and hardships. They never dream while reveling in ease and 
luxury that these were once purchased by lives of toil and often danger. 
It is complete novelty to speak to them of hunger which idea they imme- 
diately associate with the wild Savage, considering these alone capable 
of such hardships. All new countries are nearly destitute of the means 
of conveyance and provisions, which of course are not there previous- 
ly, have to be brought from other States. These are often delay- 
ed, sometimes lost, and always of a very indifferent quality when they 
do come. There had been a severe drouth the year before we mov- 
ed and flic store of the natives was reduced to a bare subsistence, yet 
they freely shared this with their needy neighbors: moreover the river 
failed to rise and consequently all supplies from other States were cut 
off: the intensity of the sun had killed all vegetation so that food for stock 
was needed, it being far advanced into summer; under these circumstan- 
ces it seined that the frowns of Heaven were upon us; for not being- 
accustomed to such it went much harder. Strange indeed would be that 
disease for which there is no remedy. This was no exception and at last 
myself and gun were thought of some importance; for we were to act 
now as almost the sole supporters and many a victim has paid the penal- 
ty of my suffering. Strange to say, it was not long before both axe and 
gun shared my uncompromising aversion and of all beings I became the 
most miserable. A change indeed 

"Had come over the spirit of my dreams." 
All the fiery passions of youth had been moulded into one and with but lit- 
tle hope it flickered on the brink of despair. A strange feeling in my breast 


conveyed the startling'intelligence that my heart was gone ! and that a little 
g-a-1 had it ! ! On Sunday morning a close observer might have seen a 
boy of my dimensions astride an animal of the jug-head breed making 
headway for Mr. M.'s house about five miles distant. Here was the 
magnet and thither my feelings ever inclined and body too whenever I 
could slip a mule. Once I determined, (Jieit me miserum /) to go to church 
with her; for every boy was gallanting and I felt as chivalrous as any of 
them. I was there in good time — made the preliminary arrangements, 
and we were soon en route for the church. 

All proceeded finely until we come to a little creek where my mule 
wanted some water and of course he got it for I could not manage him. 
He had just put his head down to drink when a frog hopped in before 
him chug! and the first thing I knew I went chug too.. I scraped the 
mud off the best I could, remounted and went on to church, helped her 
down and was escorting her to the door when to my utter consternation 
there sat Mam and Dad eyeing me like hawks ! My glory instantly fell 
I could have borne the former misfortune but could not stand them — my 
spirits drooped — my body reeled and my feet carried it off at an angle 
of ninety degrees from its former course. Then commenced a raging in 
my head what measure to adopt. My first impulse was 

"To mount my steed and off for my home again ; 
For my pleasing love had no pleasures for me 
But my Daddy's lash some pain." 

This would never do; for who would gallant her home? Besides the 

"fat would be in the fire " so far as going again was concerned, and I could 

not give up the conquest that easily. I determined to stay and abide 

the consequences. Preaching was soon over and I slid along-side of her, 

helped her on her horse, and then went for mine, but no-where could he 

be found ? Jeruselem ! thought I, wish il had gone home. Ha, the 

ballance is easily told but made a much more lasting impression than the 

former. Dad had ridden my mule off. I walked home. A decoction of 

white oak and hickory withes eradicated from my heart every root of 

love and from my back every drotted bit of the skin. My mule stood in 

the stable after that and the everlasting gals went their way rejoicing. 




[This poem was not originally intended for publication nor is it now pub- 
lished by consent of the author, but through the kindness of a friend we lay it 
before our readers. — Eds. Mag.] 

There was silence in the castle, 

There was silence in the hall, 
Where a captive Queen sat pining 

O'er her sad and and hopeless fall. 
And in pity she was gazing 

On the few that linger still 
Left to share their lady's sorrows, 

Left to see her chalice till. 
They were with her in her childhood 

On her native hills afar 
When the eyes of Europe centred 

On old Scotland's rising star ; 
With her, Avhen in her zenith 

'Neath the world's admiring glance 
She had joined the Scottish sceptre 

With the diadein of France. 
France, that she loved so fondly, 

That she left with hearing sigh 
Gaaing with streaming eyes aback 

As the land was lost in sky. 
Then with clasped hands uplifted 

To the empyrean dome above 
Like some goddess of the ocean 

Mary spoke a woman's love. 
" France, my sunny sunny France 

Land of true chivalry adieu 
For the last time I've seen thy broad valleys of green, 

Ne'er again will thy mountains swell on my view. 
Envied clouds, as ye sweep o'er the low'ring deep 

To the land that I'll roam never more 
Fain, fain would I part with my crown, hope, and heart, 

And with you seek the the light of yon shore ; 
But vain is the wish, as the night settles down 

And broods in its reign o'er the sea, 
On, on I am borne by the wild ruthless storm 

O'er the broad trackless deep, France, from thee I" 
And again the queen is thinking 

Of that land beyond the wave, 
Where was past her childhood's hours 

Where her heart now seeks a grave ; 
And she thinks of bonnie Scotland, 

Of her son — tho mother's pride — 
Of the father of that orphan 

When she stood his blushing bride. 
But a sound comes through the distance, 

Now 'tis nearer than before, 
There was heard the tramp of horses 

There are footsteps at the door. 


The stranger stands before the Queen 

His fatal mission to declare ; 
He reads the warrant for her death 

'Mid the attendants' wild despair. 
There was one who heard these tidings 

With a different heart and mien, 
With unuttered thanks to heaven — 

It was Mary — it was the Queen. 
" Tell your gentle mistress, stranger, 

By this testament I swear, 
By my hopes of life hereafter 

In the eternal kingdom — there! 
Oh, tell her that I am guiltless, 

And without a pang shall die ; 
Give her too a sister's blessing 

May we meet beyond the sky. 
Sir, the day?" A moment's silence, 

When the stranger falt'ring said, 
"At the hour of eight to-morrow, 

You'll be numbered with the dead!" 
Shades are falling from the mountains 

And the twilight deep and gray, 
Closes in silence and in darkness 

Round the heights of Fotheringaye. 
'Twas a night of prayer and watching 

And its unbroken stillness gave 
To that spot the dreary aspect 

Of the cold and silent grave. 
Now the moon is in the heavens, 

Night hath wasted half its way, 
Still in the shadowy midnight 

Loom the heights of Fotheringaye. 
There is bustle in the court-yard, 

For some work is being done, 
And methinks that work is dire 

That avoids the blessed sun. 
Now 'tis finished and the pale moon 

Hides behind the hills with shame ; 
For that deed is fit for darkness 

That vile deed without a name. 
Hark! Time's iron tongue is telling 

That the lazy night hath gone 
Thrice crew the cock at matins 

As the usher of the morn. 
And as the sun ascending 

Bathes the hills in golden light, 
Forth on the startled traveler 

Bursts that dreadful hideous sight. 
There upreared, the plain commanding 

Draped in black, a scaffold stood, 
Ah ! no more the morning songster 

Pipes its glad tune in the wood. 
And the plaintive wail of sorrow 

Thrills upon the traveler's ear, 
For that scaffold is erected 

For a mistress loved and dear. 
And her faithful few are thinking 

Of the good the olden day 


As they robe their Scottish sovereign 

In her Queen-like rich array. 
All is ready and the hour 

Strikes like a funeral dirge 
On and nearer to the scaffold 

Living tides of beings surge. 
Lo ! in silent adoration 

Kneels the fated Princess there, 
At the foot of God's oven image, 

Breathing forth her final prayer. 
Oh it was a solemn moment, 

And the advancing guardsman stood, 
And he gazed in silent sorrow 

On the Queen of Holyrood. 
For her faded eye was beaming 

With the fire of other days, 
And the light of beauty kindled 

On her cheek its dying rays. 
Step softly guardsman, hearken, 

For th' entranced figure seems 
Too ethereal, too angelic, 

Or perhaps the gazer dreams ; 
For he sees before him prostrate 

In the attitude of prayer, 
A form like the sculptur'd marble, 

Still as the unruffled air. 
There in that old moss-grown abbey, 

Beautiful and calm, she gazed 
On the cross of man's redemption, 

Where the dying God was raised. 
But her hunters now have tracked her 

Down like the timid hart, 
And her servants linger 'round her, 

E/>r on earth, this morn they part. 
Mary asks her callous keeper 

To allow her friends to be 
By her side, until the headsman 

Sets her weary spirit free. 
But with angry air he answers, 

"No, 'tis time this scene should close," 
And, as now the Queen moved onward, 

Through that hall a cry arose. 
But the proud, unconquer'd spirit 

Of the Stuart still lingers there, 
The tear stood in her dark blue eye 

As she hears their wild despair. 
Her indignant heart is bleeding 

As they shriek their Sovereign's name, 
And those hireling butchers cower 

'Neath her glance with conscious shame. 
"Sirs," she cries with woman's sorrow, 

And the tear still dims her eye, 
"Take my life, but oh refuse not 

That my friends shall see me die. 
Did your Queen impose this order? 

No ? Then why deny my prayer ? 
Mary too is Queen of Scotlaud, 
And to England righful heir, 


Grand-child of the Seventh Henry, 

I have rights — my rights I claim — 
And if to me you hearken not 

Bow then to your monarch's name. 
Shall I die by foul oppression, 

"With my last sad wish denied ? 
Of my friends shall none behold me, 

Who may tell how Mary died?" 
Then the iron-hearted keeper, 

Half reluctant, granted four, 
And the silent, mournful cortege 

Slowly leave the castle door. 
Arm'd soldiers guard the scaifold 

With his axe the Headsman stood, 
Lo, with stately step advancing 

Comes the Queen of Holyrood. 
Not a murmur breaks the stillness 

Of that mass of human souls; 
Forward move the fated cortege, 

Now she gives her farewell blessing 
To her broken hearted few, 

Kisses now her sobbing women, 
Waves her weeping men adieu. 

Slowly up the scaflold stairway 
With firm step she doth advance, 

Scotland's sovereign, heir to England, 
Once thy Queen, imperial France. 

Gazes too that throng most sadly 
On the brutal scene of death ; 

Hark ! as now she doth address them, 
Half-repressed is every breath. 

"My good friends, injustice brings me 
To this pass, but here I stand, 

Still a Queen a nation's mistress, , 

Rightful sovereign of my land. 

Tell my son I ne'er dishonor'd 
The Stuart's unsullied name, 

Give him his mother's blessing, 
May he live for God, for fame. 

Yes, I forgive Elizabeth 
And, with love for her, I die, 

I am done, and on thy mercy, 
Jesus, Savior, I rely." 

Every heart is touched with pity, 
Even he who had for years 

Been the Headsman of the tower 
Wipes away his rising tears. 

And with axe he knelt a suppliant 
At his victim's feet, and cried, 

' ' forgive me lady pardon, 
that I this day had died. 

For my duty is to level 
'Gainst thy life the cruel blow, 

But my heart will chill with horror 
As thy royal blood shall flow." 

With a gentle hand she raised him, 
And with thanks that he should be 

Sent to do his mistress' mandate,- 
Sent to set her spirit free. 


And the anointed Queen bows meekly, 

As her robes are laid aside, 
Gracious God ! and must she perisb, 

She a Queen — a nation's pride ? 
Where now the son she nurtur'd, 

She once held him to her breast 
When a prattling, helpless infant, 
And she loves him still the best? 
Rise, thou Nero, save thy mother, 

Head thy clansmen, on, advance, 
Snatch that victim from the tigress, 

Call upon the arms of France. 
Bid a caitiff brother ally 

To prevent the falling blovr, 
Shall, that mother die unpitied ? 

God and Justice answer no ! 
France, arise, on to the rescue, 

Let the sword fly from its sheath, 
Oh avert, avert the horror, 

Of a Queen, a sister's death. 
Shame upon that son, the traitor 

To a dying mother's need, 
Shame upon the heartless brother 

That indures the damning deed. 
And the wrath of God pursue her— 

Her that bid them strike the blow 
May the brand of Cain be written 

On her regicidal brow ! 
See the headsman, slow advancing, 

To the block his victim draws, 
And the stillness, oh 'tis fearful 

Of that moment's dreadful pause. 
Prone on the block she lays her head, 

Bared is that neck, and still that form, 
The Headsman grasps his keen-edged axe, 

'Tis raised on high with falt'ring arm. 
Hold, for the dying martyr speaks, 

Sadly the requiem bell doth toll, 
"Mother of Jesus pray forme, 

Jesus have mercy on my soul." 
Tighter the Headsman clutched his axe, 

Wildly he dealt the deadly blow, 
Deep in her skull the keen blane sinks, 

And is she dead ? Ah no ! ah no ! 
Still doth she bend her naked neck, 

The gleaming axe ascends and falls, 
Oh God it cleaves her skull again, 

Burst from her head the blood-shot bails. 
Demon of Horrors cut short the scene, 

The ringing axe descends once more; 
'Tis done. The martyre gory head 

Rolls out upon the scaffold floor. 
The Headsman holds that dying sign, 
i Convulsed and streaming to the sky, 

" Thus perish th' enemies of the Queen, 

And thus let every traitor die." 
Heaven's Archangel records that prayer, 

And o'er the page he sheds a tear ; 



The sons of men behold that sight, 
And loathing turn away in fright. 
-* # * * * * -x- 

And now that age of blood hath passed 

The two Queens slumber side by side 
Rivals in life in death the same 

The Martyr, and the Parricide. 
She died the self-called Virgin Queen, 

A blight, a victim to despair ; 
"Where rests her soul — her mighty soul ? 

And the deep grave reechoes, where '? 
But the martyred Queen is reigning 

Still a Queen beyond the sky 
And on her brow's a golden crown 

The martyr's Immortality ! 



A right merry crowd were we, assembled to bid farewell to the cares 
of Alma Mater, ; neath whose sheltering roofs the long five months' session 
seemed to have been so many days, even to the impatient souls which 
panted for the freedom, and longed to enjoy the liberty of a six weeks' 
vacation unrestricted by the stringent, yet wholesome and necessary, laws 
of the University. To utter their adieux to the cares, but take along all 
the transportable pleasures, resolving to augment them so long as they 
might bear increasing. A jolly crowd were the " Rangers of I860," as 
pleasant a company as ever set out for the mountains, coalesced in the re- 
solve to make all persons and every thing subservient to their convenience 
and administer to their pleasure. We departed from the classic shades 
of College walls with no regrets and hearts lingering with fond remem- 
brances and half defined fears of never beholding them again. We well 
knew our absence was limited, that a few weeks were not of long contin- 
uance; and were perfectly cognizant of the fact, that we must return by 
the beginning of the coming session. There were no lachrymose grad- 
uates among us to dampen the ebullition of animal spirits, nor dry up the 
flowing spirits of " John Alcohol, my Joe, John-! " in their efforts to dead- 
en the spirits of days when they had just such feelings as those by which 
we were actuated unaided by the Devil in a liquid ambush of " Rare old 
Peach" or " Genuine Monongahela." 

It is not the intention of the writer to bore you with a detailed account 


of our incomings and outgoings, but ^disclose to you what we consider a 
few of the principal incidents of the first days of our expedition; then 
ask you to accompany us to the Black Mountain. Number one of our 
experiences which we submit, comprises the first night, upon and after 
our arrival at Salisbury. Here we copy what the journal dictates. The 
whistle of the locomotive heralded our approach to Salisbury where we 
arrived some time after night had drawn a dusky veil over the face of 
nature, and here we were certainly the wonder. 

One person insisted that he knew all about us that we were John 
Pool's body-guard, brought along to protect him from the assaults of the 
"little niggers" for endeavoring to tax them. Another suggested we 
were a part of the Japanese Embassy, (said supposition generated, we 
judge, by our red spikes) who having heard of Salisbury made an espe- 
cial tour to behold 'ye mighty city.' We, together with G — , and P — , 
who travelled with us from the " Hill," forming in procession marched 
to the Boyden House where we located for the night. The Captain led 
the van, followed by Snip and Snap, Key and Bones, Dutch, Mc, and 
Grimes. Gr — and P — acting as pilots to bring us safely into port. Mr. 
Pool, the ad valorem candidate for Governor, coming down on the train 
we did, stopped at the same hotel. His friends ventured on a display in 
his behalf. There were magnificient fireworks — consisting of three bar- 
rels of tar, and a brass-band which being wound up played the same 
tune, some dozen times, then retired in melancholy silence. P — said 
he should not be surprised if the price of tar rose several cents before 
next day, which remark seemed to arouse the ebenezer of several Salis- 
bury youths standing 'round. G — gave one yell for Ellis — as he ex- 
pressed it, "to make things kinder even like." 

Mr. Pool, delivered a short address and wound up with a touching ap- 
peal for sleep; something about rosy dreams shed all over the audience 
locked in the soothing arms of old Morpheus, who fairly loved Pool men, 
but hated Ellis boys worse than a young pullet does a black snake, and 
generally put the "Night Horse" after them. And this may be so, for 
we who are Pool men commonly rest well, while our friends G — and 
P — , on the opposite ticket, have their slumbers frequently disturbed by 
this same visitation referred to in Mr. Pool's parting benediction. The 
Bangers were next allowed to politely show themselves to No. 25. third 
passage, where we found four places for sleeping — two pallets spread on 
the floor, and the other two apologies for matrasses on bedsteads — said 
matrasses being not very much harder than brick-bats. The Captain 
and Grimes were attempting to comply with Mr. Pool's suggestions, but 
Grimes being an Ellis man and the two not well assimilating, (Capt. 
was strong for Pool) crash they went through the bed-stead, the middle 
supports giving way and doubling them up in no enviable positions. 


This was destined to be a night of interruptions. Scarcely had the 
drowsy God shaken his hunch of Poppies over us, when ominous sounds 
fronfthe direction of Key's pallet, awoke us to a consciousness of what 
those mysterious words "imposition, bore, d — n shame, ring his neck," 
portended. It could not surely be the "Night Horse" for Key professes 
not to hanker after the man whose influence produces such results. It 
proved to be a mocking-bird making almost as much fuss as half a dozen 
screeching wagons unacquainted with grease for a twelve-month ; it kept 
up its shrill melody — not soothing to weary mortals — till daylight, and 
received no few blessings. About 4 A. M. in stumbled Snap and P — , 
who had been out playing billiards. Just as we were snoozing off into 
the land of dreams, Snap raised up in bed and speaking with a grave 
inflection of voice: "Odys was mise good Peach, wussy it? But blee sri 
(hie) tight don' you?" There was a general explosion which for a time 
effectually silenced our nocturnal warbler, and we began to hope for the 
long sought rest; but 'twas in vain we turned, twisted, stopped our ears, 
'twas not decreed we should sleep in peace. 

Our chanting friend (who reminded one forcibly of the Irish bird of 
old song remembrance) reopened his operatic batteries with renewed vig- 
or — banishing sleep and we had patiently to await the return of Aurora, 
to send us rejoicing from No 25. 

Before going any farther in our travels it may be as well to remark 
that we were a walMlng party, that is our expedition was to be accom- 
plished on foot from Statesville; our wagon had been dispatched from 
Chapel Hill (to meet us at Statesville) a week before we left the Uni- 
versity. On the second clay in the evening we departed from the hospi- 
table village of Statesville. This evening is introduced as being our in- 
itiation into camp life, not from any especial feature contained in the 
narration thereof, but that you may judge of our wild mode of life, of 
which this is a tolerably fair sample. 

In high spirits we walked till the lengthening shadows cast by a decline 
ing sun warned us to seek a proper place for repose during the coming 
night. Our tent was pitched, by us for the first time, near a small stream 
called" Third Creek, about four miles from Statesville. Pres (our cook) 
was dispatched to the house close by, to procure material for supper. On 
coming back he whispered mysteriously to Dutch, who soon showed re- 
markable activity in seizing a bucket, as he declared to bring us some 
cool well-water of which we stood in much need. Not returning, one or 
two were sent to inquire the cause of his delay. Behold ! the secret di- 
vulged — Dutch sitting at the feet of a maiden wholly forgetful of the 
thirsty individuals lei't behind. Now friend D — is a great ladies-man 
and as this case proves, possesses a great propensity for seeking the ac- 


quaintance of the fair sex. There he was talking away as though the 
mademoiselle and himself had known each other a life-time instead of 
half an hour. We could not but insinuate the friendly warning — to 
beware lest miss Jennie, should steal his heart, then Steel her's against 

At length see us a merry group in a semi-circle discussing supper as 
hungry men know how. And such a supper ! delicious fat pork broiled 
to a turn, Slap-jacks efficient protectors (when placed on the head prop- 
erly) against a midday sun, and coffee strong enough to walk, still too 
weak for the palates of some of us. Eventually we retired to the tent 
for the night; for some time sleep was banished, the novelty of our po- 
sition kept us awake. Several hours were consumed listening to Jud's 
experience on the road between Chapel Hill and Statesville. PI ere is 
the last of his yarns, on the strength of which we concluded to sleep, 
and when we awake will transport you to Black Moutain. "One evening 
" said he" Pres and I had just finished putting up the tent and had 
stuck the flag pole in the ground before it, when up comes an old woman, 
who after looking at us some time, broke out with: 'who in the nation 
yer gwine to fight? "I told her nobody." "TYal," said she, "I wants 
to know what yer got that ar' cloth house fer and that streaked thing 
snappin, 'bout like a whipper cracker ef yer aint gwine to fight?" " I 
told her 'twas the tent and flog of the Mountain Bangers." "I declar," 
"she cried out, "I dew wonder what kind o' animels them things be!" 

A cloudless sky tinted with the warm rays of- a June sun, welcomed 
us, as we arose with alacrity from our couch to prepare for ascending 
Black Mountain. The camp soon presented a busy scene. All hurried 
through the morning meal and commenced preparations for the expedition. 
After more than a week of fatiguing travels our hopes were about to be 
realized ; the pleasure long expected to be consumated. We were to stand 
with exulting hearts upon the loftiest peak of the Blue Bidge and gaze 
upon a world stretched at our feet. Bight willingly every-one exerted 
himself to hasten the departure; some engaged in packing the necessary 
articles for our comfort and others in strapping the bundles and culinary 
furniture upon the horses pressed into service to bear them up the steep 
ascent. Finally everything being ready, the Captain gave the command 
to start and off we sprang, each one striving to distance his competitors. 
The walking for a quarter of a mile was very pleasant, the road winding 
'round the base of a hill'with scarcely any perceptible ascent; and we be- ( 
gan to imagine the tales of previous companies of Bangers as slightly 
exagerated. It was no great length of time, however, before we were 
forced to acknowledge they had not told half, being somewhat astounded 
on finding the road turn almost perpendicularly up the side of the mou-n- 


tain. Thence to the Hotel on the summit of this hill was but a succes- 
sion of turnings and twistings, all tending upward. One advantage en- 
joyed was the coolness and shade of the path. The air was fresh and 
invigorating j while the Swanannoa river (or, rather creek at this place) as 
it tumbled along its rocky bed, forming miniature Niagaras, roared forth 
a pleasant, monotonous grumbling, exciting the mind, thereby producing 
a corresponding influence on the physical nature. We had but to rest a 
few moments when very much fatigued, and on resuming the climbing 
path, feel as freshly as when we left camp. There are one or two bubling 
springs on the route, to whose sparkling waters the grateful pedestrian is 
sure to offer homage. 

We 'reached the Mountain House in fine spirits, and while dinner 
was preparing enjoyed the limited scenery from the gallery of the hotel. 
Our over-coats were here brought into requisition, the wind was too cold 
for us, who had just left the warmer valleys below. While dining a 
shower of rain commenced pouring down and we imagined a very disa- 
greeable journey to Mitchell's peak; but by the time we were ready to 
be gone, the clouds had passed on, and the sun was again shedding upon 
us his genial rays. Uuder his bright auspices we set out on the second 
series of our climbing operations. Our previous experience was as noth- 
ing, for the pathway from the Mountain House to the "Peak" seems to 
be but a continual stair-way, always slippery from the frequent rains. 
Soon after leaving the "House," we came to "Elizabeth's Rock.' 1 * 
There is quite a romantic interest attached to this place. The story is 
that Mr. Patton, years ago, before there were any marks of civilization in 
this wild region, went with his two daughters on Black mountain, as they 
ascended its pathless sides they reached this spot and one of the girls, 
Elizabeth, rested upon this stone and looked out on the vast magnifi- 
cence of the view stretching away miles beneath her. These were the 
first women visited " Black." They passed their first night in mingled 
terror and admiration, exposed to the fury of one of those fierce storms 
so frequent on this mountain. A plain slab of white marble affixed to 
the rock by a fond father, records the single name — "Elizabeth," and 
marks the spot where in time long departed she sat in the first blush of 
womanhood, endowed with youth and health. Traveller breathe a simple 
prayer when you have reached this place, for a heroine who leaving the 
delights of a home, so dear to every woman, bravely endured the toils 
,and exposed herse'f to the perils of the mountains, while she triumphant- 
ly accomplished her purpose amid the wild and raging elements. 

The next place of interest to us, was the observatory, a rude structure 
of unhewn logs, reared to the height of some fifteen feet. From the top 
of this we obtained a splendid view. Gazing in silence upon the lower 


■world we were not aware of the time which had elapsed, till otir guide 
warned us to push ahead, as a heavy rain storm was brewing. On we 
travelled in high good humor stumbling and slipping about, until we 
found ourselves suddenly enveloped in a dense cloud. 

The strange feelings which then took possessiou of us will never be 
forgotten. The lightning seemed to flash in our very midst and darted 
its fiery, serpent" like tongue of flame on every side, wbich the ceaseless 
roar of the rain below us, commingled with peal on peal of thunder 
around our heads and 'neath our feet, reverberating within the dark val- 
leys on either side, gave to the whole a supernatural aspect and added to 
the awe we experienced. A burden seemed lifted from the souls of all, 
when the rain king ceased his batteries and drove onward his ethereal 
coursers charging with electric spirits. One great feature of the vegeta- 
tion on Black mountain is the Balsam fir, "which clothes its loftiest peaks 
with a growth so dense, in some parts, as to make it a very laborious, if 
not impossible task to penetrate it. At a distance its leaves seem to color 
the Mountain a deep black, but near by the true shade is a dark green 
The wind sighing through it creates a hoarse, mournful sourd, which 
combined with the pall like shroud it throws over the peaks, produces a 
sad, solitary feeling, in unison with the dirges chanted by the minds for 
the soul of him, who rests on one of the highest peaks, a lone traveler 
awaiting the resurrection morn. Before reaching Mount Mitchell we 
passed through an open place of one or two acres extent, overgrown with 
the rank mountain grass; here Dr. Mitchell parted with his son on the 
fatal evening which Providence willed should be his last among men. 
Pretty soon we were on the summit where the whistling wind, penetrat- 
ing our damp clothes so chilled us, that we gladly sought shelter from its- 
influence. An old hut some hundred yards from the top, covered with a 
few strips of bark, offered a very inadequate protection for a party of our 
number, we found refuge under an overhanging cliff which jutted out 
from the side of the mountain, near to the hut. It being quite early we 
made our preparations for the night and while Pres. was cooking supper, 
arranged our plans for sleeping. After supping and wrapping well in 
blankets, we paid a visit to the summit in order to behold the sun retire 
to his nightly couch. Fortune w r as propitious, and a pretty clear evening 
assured us we might expect a vision, which no other company of 'Rangers' 
had witnessed. It were a vain attempt to try to describe sunset as seen 
from off Black Mountain. Words would be void and description appear 
cold and unlifelike; the rich and varied coloring would be wanting ; the 
delicate touches a vain attempt to essay. He bade us good-night in all 
his glory ; w 7 e watched without tiring till his upper edge dissappeared, 
slowly, beneath a sea with mountains for billows, and huge masses of 


clouds tipped with silver for breakers. Our pent up feelings burst forth 
as with flushed cheeks and eyes expressive of the deep feelings within, 
We lingerly returned to our bivouac and the realities of life. 

We were disappointed next morning and debarred the pleasure of seeing 
the sun rise, on account of the fog. After a slight repast we went to bid 
farewell to Mitchell's Peak and utter a sigh over the grave of him who 
has the grandest monument of any man in the New "World. 

He died a martyr to science, and one of Nature's devotees offered his 
life a sacrifice on her altar. As he was intellectually in life, so is he 
physically in death, high above the majority of the surrounding world. 
His resting-place a lofty mausoleum reared by nature's God. Alone of 
his species on this bleak and wild mountain, he awaits the final trump. 
Around his grave all looks desolate; the trees are dead, and their shat- 
tered trunks rock to the weird lullaby of the mountain gnomes. A few 
half-decayed logs, on which are carved the names of numerous visitors, 
are the only insignia of the mouldering form lying beneath. 

The view this morning was fine. Far below and all around us were 
mountains and vales, forming strange shapes and the varied scenes of a 
grand panorama. Tearing oursehes, reluctantly, from the spell of this 
enchanting picture, we commenced our descent. A rough break-neck 
road was it to the Mountain House. If it was worse going up, 'twas 
worser coming down. After a short stay and slight refreshment at the 
Hotel, where we gave our last look from ' old Black/ we started again. 
Down, down we went for three miles, and arrived at camp thoroughly ex- 
hausted and almost famished. 



BY R. 

If it be "an axiom" as some pretend, that the grand object of educa- 
tion is to enable a person to convey his ideas in the best possible manner 
whether orally or in writing, I think the drift of human desires has been 
greatly mistaken. I cannot believe the highest object of education is the 
power of expression ; for while I would not forget a Pitt and Curran, a' 
Clay and Calhoun, an Irving and G-oldsmith, I have a reverence for New- 
ton, Galileo, Davy, and Franklin. 

I am well aware that elegance, fluency, and force of speech, and a clear 
vivid, beautiful, style are two rare and invaluable qualities, and are seldom 
if ever found combined in any single person : and when we examine the 
use to which they have been turned, it hardly seems possible that any 
higher or nobler end could be attained. The withering blasts of Demos- 
thenes protected the Athenian commonwealth for a long time against the 
unbridled rapacity of Pillip. The stern invective of Cicero forced the 
daring conspirators from Rome, who bad evaded the utmost vigilance, and 
so wound themselves into the very vitals of the republic that it tottered 
like a volcano when his oracular voice fell upon their ears. The eloquence 
of Eeenzi could awaken the feelings which had slumbered in slavery so 
long and once more " the city of the seven hills " was her own mistress. 
The simple but guilty head of George trembled beneath the weight of the 
crown when the bold and eloquent Pitt said that he waged a cruel, mur- 
derous, and unjust war against his brethren. 

Though the voice may be silenced by despotism and the eye may never 
flash, yet the pen from the decluded closet often guides and governs the 
destinies of nations. Like the magnet that slumbers amid the polar snows 
which no eye has ever seen, yet its influence is seen and power manifested 
in guiding the wanderer across the desert and the mariner over the track- 
less deep. Cicero did not cease to guide the nation even when the assas- 
sin's knife had hushed his voice. The flowing eloquence of Voltaire, to 
be seen in every line, his stern solid reasoning, his keen wit and elegant 
satire changed enlightened France in the very midst of civilization, from 
religion and morality into Paganism and heathenish darkness; for on her 
high-ways was written " death is an eternal deep." The immortal efforts 
of Bacon and Locke to elevate the reasoning faculties — to give direction 
to the untutored thoughts' — and to open new sourses to human knowledge 
will ever aid in giving casts to character and new pleasures to national en- 
joyment. The green laurels that bend over the tombs of Homer, Virgil, 



and Milton will wave in silent triumph as long as letters shall last ; and 
when time shall cease and the Eternal Judge shall turn to trace " man's 
footprints down the sands of time " the Iliad, the iEnead, and the Para- 
dise Lost will stand as beacon lights blending ages into one united chord. 
Eternal pyramids beneath whose towering heights the ancient, middle and 
modern worlds will lay spread out. 

If these be the attainments of speaking and writing what nobler off- 
springs could education foster? What higher ends could it attain? It 
indeed seems the ultimatum of human conceptious and human desires. — 
But what is education ? Is it an instrument by which the old philosophers 
could curb and enslave the mind into their own crude thoughts and dog- 
mas ? Was it even a noble attainment that enabled Hume and Voltaire 
to inculcate sentiments at variance with human happiness — to familiarize 
the feelings to scenes of vice— to teach the heart to forget God and to 
plunge with blind fury into the awful scenes of "the reign of Terror?" 
Or does it soothe with a Syren's song while vulture-like it tears at the 
vitals ? No. I deny that these works are even noble by being great, but 
the mere risking of power in mens' hands who too often betray their trusts 
and bequeath a lasting curse upon mankind. But if you wish to see its 
noblest works read history, where educated minds have prompted men to 
action and which has told with such lasting beauty and force upon the 
condition and happiness of man. It uproots ignorance and the deeply 
seated bigotry of ages — tears down the baseless fabrics which tyranny has 
reared — and unlocks the avenues of Nature all glittering with the gems of 
knowledge and leads to high and noble thoughts.. 

In the days of Pericles and Thucidedes I believe that speaking especial- 
ly and writing were the highest attainments of education ; for then when 
man's mind was hardly changed from brutalization ; when the nomadic 
hordes were settling permanently, and each was contending for the ascen- 
dency he who could arouse their passions by burets of eloquence or soothe 
their ferocity by flowing numbers was the soul of the state and the ruler 
of the nation. But those days have passed and things have changed ac- 
cordingly. After the permanent establishment of nations, when commerc e 
and agriculture began to thrive and to shed their invigorating and civili- 
zing influence upon men, they began to despise the studied pomp of Logic 
and the rounded periods of Rhetoric. The energies of the mind were bent 
through the channels of education to supply home demands and inculcate 
the principles of Political Economy. And 

Where Thetis dwells and Neptune dares to ride 
Sailed haughty man, the conqueror of the tide. 
At first near shore, he then more daring grew 
Until the land receded from his view ; 


Then spread his canvas o'er the trackless deep 
Where other worlds and other nations sleep. 

The heathen mythology ceased to be and Caesar and Brutus lost their 
seats and became worlds peopled with living beings. The printing press 
lit up the pathes of science and shed its golden rays among the ignorant 
masses. The reformation was its immediate offspring which swept idola- 
try as with an inundation and with it the false and iniquitous deeds of men. 
Then Newton and Galileo aided by others opened another Pandora's box 
but insead of those evils issuing which has wrought upon fearful woe, 
nature's secrets and wonders burst upon the startled mind to bless its 
condition and exalt its aspiration. The lightning made his messenger, 
steam his pack-horse, the wind his immediate agents, and water his ele- 
ment, man walked with untold rapidity along the pathes of civilization 
and improvement and plunged still deeper into nature's mysteries. 

Thus you see the different ends education has promoted ; at first direct- 
ed to speaking and writing and finally to the supplying of the wants of 
man. It has therefore been the instrument to ameliorate his condition 
and has Promethean like stolen from Heaven's bounty those vital sparks 
which enlighten and invigorate society, moralize and refine man and give 
him a just estimate of his duty to God and his fellow-man. In this man- 
ner it takes directly hold of the great moral and social relations of man 
and erects the standard of justice and religion. Tliese are and ever should 
be the highest boasts of national glory and the Palladium of national 
honor. Then if all this be true Education has a noble trust. 



"She seem'd 
For dignity compos'd and high exploit ; 
But all was false and hollow." 

; TwAS tappy springtime, Floral May, an emblem of blushing blooming 
youth, shone forth in beauty and splendor. I walked methought upon 
the strand of Time ever-and-anon looking forth upon the vast ocean, Eter- 
nity, which lay spread out before, and sometimes glancing backward along 
the smooth pathway of my youth over which I was traveling. As up I 
toiled towards the proud Temple of Fame — the goal of my hopes — the 
acme of my aspirations — rugged steps loomed up before me, and gaping 
chasms threatened to engulf me. I was alone. For although others 
journeyed that way, all, all were grasping for self, each one striving for 
his own emolument. To a sanguine temperament like my own this lone- 
liness afforded but little pleasure. Isolation through life would be death 
in its most hideous forms. I must have a confiding friend to cheer my 
toils, and share my triumphs. I looked around and saw just below me a 
form Angelic — black twinkling eyes, flowing ringlets, a fair neck, ruddy 
cheeks, and ruby lips complete the picture. She is a terestial angel, if 
such there be. A guardian perchance to my footsteps : a pilot to my frail 
barque where it shall launch upon great Eternity. 

Remembering the poet had said there is nothing in the world like po- 
liteness, in silence I bowed, my lteart fluttering like that of the transfixed 
stag when first he bows th the hunter. Yet I knew not when the fatal 
arrow entered, nor did I think one so fair could be so cruel. Often wo- 
man kills by caressing. For although I must invoke the muses to inspire 
me to express the transporting joy, the electic shock, which filled my soul, 
and thrilled my whole system, when casting those dazzling beams upon me 
she blushed and bade me welcome, yet that same glance pierced my heart 
with Cupid's cruel arrow. I would have spoken, but it seems that " fear 
of silence made me mute." As there speechless we stood methought I 
read a virgins heart in her face, all affectionate, trusting, noble, fit to en- 
joy the pleasures of prosperity, and the reverses of fortune. Thus step 
by step I traced her character and read the catalogue of her perfections, 
till inspired by the occasion I thus addressed her, Fairest of the fair, I 
seek happiness within the walls of that Temple of Fame just above us, I 
would engrave my name high upon its columns, and in a word " I love 
you and feel that on the fountain of my heart a seal is set to keep its wa- 
ters pure and bright for thee ; " will you be my companion to this land of 

I860.] MY REVERIE. 109 

promise ? As if won by the charm of manlines irresistable, and all in 
sweet disorder lost she blushed consent. Then "a long long kiss, a kiss of 
youth and love." 

We set out up the craggy peaks of life with joy, and as we clambered 
onward the very sun, as if to lend its beauties, crowned us with bright 
rainbows where just now clouds gathered thickly. However, after the 
first transports of joy had subsided, I became serious, thought of the vow 
which had bound me to woman, of the galling chain of slavery. I looked 
at M***** (for such was her name) dispationately. Behold how altered ! 
What a change had come over her in a few hours ! What would she be 
when decrepit old age should seize upon her ! Already that soft, warm 
heart was icy-hard towards me, those false ringlets were fallen to the ground, 
those sparkling eyes, no longer animated by brightening applications) 
drooped, those rosy, painted cheeks were sadly pale. Is this, I naturally 
asked, the perfect being of my choice ? yes but a pall of deformity has 
been cast over her. She is married. 

As bright noonday differs from midnight, so the maiden from the weded 
Lady, Oh woman how dissimilar to thyself ! Just now you were all per- 
fection, beautiful and lovely, now hideous, loathsome, and in nothing per- 
fect. Just now as a star you shed a heavenly light over my soul, now no 
ray illumines my benighted pathway. Just now as a sun you lighted and 
warmed my heart, a little world, now you have passed behind the horizon 
of wedded life, and leave me in cold outer darkness. Thus deceived I have 
no hope of domestic joy in future. 

These reflections I concealed within the depths of my soul. No word 
or action discoverd the torrent of thought which was rushing through my 
mind. Ever kind I think I made her happy. We mutually helped each 
other up to the goal of destination, but, just as we were enterirg the por- 
tals- of Fame, and men were greeting with loud applause, and swelling 
music, a discordant sound broke the melody — the College bell called me 
from this dream-land to the realities of terrestrial duties. The spell was 
broken and I awoke from my reverie; which, however, has left a lasting 
impression of the cruel falsity of that "securing Truth which cunning 
Times put on to entrap the wisest." 



William Carey Dowd, lately a Tutor in the University of North 
Carolina, was born in Tawborough, N. C, on the 9th of April 1835. 
He died in Christiansburg, Va., on the 80th of June 1860. 

The life of a young man is a prophecy rather than a history. What is 
passing in his experience is interesting chiefly because of the future it 
suggests. Should he die young and we recall that which is past, the 
imagination is immediately quickened by the memory, so that we mourn 
not only for the loss of that which we have had, but for that also which 
we would have had. His father and his mother, his brothers and his 
sisters, the playmates of his childhood and the companions of his youth 
talk of him as one who promised to be rather than as he who has been, 
and they dwell upon what may be written of him as one delights in the 
memory of an unfinished melody, with a regret that it had not been heard 
to its close. But prophecy hath its powers for us to feel as well as its 
reveries for us to enjoy. He that hath a pure hope within. him is purified 
thereby. And he who prophesies this hope at once pledges his good 
name and engages his constant efforts to secure his aim and vindicate his 
truthfulness. While they who love the prophet and rejoice in the proph- 
ecy cheerfully enlist as interested and zealous co-workers for the much 
desired end. 

Such is the influence of the short career whose beginning and end we 
have chronicled above. He who ran it was the second son of the Rev. 
Patrick Dowd, a well known minister of the Baptist Church, and so a 
grandson of Cornelius Dowd, a prominent citizen of Moore county and 
for years one of its representatives in our Legislature. His maternal 
grandfather was Mr. Henry Austin, a thrifty merchant of Tawborough. 
His schoolboy days began with his earliest years and they soon revealed 
his aptness for learning. He was always at the head of his class whoever 
composed it or by whomever it was taught. From the Academy of Mr. 
D. S. Richardson, a teacher of no small repute in Eastern Carolina, he 
came to the University and joined the Freshman Class in 1854. At his 
graduation, in 1858, the highest honors in his class for scholarship were 
conferred on him by the Faculty, and no member of the Dialectic Society 
received from his associates more frequent or more honorable proofs of 
their esteem and affection than did young Dowd. Immediately on his 
graduation he was selected to fill a Tutorship of Latin in the University, 
a position wherein both pupil and colleague cheerfully granted him re- 


spect and confidence. Failing health prevented his long continuance 
there, and compelled him to seek for a softer air in the genial climate of 
Florida during the winter of 1858, where he got little if any benefit. 
A trip among the mountains of North Carolina and a residence at the 
Eed Sulphur Springs in Virginia refreshed and strengthened him' greatly 
during the summer of 1859, but a return to the Springs in April 1860 
was not accompanied by the benefits of the year before. He sank to his 
final rest while attempting to reach his home, that he might die where 
he was known and loved the best. 

All who knew loved Carey Dowd. He was so gentle in his manners, 
so amiable in disposition, of so generous a judgment, so truthful and so 
conscientious in his dealings with others that those who but met with him 
trusted him without hesitation, while his companions mourn for him 
as for a much loved brother. His interest in scientific and literary pur- 
suits and his success therein awakened the liveliest hopes that his labors 
on earth would be widely influential for good. And besides these gifts of 
nature and these fruits of early and well directed discipline, his character 
was adorned with a piety which was simple, sincere, unobtrusive, constant, 
full of faith and good works. He was admitted into the fellowship of the 
Baptist Church at Salem, in Wake county, by his father, during the fall 
of 1848, and his reputation as a Christian man was never sullied. His 
professions as a believer were put to many and sore trials. Bright were 
his prospects for this life wherever he might labor. Still he hoped that 
the great Lord of the Harvest would select him as one of His laborers to 
go forth and preach to all men the glad tidings of the Gospel. To this 
glorious and to him most attractive mission he was ready to devote all his 
talents and attainments. But he was obliged to turn hir, eyes from these 
alluring prospects to those of protracted and severe bodily suflerings. Nev- 
ertheless, during his long and hope exciting yet hope deferring decline, no 
one ever heard from him a murmur of regret or a sigh of despondency. 
Always cheerful he sought to cheer those around him whose tears show- 
ed them to be less equanimous than himself. To his mother especially he 
was ever loving, attentive, and tender. When she was full of solicitude 
for his comfort and praying anxiously for his recovery, forgetting his own 
weakness he would strive to strengthen her breaking heart by pointing 
her to the sympathy of their common Lord and Saviour, and enforcing 
his advice by his own patience, he would whisper — "Be patient, Mother, 
we must be persuaded that this is best for us. If we wait awhile all things 
will be right." 

Doubtless all things are now right with Carey Dowd : and all things 
will be right with his sorely stricken family if they abide by his exhor- 
tations ; and all things will be right with his companions if, emulating his 


example, they manifest his faith and patience; and all things will be right 
in our country when all her young men are as quiet, honest, sincere, cour- 
teous, intelligent and devout as was William Carey Dowd. 

" Life's duty done, as sinks the clay 

Light from its load the spirit flies ; 
While Heaven and earth combine to say 

'How blest the righteous when he dies.' " 


BY C. L. H. 

It is gratifying to witness the rapid strides which have been made, 
within the last twenty-five or thirty years, in the investigation of Natural 
Science. Geology, Mineralogy, and Botany have especiallyclaimed a large 
share of attention, and elucidation — each has literally "grown with its 
growth, and strengthened with its strength," (acquirit vires eundo) — each 
been enriched with a vast addition of important discoveries : — and each 
been followed in its train with a series of practical results. Indeed, in 
this day of scientific progress, every intelligent person is forced to become, 
to some extent, a Naturalist. Who does not wish to Jtnow something of 
the various rich mineral products with which our State abounds — some- 
thing of their constituent elements, and economic uses ? Who does not 
wish to knoio something of the beautiful trees which surround the family 
mansion, cast their cool and refreshing shade over our enclosures in sum- 
mer, and enliven the forest with their green, exhilarating foliage ? Or, 
who does not wish to know something of the gay flowers which garnish 
the fields with their variegated colors, decorate our path-way wherever 
we go, and fill the air with fragrant, life-giving perfumes ? Apart from 
their practical yalue, dull indeed, and monotonous would the outspread 
panoramic view of Nature be without them. The sturdy of Nature, in 
its diversified forms, is, at all times, grand, and ennobling ; and should 
ever claim a share of considerate regard. 

We have been led to this strain of remark from having received, within 
a few days, a copy of "the Woody Plants of North Carolina by Rev'. M. 
A. Curtis, D. D. It is a pamphlet of 123 pages, handsomely printed on 
fair paper. The author's name is a sufficient guaranty of its thorough 
elaboration. Dr. Curtis, is well known to be one of our best botanists, 

I860.] "the woody plants of north Carolina." 113 

having explored the State, at intervals, for upwards of twenty years, from 
the sandy, martime district of the East, to the elevated and mountainous 
heights of the West. The pamphlet is a descriptive catalogue of the 
trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the State, written in plain popular 
language. It was prepared, as its preface imports, at the request of Dr. 
Emmons, and intended to form a part of his State Survey. We under- 
stand legislative provision will have to be made for its publication, and 
dissemination among the people; but surely no niggardly policy will pre- 
vent this from being done; and thus show to our own citizens the botan- 
ical icealtli of the State. Surely, our enlightened statesmen will discard 
those selfish considerations which look upon nothing as valuable but what 
can be counted in dollars and cents — more tangible wealth. It should be 
borne in mind that it is not the feto thousands of dollars spent in a State 
Survey that ever seriously affects its indebtedness. Very far from it. 
Nearly all of the States, and several of the Territories have authorized, 
and zealously carried on scientific explorations. Much valuable informa- 
tion has thus been spread before the people, far surpassing, in present, 
and prospective importance, any pecuniary outlay in procuring it. It may 
be true that our State Survey has unnecessarily lingered in its execution. 
More collaborators, we believe, ought to have been placed in the field at 
the beginning that the Geology, Mineralogy, and Botany of the State, 
might have been more rapidly explored, and their applied, practical value 
pointed out to the intellegent community. But it cannot be denied that 
much valuable information has been imparted. 

It may be profitable to notice some of the more important contents of 
the pamphlet before us. "The plants of North Carolina," as stated in 
the preface, ''have been considered by Botanists as unsurpassed in varie- 
ty and beauty by those of any other States of the Union, excepting a few 
of those which lie upon the Grulf of Mexico." The destribution of plants 
over the State are naturally embraced in three well defined Districts. 
The Lower District is characterized by a predominance of Pines, and a 
few maritime species, as the Live Oak, and Palmetto ; the Middle Dis- 
trict, with the predominance of Oaks; and the Upper, or Mountain Dis- 
trict with much peculiar and interesting vegetation, but abounding in 
" sombre Firs," " graceful Ferns," and "delicate Mosses." As truly re- 
marked by the author of the pamphlet, " From the great elevation and 
extent of our Mountains, supplying many forms of plants proper to much 
higher latitudes, besides a large number peculiar to the Southern ranges, 
it is not surprising that these Mountains attracted the early attention of 
Botanists, and that they have continued to be visited by a larger number 
of them than has any other portion of our conntry." Among these early 
Botanists who visited our Mountains may be named Bartram ; Michaux 7 



father and son, Frazer, Delile, Lyon, Pursh, Nuttall, Gray, and many 
others whom our space prevents us from enumerating. For an account 
of their labors the reader is referred to the pamphlet itself. 

Passing over several pages of introductory information, the noble genus 
of Pines is first described. Of this important family of trees we possess 
eight species. The Pitch or Long-Leaf Pine (P. Palustris) covers a large 
area in the Eastern part of. the State. It is probably, all things consider- 
ed, the most valuable tree in the United States. In the collection of its 
resinous exudation thousands of our fellow-citizens find profitable employ- 
ment, and its consumption enters largely into the commerce of the world. 
Of the Oak, the "monarch of the forest," we possess nineteen species ! 
The Live Oak ( Quercus virens) is found along the coast from Norfolk, 
Va., to Texas. In Dr. Gray's Botany of the Middle and Northern States 
we find only eighteen species ! Of the Hickory we have seven species. 
The beautiful genus Magnolia comes in too for a full share of representa- 
tive importance. There are now known to Botanists seven species of this 
ornamental tree in the United States. Of these, every species is found in 
North Carolina ! Among the shrubs conspiculously stands the Catawba 
Laurel (Rhododendron Catawbiense) . This beautiful shrub was discov- 
ered by Fraser, a Scotch Botanists under the employ of the Russian gov- 
ernment in 1799. Since that time it has been introduced into cultivation, 
and extensively distributed. The Yopon (Ilex Cassine') is another inter- 
esting shrub found near the sea-coast. Its evergreen leaves, and bright 
scarlet berries render it quite ornamental. It is the plant from which | 
the famous " Black Drink " of the Southern Indians was made. They 
traveled from their most distant habitations in the State to the coast to en- 
joy the luxury of drinking this medical decoction. They drank it in such 
copious draughts as to induce vomiting, and thereby cleanse themselves, 
as they supposed, of all "vile humors." The celebrated Mat6, or Pari 
guay tea, the favorite beverage of several South American Provinces, is 
prepared from a closely allied species (Z Paraguayensis). 

The last ten pages of the pamphlet are devoted to the Woody Vines of 
the State. It is probably unknown to the great mass of the people that 
the finest grapes for making wine, and for table use originated in the 
South, and several of the best varieties in North Carolina. These facts, 
and other interesting information, relating to their history, are succinct- 
ly set forth, and will well pay perusal. But our prescribed limits will 
prevent us giving a more extended notice. 

In conclusion, it may be interesting to State that Dr. Chapman's Flora 
of the Southern States contain 396 species of Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. 
Of these, 320 species are found in North Carolina alone — a Botanical ex- 
uberance truly astonishing, and worthy of being described in populai 
form and spread before an intelligent community. 

I860.] «I STILL LIVE," 115 


The bright luminary of heaven had nearly completed, his course through 
the abient sky and his last ray was irradiating a land shrouded in gloom 
so dense that there was no " silver lining to the cloud," which might 
portend the dispersion of the storm, which in terrific sublimity hovered 
over the land. The omninous murniurings of distant thunder welling up 
from all parts of the devoted land, showed plainly the threatend danger 
that dismayed the boldest heart ; whilst, anon the fearful play of light- 
ning painted horrible phantasms upon the lurid bosom of the storm cloud. 
The elements now convulsed by the mighty euroclydon that sweeps with 
maddened fury over land and sea, emulate each other in their furious at- 
tempts to ingulf that fragile bark that sails upon an unknown and unex- 
plored waste of waters. The light of heaven has been withdrawn, and 
dark night hovers over land and sea, whilst the storm-tossed vessel ploughs 
through turbid mountains of water, that nod against the angry dome of 
heaven. The noble vessel labors hard as if it were a thing of life. Each 
surge threatens to plunge her into the abyss below. It is but a moment 
since, and now listen at the thrilling shout, " I still live!" which her noble 
helmsman shouts -in ecstacy of happiness to his companions in danger. 
The chorous swells into a louder strain, as each sailor brave catches up 
the welcome shout, " I still live," which the tempest bears back to the 
land carrying happiness to thousands of distressed human beings. 

The scene now changes : we stand by the bed-side of him who lingers 
upon the threshold of heaven. A large circle of friends and relatives 
stand around the loved object of their tender solictude. The walls hung 
in deepest drapery, throw an oppressive gloom over all who are present. 
For they are prepared for the dread catastrophc,-which only a few moments 

Upon his couch the dying Statesman lay. Friends watched by his side 
to see his form grow rigid in death and that towering intellect which awed 
Senates and Kings into listening silence cease 'ts functions. The patriot, 
as he beheld these whom he most loved on earth around him who 
had rejoiced in his honors and civil victories — when he saw his dissolution 
near uttered a last prayer for his country's weal, and exclaimed in triumph 
over his last and greatest enemy, I still live ! Yes, Webster ! glorious, 
god-like man! none could boast better of living in the grateful memory 
of your countrymen ! Your magnanimous soul received the death-spark 
of fanaticism into your own bosom, that your country might live free 


prosperous and happy — that the Ark of the Union might be perpetual. 
And thus, the noblest heart that ever throbbed in the breast of man, after 
having stood the great bulwark of the Constitution against its enemies, as 
deeds of might and visions of glory his dauntless spirit swayed, confident 
in the proud future of his country's career, that its fame would culminate 
in the highest heavens, scanning in sublime repose the fields of Paradisi- 
acal bliss, exclaimed in raptures of delight at the enchanting panorama, 
spread before his eyes glazing in death, I still live ! 

Oh delightful ecstacy of a well earned and proudly sustained reputation ! 
Thy impress is the heaven-born influence that burns in the beams of 
patriotism and dwells in the heart of liberty ! Thy charming lullaby is 
the song of some seraph bright, that a noble mind has wooed to earth ! 

Behold the weary herald of the Cross, as he with exhausted limbs plods 
his way across Lybia's burning main; with sinking heart and expiring 
energies he at last lays his himself down to die — to sleep — to dream with 
no pen to record the scene, no kindly tear of sympathy to sooth his pant- 
ing agony — with no monumental pile to mark his last resting-place, with 
burning sands for his only pillow, and bleaching bones for his only sepul- 
cher. Upon foreign soil heaven's ambassador prostrate lies; the film of 
death is settling upon his fevered brow; the aching heart trembles within 
its narrow home, whilst fancy carries the lone self-exiled back to the 
scenes of his youth. His mother's kiss, her solemn orison, when she 
implored the blessings of heaven upon her darling boy, all new as a sweet 
dream rush to his memory. The self-immolated victim smiles as these 
happy, halcyon, moments flit across his mind. The death damp is [now 
upon his fevered brow, his soul mounts upon eagle's wings, ready plumbed 
for flight above earth and its miseries ) whilst yet on his trembling lips is 
beared the, whisper, "I still live." 

Thus universal is this desire, this longing for immortality. You might 
fancy that the humble inhabitant of Carolina's most rugged mountain, 
whom you would say had never entertained an original thought in all his 
life, had never heard the whispers of the Siren. That an ambition to be 
known as great and good, and a benefactor to his race — to have his name 
emblazoned upon Fame's proud escutcheon, had never lived in his simple 
and honest bosom. But, methinks, I see some youth of humble and gen- 
erous spirit, as he winds his way from cliff to cliff, wooed by the charmer 
until he reaches the summit around whose brow the lightning is want to 
play in its fury, and the storm-cloud in solemn grandeur is want to rest 
its dark and pocderous bosom, and there high upon some rugged column 
inscribe his name that the bold adventurer may read and know that he 
too once lived. And that when life's fitful dream is closed, pointing with 

I860.] "I STILL LIVE." 117 

a skeleton finger to the scenes of his youthful prowess, he may exclaim, 
" I still live." 

This fond desire to live in the memory of the good of all future ages, 
when bridled by calm moderation and not permitted to exceed the limits 
assigned it by a kind and beneficent Creator, is productive of all that 
should excite our admiration and love. It nerves the arm of the warrior 
in the face of leaden death, and sharpens his sabre for the carnarge of re- 
lentless warfare. The orator, too, animated by this influence, bows more 
meekly at the shrine of Eloquence, culls some of Fancy's most fascinating- 
gems, and gives utterance to another immortal sentiment. Tbe monarch 
of countless millions of miseable human beings, whilst seated upon his 
throne and surrounded by all that luxury and ease all that absolute power 
confers — the hero, he may be of a thousand battle-fields, whose proud 
eagles have^triumphantly swept over plain, mountain and flood, with no 
competitor to eclipse his glory or dispute his power, whilst gloomy thoughts 
carry his memory back to martial fields again — lost in contemplation of 
his career of vice and unhallowed ambition, once more the ghastly features 
of the slain, grinning horribly in death, haunt hisguilty soul ; and with a 
start and shudder of horror he exclaims, "I still live in history and that 
too pilloried high in infamy!" 



We were disappointed in getting the portrait we had intended for the present 
number and have presented Gen. Lane's earlier than we desired; wishing 
to wait until after the Presidential election. We, however, present him not 
as a candidate but a distinguished native of North Carolina. 

Portrait of General Joseph Lane. — Joseph Lane, the second son of John 
Lane and Elizabeth Street, was born in North Carolina, on the 14th of Decem- 
ber, 1801. In 1804 the father emigrated to Kentucky, and settled in Hender- 
son county. He had the benefit of having sprung from Revolutionary stock, 
and, if he learned little else, imbibed many stirring lessons of patriotism and 
its glorious results from the elders who surrounded the hearthstone of his boy- 
hood. At an early age he shifted for himself, and entered the employ of Na- 
thaniel Hart, Clerk of the County Court. In 1816 he went into Warwick 
county, Indiana, became a clerk in a mercantile house, married, in 1820, a 
young girl of French and Irish extraction, and settled on the banks of the 
Ohio, in Vanderburg county. 

Young Lane soon became the man of the people among whom he had cast 
his lot. In 1822, then barely eligible, he was elected to the Indiana legisla- 
ture, and took his seat, to the astonishment of many older worthies. Hon. 
Oliver H. Smith, a new member likewise, and since a United States Senator 
from 1837 to 1843, describes, in a work recently published, the appearance of 
Lane on the occasion. "The roll-calling progressed as I stood by the side of 
the clerk. ' The county of Vanderburg and Warwick ! ' said the clerk. I saw 
advancing a slender, freckled-face boy, in appearance eighteen or twenty years 
of age. I marked his step as he came up to my side, and have often noticed 
his air since : it was General Joseph Lane, of Mexican and Oregon fame in 
after years." 

On the Ohio, Lane became extremely popular as a good neighbor and a man 
of enlarged hospitality. Near his dwelling, the river has a bar, which never 
fails at low water to detain a small fleet of boats. Lane's farm-house had ever 
its doors open ; an invitation was extended to all to come and help themselves, 
the host never consenting to receive remuneration, though hundreds have par- 
taken of his store. Any boatman on the river, says a reliable informant, felt 
himself at liberty to take any of his boats for temporary use without asking. 
Such was Joseph Lane on his homestead. Acquaintance with river life made 
him a good pilot of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, which gained him an ad- 
ditional meed of respect from the " river men." 

As farmer, produce-dealer, and legislator, many years rolled over his head, 
every year adding to his popularity as a man, both in his private and public 
capacity. He was frequently re-elected by the people, and continued to serve 
them at short intervals, in either branch of the legislature, for a period of 
twenty-four years. 

I860.] editors' table. 119 

Mr. Lane was a fearless legislator, always acting from a consciencious belief 
in the truth of his views, and following them up with spirit and undeviating 
vigilance. Those who are best acquainted with this portion of his career, de- 
light to dwell upon the zeal and tenacity with Avhich he upheld the trusts 
confided to him, and denounced the wrongs which threatened to thwart his de- 
signs for good. He is, however, a man of deeds rather than words — though 
he does not lack the power to express his views clearly and forcibly. 

Never in favor of expediency, he was always for what seemed right to him. 
When it was thought that Indiana, overburdened with debt, would be com- 
pelled to repudiate, the prospect of the disgrace which Avould thereby result 
to the State aroused all his indignant energies. He would not hear of such a 
thing. He felt it would be a disgrace to him, as a working-man, with the will 
and the strength to labor, to repudiate a debt. What was it, then, to a State 
of which he was a representative ? He toiled untiringly to avert it, and had 
the satisfaction of seeing his efforts successful. 

In politics, General Lane has always been of the Jefferson and Jackson 
school. Possessing a strong intellect, and a memory retentive of facts, and 
quick to use them, he has become thoroughly acquainted with the history and 
politics of the country. Mr. Yulee observes, " He has written with his plough 
and sword, and spoken by Iris deeds ; and, though unused to the ornaments of 
rhetoric and literature, he is, nevertheless, powerful in debate, and especially 
well qualified in political and Presidential conflicts on the stump to overwhelm 
the opponents of Democracy." He supported Jackson in 1824, '28, and '32, 
gave his voice and energies for Van Buren in 1S36 and '40, " as long as the 
latter followed ' in the footsteps of his illustrions predecessor,' " and went for 
Polk in 1844. His activity and earnestness were contagious, and could not 
but infuse into those about him, and into the public men of the State general- 
ly, the spirit which had led him to so honorable a prominence. 

In the spring of 1S46, the war commenced between the United States and 
Mexico, and a call was made upon Indiana for volunteers. Lane, then a 
member of the State Senate, immediately resigned -and entered Captain 
Walker's company as a private. He chose Walker as his commander, having 
a high opinion of his bravery — an opinion which that gallant officer's conduct 
and death at Buena Vista completely justified. When the regiment met at 
the rendezvous — New Albany — Joseph Lane was taken from the ranks by the 
unanimous voice of the men, and placed at the head as colonel; and in a very 
few days afterwards he received — unsought and unexpected by him — a com- 
mission from President Polk as brigadier-general. On the 9th of July he 
wrote a letter of acceptance, and entered on the command of the three regi- 
ments forming his brigade. Two weeks after (24th of July) he was at the 
Brazos, with all his men, and concluded the report announcing his arrival to 
General Taylor in these words: "The brigade I have the honor to command 
is generally in good health and fine spirits, anxious to engage in active ser- 
vice." On the 20th of August, he wrote to Major-general Butler, claiming 
active service. His brigade did not relish being left in the rear to garrison 
towns or to guard provisions and military stores, while the regular army, and 
the volunteers ordered on to Camargo, would have the honor of being actively 


Lane had an idea that the Indiana men were raised to do some fighting, 
and he was impatient of delay. The second day after his letter to Butler, he 
wrote again to General Taylor, complaining of the advance of troops out of 
their order of precedence. Without being disrespectful, he demanded for his 
command a share in the dangers and honors of the active service. Despite 
his anxiety to go on, he had to remain several months, in a most irksome 
mood, on the swampy hanks of the Eio Grande, where his troops, suffering 
under the sweltering sun, where decimated by the pestilential diseases of the 

At length he was ordered to Saltillo, and made civil and military command- 
ant of that post by Major-General Butler. After the battle of Monterey, Lane 
was ordered to join General Taylor. 

The famous battle of Buena Vista was fought on the 22d and 23d of Febru- 
ary, 1847. General Lane was third in command, and served on the left wing. 
From the beginning to the end he was in the hottest of the fight. On the 
morning of the 23d, Lane had the honor of opening the continuation of the 
battle, on the plain, where he was attacked by a force of from four to five 
thousand infantry, artillery, and lancers, under Gen. Ampudia. At this crisis, 
Lane's force was reduced to four hundred men ; and with this phalanx he re- 
ceived the Mexican onset. 

As Lane commenced the fight on the 23d, so was he in " at the death." — 
The Illinois and Kentucty regiments, suffering sorely, were falling back under 
a terrible charge by the collected infantry of Santa Anna, when Lane, though 
wounded, came up with the Indiana men, and with theMississippi men, under 
Colonel Jefferson Davis, opened a destructive fire upon the Mexicans, checked 
their advance, and enabled the retreating regiments to form and return to the 
contest. Failing to pierce the American centre, Santa Anna retired from the 

In this battle, where all were heroes, it is more honorable to find Lane, with 
four or five others, particularly noticed. Here is a picture of him : "When 
the grape and musket-shot flew as thick as hail over and through the lines of 
our volunteers, who began to waver before the fiery storm, their brave general 
could be seen fifty yards in advance of the line, waving his sword with an arm 
already shattered by a musket-ball, streaming with blood, and mounted on a 
noble charger, which was gradually sinking under the loss of blood from five 
distinct wounds. A brave sight indeed was this !" 

Major-General Wool, writing to Lane, May 23d, regrets that he is about to 
lose his valuable services, and testifies to his readiness to do honor to his com- 
mand, his country, and himself. Again July 7, Wool writes, "I have seen 
you in all situations — at the head of your brigade, in the drill, and in the 
great battle of 22d and 23d of February ; and, in the course of my experience, 
I have seen few, very few, who'behaved with more zeal, ability, and gallantry, 
in the hour of danger." And General Taylor, in his report, says, " Brigadier- 
General Lane (slightly wounded,) was active and zealous throughout the day, 
and displayed great coolness and gallantry before the enemy." 

Remaining encamped near the battle-field until June, he was ordered with 
his brigade, to New-Orleans, where the latter was disbanded, its term of ser- 

I860.] editors' table. 121 

vice having expired. On his return home, public festivals at New-Albany 
and Evansville greeted him, while his apearance everywhere commanded and 
elicited the most enthusiastic admiration. An order to join Taylor's line, 
however, allowed him but a short season of repose in the bosom of his family. 

Having been transferred to General Scott's line of operations, he reached 
Vera-Cruz, with his command, on the 16th of September, 1847. On the 20th, 
he set out for the city of Mexico, at the head of two thousand five hundred men. 
At Jalapa this force was increased by Major Lally's column of one thousand 
men, and at Perote by a company of mounted riflemen, two of volunteer in- 
fantry, and two pieces of artillery. 

Leaving his train at San Antonio Taamaris with a suitable defence, Lane 
marched against Huamantla with over two thousand men. On the morning 
of the 9th of October, the people were startled by the approach of the soldiers. 
White flags were immediately displayed ; but no sooner had the advanced 
guard, under Captain Walker, entered the town, than volley after volley as- 
sailed it. A deadly combat ensued. Walker gallantly charged upon a body 
of five hundred lancers and two pieces of artillery on the plaza. General Lane, 
advancing at the head of his column, encountered the heavy reinforcement of 
Santa Anna, who had arrived with his full force. Soon the roar of battle re- 
sounded from street to street. For a short time the Mexicans confronted their 
assailants with the energy of despair ; but the terrible decision of the Ameri- 
cans prevailed, and their flag soon waved over the treacherous town. A large 
quantity of ammunition was captured, and some prisoners — one of whom was 
Major Iturbide, son of the former emperor of Mexico. This was the last field 
on which Santa Anna appeared in arms against the United States. For this 
victory Lane was breveted major-general. 

Having rejoined his train, General Lane arrived at Puebla on the 12th of 

Lane's campaign, from the departure from Yera Cruz up to this point, was 
a series of brilliant movements and victories. A surgeon attached to his com- 
mand wrote home, about this period, that no writers — only the soldiers — could 
tell with what ingenuity and bravery Lane conducted his handful of men. — 
" I never " — he adds — " before could understand how cowards were transform- 
ed into brave men as by miracle." 

The battle of Tehualtaplan was the last fought in Mexico. Peace was soon 
declared ; but General Lane — who, not inappropriately, says Jenkins, was 
styled by his brother officers and soldiers "the Marion of the army" — remain- 
ed some months directing the movements consequent upon the return of our 
troops. On evacuating the conquered land, Lane remarked to a friend, " I left 
my plough to take the sword with a thrill of pleasure ; for my country called 
me. I now go home to resume the plough with as sincere joy." 

About the 1st of August, 1848, General Lane reached Indiana. His fellow- 
citizens were rejoiced to see him ; but he had not time to respond tothefavora 
extended to him, for en the 18th he — without any solicitation on his part — 
was appointed Governor of Oregon. On the 28th hia commission reached 
him, and on the next day he set out for his post. 



On the 2cl of March, 1819, about six months after his departure from home, 
he arrived safely in Oregon City. This journey cost the Government nothing — 
General Lane not making any charge for his expenses, besides which, he aid- 
ed largely in subsisting the troops the greater part of the time with the pro- 
duct of his rifle, as he was both the pilot and the hunter of the party. 

The Indians of Oregon — of whom there were between fifty or sixty tribes — 
kept the whites in a constant state of jeopardy. The progress and settlement 
of the territory were greatly impeded by their depredations. In 1850, a for- 
midable outbreak took place on Rogue River, in the southern part of Oregon. 
Governor Lane took the field in person, collected a force of settlers, miners, a 
few officers and men of the regular army, attacked the Indians at Table Rock, 
and, after a desperate conflict, in which he was severely wounded, drove them 
from their position. Following this success up with his accustomed vigor, he 
so severely chastised them that they were glad to accept any terms of peace. 

As a Delegate from Oregon, General Lane was unremitting in his advocacy 
of the interests of the Territory, and untiring in his efforts for her admission 
into the Union. 

The evening of the day Oregon was admitted to the sisterhood of States, the 
federal city was alive with festivity in honor of the event. A band serenaded 
the President, Vice President, Mr. Stephens of Georgia, General Lane and 
others. In response to a call, Governor Stevens introduced General Lane — 
new Senator elect from the State of Oregon — to the people. He made a brief 
speech, in which he said that a bulwark had been raised that day on the 
shores of the Pacific against foreign invaders, and a fresh assurance given of 
the perpetuity of the Union. 

While Governor Lane was in Oregon, he was named for the Presidency by 
the convention assembled at Indianapolis to revise the State Constitution of 
Indiana. The Democratic State Convention, which met February 24, 1852, 
formally presented his claims for the Chief Magistracy, pledging the vote of 
the State to him. On his arrival in Indiana from Oregon, he had a public 
reception, at which, in the course of an address of welcome, Governor "Wright 
thus briefly viewed the career of the guest of the day : 

" He has been the artificer of his own fortunes ; and, in his progress from 
the farmer on the banks of the Ohio and the commandant of a flat-boat, to 
posts of honorable distinction — to a seat in the House of Representatives and 
in the Senate of Indiana — to the command of a brigade upon the fields of 
Buena Vista, Huamantla, and Atlixco — to the Governorship of Oregon, and 
thence to a seat in Congress — he has displayed the same high characteristics, 
perseverance, and energy. The annals of our country present no parallel for 
these facts. He entered the army a volunteer in the ranks, looking forward 
only to the career of a common soldier. He left a major-general, closing 
his ardent and brilliant services in that memorable campaign by fighting its 
last battle and capturing its last enemy." 

"We acknowledge our indebtedness for this sketch to the " Portraits and 
Sketches of the Lives of all the Candidates for the Presidency and Vice-Pres- 
idency," a neat 8vo. volume published by J. C. Buttro, Now York. 

I860.] editors' tablb. 125 

Local items are very few. The past month with one or two exceptions has 
been unusually calm and pleasant. The Sophs toot a little " Sore-up " but 
soon got tired of the fan and have returned to their duties. 

Dr. Barker has been delivering lectures, during the last week, on Phrenolo- 
gy. We have not had the pleasure of hearing the.n but have understood that 
they are very good. 

The Editors of the " Fly-Leaf " will please accept our thanks for the V vol. 
of their Quarterly. 

Exchanges. — Since our last we have received The Westminister Review 
for July. Republished by L. Scott &Co.. 54 Gold Street, New York 

The high reputation and extensive circulation of this Review render remarks 
by us unnecessary. Questions in Politics, Social and Political Economy, The- 
ology, the Fine Arts, and Education, which can only be superficially touched 
upon by the newspaper press, here undergo that calm consideration and discus- 
sion best calculated to insure the formation of a correct judgment and elicit 
the truth. This number contains several superior articles and we are sorry we 
have not room to notice them. 

The present number Ave notice commences a volume, as also do two or three 
other Periodicals making the present a desirable moment to commence sub- 

Price of one Review $3 a year. Price of four Reviews, $8. "Blackwood" 
and the four Reviews $10. 

Also, London Quarterly Review for July which is also republished by 
L. Scott & Co., New York. We see that Messrs. L. Scott & Co., are rapidly 
putting forth their reprints of the English Reviews for the current cmarter. 
These publications have long issued with such regularity, that the announce- 
ment of their isssue has become almost unnecessary, as readers know when 
confidently to expect them. The following is an extract of the Contents of the 
present number of the London Quarterly : — I. The Missing Link and the Lon- 
don Poor ; II. Joseph Scaliger ; III. Workmen's Earnings and Savings ; IV. 
The Cape and South Africa ; Y. Ary Scheffer ; YI. Stonehenge , VII. Dar- 
win's Origin of Species ; VIII. The conservative Reaction. 

We believe that the ladies but seldom read these periodicals considering 
them the exclusive property of the gentlemen. But it is high time that they 
should reject the trash usually provided for their amusement and resort to-such 
periodicals as these. We are certain that no woman can read such articles as 
Nos. I and III without deep interest and sympathy : few can reflect upon 
them without feeling that their estimate of their social and domestic dutie3 
has been hitherto narrow and iranerfect. 

Notice. — As we are yet in debt and our Creditors clamorous we will be 
much obliged to those who still owe us if they will come forward with the cash. 
It would be unpleasant to us and annoying to you (to say nothing of the sac- 
rifice of pride) to take the rounds of College on a dunning expedition. Save 
us this trouble by settling immediately. 

Ball Managers of 1850. 


"Read, meditate, reflect, grow wise — in vain ; 

Try every help, force fire from every spark ; 
Yet shall you ne'er the poet's power attain, 

If Heaven ne'er stamped you with the muses' mark." 

It is very strange that we prefer writing verse to prose. Many subjects 
that otherwise would have been interesting are often made dull and obscure 
by the multitude of words, far-fetched metaphors and jingling rhymes in which 
they are wrapped up. We allow all moon-struck lovers and youngsters just 
fledging to poetize; for the former pester no one except "pale faced Diana" 
and the latter mount their Pegassus to meet with the fate of Bellerophon. 
But we have no sort of patience with those who continue to scribble after they 
have become old enough to know better. Do not understand us to intimate 
that all are such. Very far from it. Some certainly even in our matter-of- 
fact day, have the feu sacri. but by far a greater number have mistaken 
" the concord of sweet sounds " for true poetry and have flooded us with rhmye. 
Perhaps it is for the better ; for there is an old proverb that says " we shine 
more by comparison than by true merit;" if so, they have their part to perform. 

The following speech was delivered by Mr. Barrett in defence of Mr. B. who 
was charged "with having poisoned Mrs. Tabitha Hogan.". Read it and 
think for yourself. 

Mr. Cooper having concluded, Mr. Barrett continued the argument for the 

May it please your Honor, Gentlemen of the Jury, in all my practice never 
have I felt a greater responsibility resting on me than at this time ; not that 
I have any doubt as to the innocence of the prisoner at the bar, but that the 
issue of this case w r ill involve consequences of the most significant importance 
to the country at large, and especially to this University. This community 
has been panic-stricken by the announcement of the sudden decease of a quiet 
and unpretending citizen, Mrs. Tabitha Hogan. We are told that the circum- 
stances attending the disease and death of the deceased were sufficient to 
warrant the suspicion that the unfortunate woman had received foul play. 

Suspicion attached immediately to the prisoner J. R. B . Why did it fall on 

him? Let us see who were the first to raise this suspicion. Was it not his ri- 
vals in an honorable pursuit of a noble science ? Ah ! here is the secret of 
suspicion. It was but. the legitimate result of that envy caused by the supe- 
rior proficiency of Mr. B over his rivals. We have a somewhat similar 

case in the early life of Mr. Pitt whose resplendent talents were so destined 
to surpass the powers of his giant cotemporaries as to create a deadly envy in 

their bosoms. What is the character of the young man Mr. B ? He 

came to this community two years ago, bringing with him the impulses of a 
noble and ingenuous mind. Throughout the two years that have elapsed he 
has so conducted himself as to merit increased confidence and esteem. He 
has elicited the admiration of all with whom he has come in contact, 

" None knew him but to love him; 
None named him, but to praise." 

I860.] editors' table. 125 

But alas! what a sad reverse of fortune has befallen that young man. lie 
whom but two days ago I left exhibiting all the promises of a brilliant and use- 
ful life, is now occupying the criminal's box under the charge of a crime the 
most detestible and revolting to human nature — the murder of one of our most 
valued citizens. As to the other prisoner who stands charged in the bill of in- 
dictment, it is unnecessary for me to say anything : and, as there has been little 
or no testimony against cither of them, I presume his Honor will release them 
before the jury retire. 

But let us look to the testimony. And here we find nothing but vague 
uncertainties. A great many distinguished physicians have been brought 
forward by the prosecutor to prove that arsenic was administered by the prison- 
er B ; they state that they were present at a post mortem examination — 

that they subjected the contents of the stomach of the deceased to color-giving 
tests. But you will recollect gentlemen, that it has been proved by Dr. Bor- 
den and Mr. Cole that Professor K emphatically remarked in their 

hearing, that in medico legal investigations the defense should always insist 

on octahedral crystals being produced. Prof. K you know stands the very 

highest in his profession. He has been through the laboratories of Liebig, 
Bauston, Will, and other distinguished European chemists ; he is as well ac- 
quainted with every element, understands their various combinations, and can 
separate and distinguish between them by his wonderful manipulations as 
easily and as readily as the compositor can his type. Well, have these crystals 
been produced ? No witness has been able to detect them himself. But sup- 
pose we admit the production of these crystals, then do we not have the record 
of Dr. Draper, whose authority is, if possible, nearly equal to that of Prof. 
K — ! , that antimony yields a crystal precisely like the arsenical octahe- 
dron ; so that the one may be confounded with the other and thus render 
abortive the reliability of this test, unless heat be applied which volatilizes 
arsenic but does not antimony, and which test has not been proved to have been 

I stated in the beginning of my remarks that the issue of this trial is of the 
highest importance to this Institution. In this connection I propose to examine 
the reliability of color-giving tests. Take the one with ammonia sulphate of 
copper which gives a precepitate undistinguishably similar to the contents of 
a stomache which is want to receive from time to time a moderate portion of 
"old Nick " or " Nash brandy." So you see that if the contents of the stom- 
achesof some of our Professors should be examined after death and this test 
applied, it might lead to the suspicion of their having been treated with arsenic, 
and one experiment of this kind might be followed up by others which would 
finally break up College. 

But what are some of the arguments of the prosecution? They get up 
here and magnify the enormity of this crime in general for the purpose of 
prejudicing your understanding against the prisoner B . But gentle- 
men, you who have explored the mazes of the human heart, and who are so 
highly distinguished in this community by a superior discriminating judgment 
will never reconcile such pictures of atrocity with the pure heart and upright 
course of J. B. B . Mr. Martin, on the prosecution, has for the first time 


in his life discovered any importance in the science of Chemistry. Never have 
I heard, in all my intercourse with him, that he ever kept pace with that re- 
markable science until to-night. He has suddenly out-stripped the science. 
Mr. Cooper's obscure and distorted idea refined into sophistical jargon will 
only find an interpretation in some lunatic asylum. 

Gentlemen — I can well appreciate your feelings. I know the responsible 
position you occupy. You hold the life and death of the prisoner in your 
hands. If you hurry him into Eternity he may there find a laboratory in no 
wise analogous to the one in Avhich he has lately been operating ; the elements 
which he would have to contend with might not be so readily controlled as 
those with which he is now acquainted. Should he go there unprepared for 
that new field of labor, you will be responsible for him. Rather let him be re- 
stored to the confidence of an appreciative community. And may your gener- 
osity; grant him a safe deliverance. 

It seems to be the prevailing opinion, and especially here in College, that 
some men are born to be great Avhether they make any effort or not. For the 
benefit of those who believe this we publish the following from the Home CircleJ: 

Industry and Genius. — Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton virtually defines Genius 
in one word, Industry. Certainly no man living has a better right to the re- 
spectful attention of mankind in any thing he may say upon that subject. 
One of the most accurate and various scholars of the age, prehaps the very 
greatest living writers of "fiction, and, if not a first-class poet, at least one of 
the most exquisite versifiers who has written in our language, he honestly 
affirms that systematic industry has made him what he is. He, prehaps, 
reaches an extreme in his definition of Genius. Yet, if Ave were called unon 
to name the very greatest of human talents, Ave should unhesitatingly say 
Industry. If not Genius, it is at least the inA'ariable companion of all suc- 
cessful genius. 

In confirmation of this view, we find the following waifs afloat among the 
neAVspapers : 

Alexander Hamilton once said to an intimate friend, "Men give me some 
credit for genius. Ail the genius that I have lies just in this : Avhen I have a 
subject in hand, I study it profoundly. Day and night it is before me. Then 
I explore it in all its bearings. Then the effort Avhich I make is Avhat the 
people are pleased to call the fruits of genius. It is the fruit of labor and 

Mr. Webster once replied to a gentleman Avho pressed him to speak on a 
subject of great importance, " The subject interests me deeply, but I have 
not time. These, Sir," pointing to a huge pile of letters, "I must reply to 
before the close of the session, (which Avas then three days off,) I have not the 
time to master the subject, so as to do it justice." " But, Mr. Webster, a few 
AA r ords from you would do so much to awaken public attention to it." "If 
there bo such Aveight in my AA r ords as you represent, it is because I do not al- 
low myself to speak on any subject till I have imbued my mind with it." 

Lord Brougham Avas once complimented on the highly-polished and A*ery 
finished character of* a lecture he had just delivered. " It ought to be pretty 
well polished," replied his Lordship. "I read from the thirteenth copy I 
made of that lecture." 

I860.] editors' table. 127 

Demosthenes was once urged to speak on a great and sudden emergency. 
" I am not prepared," said he, and obstinately refused. 

The law of labor is equally binding on genius and mediocrity. 
m Dr. Adam Clark said, that "the old proverb about having too many irons 
m the fire was an abominable old lie. Have all in it, shovel, tongs, and poker." 

Wesley said, "I am always in haste, but never in a hurry: leisure and I 
have long taken leave of each other." He travelled about five thousand miles 
in a year: preached about three times a day, commencing at five o'clock in 
the morning; and his published works amounted to about two hundred vol- 

Asbury traveled s'x thousand miles a year, and preached incessantly. 
v 2°^ & c . ro ? sed the Atlantic eighteen times, preached, wrote, travelled, estab- 
lished missions, begged from door to door for them, and labored in all respects 
as if, nke the apostles, he would "turn the world upside down." At nearly 
seventy years of age, he started to Christianize India. 

Bonaparte said that " three hours was long enough for any person to sleep." 
And when he tells us -that he slept only that length of time we are not so 
much surprised at the amount of work that he accomplished. 

In fact the history of every individual who has risen to distinction shows 
that their success was only equal to their industry. 

Young Men's Christian Association.— The following are the Officers and 
Committees of the Young Men's Christian Association for the present session : 
President— Guilford Nicholson. Halifax Co., N. C. 

AT V n CS A P ? ESIDE '' T:—L - R - Bel1 ' 0xford ' N - C - H - B L yon, Edgecombe Co., 
A. O., A. Hill Patterson, Milton, N. C, Lawson TV. Sykes, Mississippi. 

Recording Secretary— Octavius H. Blocker, Favetteville, N. C. 

Assistant Kecording Secretary— John M. Mcfver, Moore Co., N..C. 

Corresponding Secretary— Henry G. Williams, Warren Co., N. C. 

Ireasurer— Archibald McFadyen, Cumberland Co., N. C. 

Librarian— J. D. Carrie, Bladen Co., N. C. 

Managers— D. H. Foy, New Hanover Co., N. C, George TV. McMillan, 
New Hanover Co., N. C, L. R. Bell, Oxford, N. C, S. B. Staton, Edge- 
combe Co., N. C. '■■•.'• 
standing committees : 

Senior Class— Robert Murphy, Sampson Co., N. C, L. R. Bell, H. G. Wil- 

Junior Class— A. Hill Patterson, 0. II. Blocker, Win. C. Jordan, Green- 
ville, Pitt Co., N. C, 

Sophomore Class— N. R. Kelly, Moore Co., N. C, Jesse D. Franklin, 
Miss., J. II. Person, Franklin Co., N. C. 

Freshman Class— E. A. Nicholson, Halifax Co., N. C, TV. Webb, Alamance 
Co., IS. C, J. A. Cutchin, Edgecombe Co., N. C. 

Committees on Religious Meetings— A. Hill Patterson, H. G. Williams, 
A. McFadyen. 

Committee on Rooms— Lawson TV. Sykes, J. D. Currie, S. B. Staton. 

Committee on Lectures and Addresses— L. R. Bell, D. H. Fov J M 
Mclver. J 

Committees on Finance— G. TV. McMillan, H. P. Lyon, 0. II. Blocker. 

Correction.— We owe Mr. Stedman an apology for not having inserted his 
name among those who obtained the first distinction in the Junior Class. The 
mistake was caused by relying too much on an extract which had accidentally 
omitted it. 



Philanthropic Hall, August, I860. 

Whereas the death of George M. White has caused unfeigned sorrow in the 
Philanthropic Society of which he was a useful and shining member, one who 
when with us was beloved and respected by all and departing from us carried 
with him the highest honors has been cut down by the hands of death. There- 

Resolved, That the Philanthropic Society while she bows to the inscruta- 
ble wisdom of Omnipotence cannot but deeply lament the death of one who by 
his generous disposition and many brilliant qualities of mind _ was so well 
calculated to reflect honor upon himself and upon the Society which can boast 
hi* membership. . ,, 

Resolved, That the Society offers her warmest sympathies to the family oi 
the deceased and would exhort them to be submissive to the decrees of Him 
whose decisions are always for the best. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the family of the de- 
ceased to the Raleigh Register, Wilmington Journal, Fayetteville Observer 
and University Magazine with request for publication. 




Dialectic Hall, August, 1860. 

The Dialectic Society by the recent sudden death of our late fellow mem- 
ber Thomas J. Badgett has been afflicted in no ordinary degree. For we 
deplore one who, a member of the class of 185S-'59, left our halls a year ago 
looking forward to the future with the brightest anticipations and giving 
hopes to his friends of a life to be spent in usefulness and honor, but all of 
these fond anticipations have been buried in a watery grave and we have 
failed to reap the rich rewards which his talents and nobleness of character 
would have bestowed upon us. Therefore, 

Whereas the Dialectic Society has been called upon to mourn the loss ot 
one of her most worthy members. _ 

Resolved, That while she grieves over his untimely end and cannot but Ja- 
ment her loss, she submits with humble reverence to the will of Him who has 
Been fit thus to afflict her in so melancholy a manner. 

Resolved, That the society tender to the family of the deceased her heart- 
felt sympathies and while mingling her tears with theirs would point them to 
Him who, doeth all things well. ' ^ • 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the parents of the de- 
ceased, and also to the Milton Chronicle, Greensboro' Patriot, Raleigh Regis 
ter and the University Magazine Avith the request that they be published. 
' J N. L. WILLIAMS, Jr., ") 




nil ran ii4i¥effiA©i ai©i aiBsrffi B 

Will visit Chapel Hill every season. mar — Gin. 





zo-axbIeixo-io:, est- o. 

A LWAYS on hand a supply of TEXT BOOKS— also Theological, Law, Med- 
■**- ical and Miscellaneous BOOKS ; Gift Books, Albums, Autograph Books, 
Bibles, Prayer Books, Hymn Books, for all denominations. He also invites 
attention to his stock of superior STATIONERY, comprising a great variety 
of the finest English, French and American Letter and Note PAPER; En- 
velopes, Yisiting Cards, Blank Books, Patent Adhesive Letter Files, &c, &c. 
Mathematical Instruments, Writing Desks, Port Folios, Strings for the Violin 
and Guitar, of the best quality ; Engravings, Lithographs, &c. 

j-ggr- Visiting Cards engraved to order. NEW BOOKS received and for sale 
as soon as published. 

jg^ A full supply of OIL and WATER COLORS always on hand. 



THIS School is situated in a moral, healthy neighborhood, one mile from 
Mebanesville Depot, on the North Carolina Railroad. 

The Principal will board his pupils in his own family ; being convinced that 
the teacher, standing in relation of parent, can more successfully discharge 
the duties of that relation Avhen he has his pupils under his constant supervi- 
sion. The course of Instruction is preparatory to the University and other 
first-class Colleges. 

The Scholastic Year is divided into two Sessions of twenty weeks each, 
beginning respectively about the middle of January and July. 

TERMS — Per Session, for Board and Tuition, §100 in advance. 

References : Faculty of the University ; W. J. Bingham & Sons, Oaks, N. 
C; A. Wilson, D. D., Mellville, N. C. 

March, 60. WM. B. LYNCH, Principal. 


MALLETT & CO. keep on hand all the College TEXT BOOKS. Also Med- 
ical and Law Books, together with a general stock of Standard Authors, 
and other Miscellaneous Works, Bibles, Common Prayer, Hymns, Hymns and 
Psalms, and Psalmody, Gift Books, Albums and Autographs, Writing. Desks* 
Portfolios, Mathematical Instruments, with a full supply of Stationery. 
Books or other articles ordered at short notice. March, 60, 


-.: ',. 






259 and 


260 Broadway, ' 


"\A/~E desire to call the attention of gentlemen of the University to this tl s 
^' mopt extensive Clothing House in the Union. Facilities uuequalb 
any otlw firm in the trade render our establishment the fountain head ol 
meats of taste ami elegance. 

All commands entrusted to us will meet with prompt attention, and will be 
executed in our well known EjB$pcrior stA te. 

: EVtlN, HUBEOH & CO. 
New York, February 1st, 186ft 

TS prepared to execute at short order all manner of printing on exceedingly 
-*- moderate terms. Particular attention paid to the printing of ci 
addresses^ pamphlets, reports, invitation cards, &c. 

He has on hand a large stock of cards, bronzes, cole - : , and oilier 

materials, which, with his long experience in the busim ss, a. ill enable Lim to 
compete with any similar establishment in the State or elsewhere. 

All kinds of Sheriff's, Clerks', and Constables' \blanks on hand or suppl 
at sho; ■ I i e at 75 eenti per quire, cash. When a large quantity is ordered 
a discount of 10 per cent, will be allowed. 

All he asks is a triad to give satisfaction. 


npiIIS PREPARATION has the property of rendering the Hair SOFT and 
-*- GLOSSY, at tha same time that, by its tonic and sti | rcp-erties, it 

tonus to arrest its premature decay. To acoon plish this it should be 1 1 
thoroughly into the roots, at least once a day: It will rcm< i rl irevent 
dandruff; it will stop the itching from the bite of insects. It can c-s the 
ume a darker apnearance. It is easily apnlied. Pre", are, 1 by 

11. B. SAUNDERS, Druggist, Chapel Hill, N. C. 
Who has constantly on hand a general assortment of Drugs, Med':' 
Paints, Oils, Window-Glass, Dye Stuffs, Brushes, Perfumery, Fancy An' 
&c., &c. rub.,60 

Book-Binder & Blank-Book Manufacturer, 


Binding in all styles done at short order and on moderate terms. Those 
having Magazines, Addresses, Periodicals, &c, would do well to hand them to 
Mr. J. B. Neatiierv, at the Magazine office, who charges nothing above cost 
for forwarding. Specimens of his work can be seen at the Editors' cfiice. 



■» »■ 

1. WAR OF THE REGULATION, By Hon. D. L. Swain, ., 120 




4. THE ORIGIN OF LOVE, (Poetry,) 150 


6. DREAM LAND, (Poetry,) 157 


8. THE STUDY OF HUMAN NATURE, (Poetry,) 165 


10. THE LAND OF FLOWERS, (Poetry,) 172 

11. WHAT IS MAN? 173 


13. EDITORS' TABLE— Governor Graham; Special Notice; 

Local Matters; The Antigone op Sophocles; The 
Swain Prize; Thanks; Tennyson; Clubs; 185 — 191 


We acknowledge the following receipts since Sept. 1st: Collin McNair 
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'son, $1 50; Long & McCanley, $2; Prof. A. D. Hepburn, $2; Miss 
Sophia Klutts, $2; Hon. W. N. Edwards, $2; Jos. A. Engelhard, $2. 


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to save time and trouble we publish below all necessary information. 

The Magazine is issued regularly at the beginning of each month (except- 
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University Magazine.' 7 

' ei V J C B* 6 from tt UagM**^ 

S^gt, ^ ^- 

1 ■ ■■,.,! :., J.O Hulli'o 







Vol. X. OCTOBER, 1860. No. 3. 


(part v— 1775.) 

We have had occasion in the course of the preceding narrative to refer 
in very general terms, to the character of some of the leaders, in the in- 
cipient stages of the Regulation. It is now time to ascertain as nearly as 
accessible evidence will enable us, the true character of the great body of 
the insurgents at the era of the battle of Alamance. So far as this may 
be inferred from that of their_ Chiefs, the names of Boon and Robertson 
are ample vouchers for the first colony, that passed from the midst of the 
Regulators to become the founders of Tennessee. The fabled Romulus 
and Remus, though more savage and ferocious, were less intelligent and 
humane, and not more heroic than these early Regulators, and Rome at 
the proudest period in her annals, in no one of her districts exhibited 
purer patriotism or loftier courage than are presented in the earlier history 
of their lescendents. Washington Irving in one of his fugutive papers 
remarks that there is sometbing ennobling in the idea of being born at 
the base of a lofty mountain or on the banks of a noble river. These col- 
onists found refuge if not repose, in beautiful vallies, in the shadow of the 
tallest mountains east of the Mississippi, were fanned by the breezes which 
played upon their summits, and refreshed by the waters which formed the 
head springs of one of the main sources of this mighty river. It was 
from these vales that in a little more than twenty years thereafter the sons 
of these pioneers under the leadership of McDowell, Sevier and Shelby* 
went forth to victory and renown at Enoree and King's Mountain. 

Of the Regulators within the boundaries of the Granville patent and 
east of the valley of the Yadkin, Williamson a native of Pennsylvania, 
born in 1735, a citizen of Edenton from 1776 until about the close of 
the century speaks as follows: 


'' The insurgents in North Carolina, who called themselves Regulators, lest 
they should be called a mob, were in general of the poorest class of citizens. 
Three or four of their leaders had some information, and a considerable degree 
of cunning ; but the great body of those people were unacquainted with the 
laws, and very deficient in every kind of knowledge. They lived chiefly in 
new settlements upon poor land. They had also been culpably neglectful of 
private schools, and other means of instruction." 

Williamson was a scholar, at one time Professor of Mathematics in the 
University of Pennsylvania, an army surgeon under Caswell in 1780, a 
member of the Convention that framed the federal Constitution, and sub- 
sequently during several years a representative in Congress of the Eden- 
ton district. He was a man of studious and retiring habits exclusive 
associations and little familiarity and sympathy with the common people. 
With ample opportunities to obtain information, and the requisite attain- 
ments, to have made the proper use of his acquisitions, his contributions 
to our history are by no one familiar with the subject regarded, as very 
interesting or very accurate. 

Of the Regulators in general and especially of the Presbyterian ele- 
ment of the population east of the Yadkin, Caruthers in his life of 
Caldwell, replies to Williamson's criminations, with an apparent candor 
and fairness well calculated to win the confidence of the reader: 

" The Regulators have been, in several respects, not fairly represented ; for 
it happened to them, as it has usually happened to most others in similar 
circumstances, because they were unsuccessful, however just their cause, it 
became the fashion to misrepresent and to abuse them. The victors made 
their own statements and representations ; and in time these were adopted 
even by their friends, because they had no others on whom they could rely. 
Williamson says that they were in general of the poorest class of citizens ; 
that while three or four of their leaders had some information and a consider*- 
able degree of cunning, the great body of them were deficient in every kind of 
knowledge ; that they lived chiefly in new settlements upon poor land ; that 
they had been culpably neglectful of private schools, and of all other means 
of instruction ; and that the people in the older settlements, near the coast, 
had better means of acquiring knowledge, implying that this was the great 
reason why they were not Regulators too. In all this there is some truth ; 
but it is not the whole truth. The people were not in general either wealthy 
or learned ; but then they were not paupers, and they were not heathen. It 
was with them as it is with the people now : some lived on land which was 
poor ; and others on that which was fertile : some were very poor and others 
were in better circumstances, but taken altogether, as any one may see, they 
had the best lands in the whole province ; and while they were mostly desti- 
tute of the comforts, they had the substantials of life in abundance. They 
had not time to amass property or procure luxuries ; for having been but a 
few years in the country, their time had been occupied in clearing land, and 
in providing the bare necessaries of life for themselves and their families. As 


they had, in some parts, no saw-mills, no improved roads, hardly any wagons 
or conveniences for getting to market, and were obliged almost to give their 
produce away wheft ' they got it there, money, and the comforts which money 
alone can procure, must have been scarce. Several old men who lived in the 
south side of Guilford in the parts of Randolph adjoining it, told me a few 
years ago, that about the time of the Regulation, there was not a plank floor, 
a feather bed, a riding carriage, nor a side saddle within the bounds of their 
acquaintance ; but it was not so everywhere ; and on the whole there was 
probably about such a state of things as might be seen now in any of our fron- 
tier settlements to the west. 

"As most of them had come from Pennsylvania, where the principles of civil 
and religious liberty were then better understood, and more fully reduced to 
practice than in any other colonies, or in any other part of the world, they 
could not be wholly ignorant of their rights, as British subjects ; nor were 
they entirely without the means of information. Wherever people have an 
enlightened and evangelical ministry, they will be instructed in the prominent 
doctrines of the gospel, and in their relative duties ; and so far as Presbyte- 
rians were concerned they had such a ministry, not adequate to their wants 
but to a greater extent perhaps than any other denomination at that time in 
the country. When the Orange Presbytery was organized the summer before 
the Regulation battle, it consisted of seven ministers ; and all these lived in 
North Carolina. They were all men of classical education; and most of them 
were graduates of Princeton college. There seems to have been, as already 
stated, a classical school in Charlotte ; probably another in Orange or Gran- 
ville ; and Dr. Caldwell's school, which had now been in operation about 
five years, had prepared several young men for college, and some who became 
distinguished ministers of the gospel. There were several English schools 
within the limits of what is now Guilford county: and the people generally 
understood the value of education. The Rev. Mr. Beuthahn,* who, as I am 
informed, organized the German Reformed Churches in Guilford and Orange, 
taught a German school for several years about this time, in the south-east 
corner of the former county ; and the Lutherans had their preachers, who, 
being from Germany, were educated men. In a communication just received 
from Bishop Vanvleck, of Salem, he mentions the Rev. Messrs. Nussman and 
Arnt, who, having been sent over at an early period, ' labored faithfully in 
poverty and privations till, on their urgent application, the Rev. Charles A. 
Storh, Roshen, and Bernhard were sent to their assistance.' The German 
Reformed Churches had several ministers, some of whom were devoted and 
useful men ; and the Moravians were well supplied. There were several Bap- 
tist ministers in the province ; but of their character I know nothing. Peo- 
ple in these circumstances could not be so grossly ignorant as they have been 
represented ; and the Quakers, although they differ from most others in their 
views of the ministry, have always advocated and maintained a high degree 
of English education. There is no class of people in the country who are bet- 
ter acquainted with all the business transactions of ordinary life, or who have 

^Pronounced nearly as if it were written Bittaun. 


a more correct understanding of their rights and privileges, as citizens ; but 
the Quakers if they were hot foremost in the Regulation, appear to have uni- 
ted heartily in all the measures for the correction of abuses, except fighting ; 
and it is said that some of them had metal enough to try their hand at that too. 
Such, in brief, appears to have been the general character of the population ; 
and there were a number of men over the country of liberal education, besides 
ministers, whose names might be mentioned, if it were necessary, so that the 
community was far from being in a state of barbarous ignorance, or regardless 
of their moral obligation." 

Dr. Caruthers is a native of Rowan, was the pupil of Dr. Caldwell, has 
resided all his life in Rowan and Guilford, was from early boyhood famil- 
iar with hundreds who fought at Alamance or sympathized deeply with 
those who fell, and those who fled. No man now living can be esteemed 
a more competent, and no one who knows him, and his range of acquain- 
tance is not very limited, will demand a more reliable witness. 

Of the Baptists not even, excepting the Quakers, the sect most obnox- 
ious to and most persecuted by Gov. Tryon, Caruthers speaks cautiously, 
because less familiar with their history, than that of his own denomina- 
tion. Of the fifteen hundred families which according to Morgan Ed- 
wards fled from the province immediately after the battle of Alamance, 
a large proportion were members of the smitten flocks of Shubal Stearns, 
Daniel Marshall and Tidence Lane. It will not be very easy to name 
three revolutionary clergymen of any denomination, who impressed them- 
selves more widely and deeply upon their generation, and had more nu- 
merous seals of their ministry. Stearns may be regarded as the spirit- 
ual father of the Baptists in North Carolina, Marshall of the churches in 
Georgia and the western portion of South Carolina, and Lane of Ten- 
nessee. The last named was the pioneer of his denomination in the 
valley of the Mississippi, as well as the founder of the Holston Associa- 

The character of the soil is one of the evidences of wealth, not to be 
disregarded in an estimate of the comparative condition of various sections 
of the province. With the exception of the Roanoke, there is no large 
section of the State which will compare favorably with the vallies of 
the Yadkin and Catawba. At the time of which we have been speaking, 
this region was inhabited chiefly by Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, who found 
their way thither through Pennsylvania, or more directly from the mother 
country, through South Carolina. They had received instruction in the 
principles of civil and religious liberty in the old, which never ceased to 
exercise the proper influence, in their new country. They were then as 
now comparatively well to do in the world. To Scottish thrift, intel- 
ligence and piety which they carried with them from their Caledonian 
hills they added the fertility of invention, the gallant and generous en- 


thusiasni of the southern clime and in aftertimes in the mingled current 
of Scottish and Irish blood united elements, producing in individuals 
and classes finer specimens of men than eitl er separate race had exhib- 
ited. To this rare combination of races was added a third element in 
smaller proportion, but with no less interesting characteristics; Dutch 
Calvinists and Lutherans, springing from the protestant blood which 
flowed so freely, in defence of civil and religious liberty in the ranks of 
William the Silent. 

The disallowance by Governor Martin in 1773, of the Bill to re-charter 
Queen's College and of the Bill to repeal the disabilities imposed upon 
the Presbyterian clergy, sundered the last ligaments which bound the 
Southwestern Regulators to the Crown. Before the Battle of Alamance, 
nearly all Rowan and a large portion of Mecklenburg, were in close 
union with the Regulators. General Waddell's magazine, in his march 
through Mecklenburg, was destroyed three miles west of the present 
village of Concord, by "the Black Boys of Cabarrus," and on the 10th 
May 1771 a council of officers at General Waddell's Camp at Potts Creek, 
"considering the great superiority of the insurgents in number, and the 
resolution of a great part of their own men not to fight, it was resolved 
that they should retreat across the Yadkin/' Captain Alexander deposed 
that " he had passed along the lines of the Regulators in arms, drawn 
up upon ground he was acquainted with. The foot appear-ed to him to 
extend a quarter of a mile, seven or eight deep, and the horse to extend 
one hundred and twenty yards, twelve or fourteen deep." Instead of 
the anticipated junction with augmented forces previous to the battle, 
Governor Tryon found it necessary, after the conflict, to march to the 
relief of the beleaguered General. Williamson states that the Governor 
by proclamation on the 7th June 1771, offered pardon to all insurgents 
who should come to his camp or to that of General Waddell before the 
10th July, take the oath of allegiance, and promise obedience to the 
laws, except outlaws, prisoners^ those who blew up General Waddell's am- 
munition," and fifteen other persons whose names were set forth. " A 
reward of one hundred pounds, and one thousand acres of land was 
promised to any person who should bring in Howell, Husband, or Butler, 
dead or alive, they being outlawed. The insurgents in general delivered 
up their arms and took the oath of allegiance." 

It requires no very minute examination of these details to dissipate 
the delusion which prevailed so long and widely, that the great body of 
the Regulators, were tories during the Revolutionary war. Were the fif- 
teen hundred families that fled beyond the Alleghanies tories? or the in- 
habitants of Rowan and Mecklenburg, the two most rebellious counties 
in America ; tenanted by traitors ? Those who were " cowed down at the 


Battle of Alamance" surrendered their arms and took the oath of allegi- 
ance, in many instances became tories.and no small proportion of them were, 
as shown by Caruthers, concientious men who trembled at the suggestion of 
a violated oath. The forced requisition of a wagon and team from John 
Pile, exhibited in our last number, shows the severe process which se- 
cured his allegiance. His followers, who with him rendered such fearful 
retribution in the sanguinary conflict jwith Pickens and Lee on the 25th 
February 1781, were fellow sufferers in the racages of Tryon in 1772. 
Col. Pile was a physician, an amiable man, and for faithful and skilful 
services rendered to wounded Whigs at the Battle of Cane Creek a few 
months after his discomfiture on Haw river, was pardoned by the execu- 
tive authority. 

About the same time that the political reformers first known as the 
mob, assumed the name of Regulators, a similar commotion under the 
same name arose in South Carolina, from analogous causes, but with very 
different results. Dr. Joseph Johnson in his "Traditions and Reminis- 
cences of the Revolution" gives the following account of it: 

"Political discussions were for a while suspended in South Carolina, by com- 
motions in the west and north-western portion of the Province, where no 
courts of justice had been yet established. There a number of lawless men 
had collected from different parts of the world, probably from the number of 
soldiers disbanded from the armies in Europe and America after the treaty of 
peace in 1762. 

"These indolent, profligate settlers committed depredations on their neigh- 
bors, who by industry and frugality were acquiring property, or had brought 
it with them into the Province. The negroes, cattle and horses of the indus- 
trious citizens were the chief objects of those depredators, but they frequent- 
ly burnt the houses, barns and provisions of the respectable and industrious 
farmers who opposed them, and escaped with their plunder among the Indians, 
Spaniards and French, on the south and south-west of the Carolinas. 

"Even when any of those plunderers were captured, being one hundred and 
fifty or two hundred miles off from the jails and courts of law, many of them 
would effect their escape ; the captors, also, having to guard their prisoners 
that distance for trial, and afterwards to attend as witnesses on their trials, 
found the hardship intolerable. Sometimes, after all their trouble, the culprit 
would escape his merited punishment, and return upon them with vindictive 
feelings against the prosecutors. Under these difficulties, the most respectable 
inhabitants united to inflict summary justice on the depredators, and called 
themselves Regulators. The culprits, finding that punishment was inflicted 
on them without the forms or delays of courts, appealed to the royal governor 
for protection, and he sent a commissioner among them to adjust their differ- 
ences. This was Colonel Schovel, who, instead of redressing the grievances 
on both sides, armed the depredators and paraded them for battle; they were, 
consequently, called Schofilites. AVhen on the eve of bloodshed, some more 
considerate persons interposed, and they both sent delegates to the governor, 


claiming relief. The governor and council saw the source of the difficulties, 
and in 1769, seven new courts, with suitable jails and court-houses, were es- 
tablished in different parts of the back country. By these established courts, 
the honest Regulators gained all that they wanted, and many dishonest Schof- 
ilites got what they long merited — suitable punishment for their offences. 
It was remarkable with these men, that having been marshalled by Schovel, 
under authority of the royal governor, most of them joined the tories or roy- 
alists when the revolution broke out, about six years after having been thus 

Governor Graham in his Lecture on our Revolutionary history, in connec- 
tion with an account of Gen. Howe's expedition to Norfolk for the relief of 
Virginia in December 1775, remarks : 

"About the same date, an expedition under Colonels Martin, Polk and Ruth- 
erford, marched from the western part of the state against the tories, (called 
Scovilites, after the name of a royal emissary,*) in the northwestern section of 
South Carolina; and in connection with the troops of that State, under Gen- 
eral Richardson and Colonel Thompson, drove the Tory commanders Cunning- 
ham and Fletcher from the seige of the village of Ninety-six, and on their re- 
treat, surprised and defeated them, with the capture of four hundred of their 
followers. This is known in tradition, as the Snow Camp campaign, from 
the violent snow storms with which its camps were Adsited." 

Gibbes' Documentary History of the American Devolution, published 
since the delivery of this lecture, gives from the original manuscripts 
three letters from Col. Richard Richardson to Mr. Laurens, President of 
the Council of Safety of South Carolina, presenting a detailed account of 
his operations from the beginning to the close of the campaign. On 12th 
December 1775, he remarks, "Our army is about 3000 of different corps, 
viz : my own regiment Col. Thomson's and volunteer light horse, Col. 
Thomas', Col. Neil's, Col. Polk's and Lieut. Col. Martin's of the N. Carolina 
regiment upon the continental establishment, who voluntarily stepped 
out on this occasion, as did Col. Thomas Polk, and they say if you have occa- 
sion for their services, they are ready to go to Charleston when called 
upon." On the 22nd he writes, "on Saturday last, the 16th instant, we 
were joined by Col. Rutherford of Rowan and Col. Graham of Tryon 
counties in North Carolina with about five hundred men who unasked 
stepped forth, hearing of the commotions in this province, to give their 
aid in the common cause." The third letter bears date the 2d Jan'y 
1775 ; we copy so much of it as relates to the leading incidents of the 
campaign : 

"Coxgarees, Jan. 2, 1775. 

Sir : — In my last I informed you of the detachments I had sent out, and in 
a postcript. of my intelligence of success. Our people surrounded their camp 
by daylight in the morning after a long march of near twenty-five ralles, and 

*Scovil or Scofil. 


lying on their arms till day, they then attacked and took about one hundred 
and thirty prisoners, with baggage, arms, ammunition, &c, which completed 
the conquest of that flying party which had till then kept out of reach. They 
had encamped at a convenient place called the Brake of Cane, the Cherokee 
land ; Patrick Cunningham escaped on a horse bare-backed (and they say 
without breeches) telling every man to shift for himself. None of our men 
were^killed or wounded, except the son of Col. T. Polk,* a line youth, was shot 
through the shoulder, and was in great danger. Some five or six of the other 
party, I am told, were killed ; happily the men were restrained or every man 
had died. The next day they returned to camp, the snow set in, and continu- 
ed for thirty hours without intermission, which, with the hardship and fatigue 
the men had suffered before, made them very uneasy, and seeing no more could 
be done they grew so uneasy it was out of my power to keep the troops togeth- 
er any longer. I, therefore, on Christmas-day dismissed the North Carolina 
troops, viz : Col. Rutherford, Col. Graham, Col. Martin and Col. Polk to all of 
whom, in behalf of my country, I returned my cordial and hearty thanks, &c; 

-"Col, Thomas Polk it will be remembered commanded the militia of Mecklen- 
burg at the era of the Mecklenburg Declaration, and was the most influential 
of all the gallant spirits connected with that proceding. lie was the immedi- 
ate predecessor of Colonel Davie as Superintendent Commissary General, 
and on his resignation of this most important and arduous office, was appoint- 
ed Brigadier General in the army under General Greene. Three sons 
shared with him the perils of the revolution. Charles was an officer under 
General Rutherford in the expedition undertaken for the relief of Wilmington 
in the autumn of 1781. His namesake Thomas, a lieutenant in the cont ;,eu- 
tal army, fell on the well fought field of Eutaw, on the 8th September 1781. 
The interesting youth referred to in Col. Richardson's dispatch was then in the 
seventeeth year of his age. He was subsequently Col. William Polk, and for 
some time previous to his death, the only surviving field officer of the North 
Carolina line. 

He was in rapid pursuit of a fugitive Schovilite officer, when the latter sud- 
denly sprang from his horse wheeled and planted a rifle ball in his left shoul- 
■:' ■ • which disabled him for life. The arm was almost severed from the body 
i. i 1 yet so little did it affect the appearance of the erect and stalwart soldier, 
1. 'sat the ordinary observer not merely regarded him as having escaped un- 
pjathed in battle but as one of the stoutest of men. He was confined for several 
months with this wound, and when he left his bed his hair which he wore in 
a cue, in accordance with the fashion of the time, formed a mat in which, to 
use his own language " every hair stood out for himself." It became necessa- 
ry to remove it, and the young woman who officiated as hair dresser, clipped 
it off with her scissors in a solid fleece. He was in the battles of Brandywine 
and Germantown and was with General Nash when the latter was mortally 
wounded. He had two molar teeth extracted by a musket ball and in the 
midst of his sufferings was the immediate witness of the agonies endured by 
Nash during the terrible night which succeeded the battle of Germantown. 

He was the aid of General Davidson and at his side, when that gallant officer 
fell at Cowan's Ford on the 1st February 1781. Ho served under Pickens 
and Lee at Pyles defeat, and fought with his old companions in arms, Lee and 
Eggleton, when his brother Thomas was killed at Eutaw. 

At the beginning of the war of 1812, from age and other causes he declin- 
ed the office of Brigadier General in the regular army tendered by President 
Madison. He was born in 1759 and died at Raleigh, where he had resided 
for many years, on the 14th Jan'y 1834, in the 76th year of his age. 


the same day Colonels Neel and Thomas, and Major Williamson with proper 
orders to pursue such measures in their different marches, as I was convinced 
would be necessary for the public service. I then as I found the service pretty 
well done and no possibility of detaining the men longer, the snow then lying 
on the earth in the smoothest places at least fifteen inches (most say two feet) 
I marched in the best manner we could downward. Eight days we never set 
foot on the earth or had a place to lie down, till we had spaded or grabbled 
away the snow, from which circumstance, many are frost bitten, some very 
badly : and on the third day a heavy cold rain fell, together with sleet , and 
filled every creek and river with a deluge, of water ; but with all these difficul- 
ties we reached this place yesterday with the prisoners, whom we have used in 
the best manner we could — about ten Captains and a hundred and twenty of 
the most mischievous men (some of whom will make good soldiers); all the 
powder; Ninety-sis and New Camp men. We took seven kegs of gun-pow- 
der, six of which I delivered to Maj . Williamson to be sent to Mr. Wilkerson 
for the Cherokees ; many arms have been delivered up, and I caused the men 
to sign an instrument of writing, which they did willingly with fear and 
trembling, by which they forfeit their estates, real and personal, if they ever 
take up arms against, or disquiet the peace and tranquility of the good people 
of this colony again, and to assist them if they are ever called upon." 

It was natural enough that the Regulators of North should sympa- 
thise with those of South Carolina. It may not be easy however, to turn 
to a parallel instance even in the heroic period of our annals of the 
promptitude and numbers with which they flew to aid their oppressed 
brethren. The following editorial article, is copied from " the South Car- 
olina and American General Gazette for the week ending February 9th 
1776 :" 

" A North Carolina correspondent, who signs himself PJiilo-Gune informs 
us 'that the young ladies, of the best families in Mecklenburg county, in 
North Carolina, have entered into a voluntary association that they will not 
receive the addresses of any young gentleman of that place, except the brave 
volunteers, who cheerfully served in the expedition to South Carolina, and as- 
sisted in subduing the Scovelite insurgents. The ladies being of the opinion, 
that such persons as stay lazily basking at home, when the important calls of 
their country demand their military service abroad, must certainly be desti- 
tute of that nobleness of sentiment, that brave, manly spirit, which qualify 
the gentleman to be the defender and guardian of the fair sex.' Our corres- 
pondent adds, ' This is the substance of the association, and we hear that the 
ladies in the adjacent county of Rowan, have desired a similar association to 
be drawn up, and prepared immediately for signing." 

It is to be regretted that no memorial of the names of the signers to this 
in some respects more interesting paper than the Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion of the preceding May has come down to our times. The records of 
the Rowan Committee, in a good state of preservation, and kept with a 
neatness and boldness of chirography characteristic of the era under date 



of the 8th. May 1776, exhibit the following entries : "A letter from a num- 
ber of young ladies in the county directed to the chairman, requesting the 
approbation of the Committee to a number of resolutions enclosed, enter- 
ed into and signed by the same young ladies being read, 

Resolved, that this Commitee presents their cordial thanks to the said 
young ladies for so spirited a performance ; look upon these resolutions 
to be sensible and polite, that they merit the honor and are worthy the 
imitation of every young lady in America." 

We close for the present, the evidence in relation to the character of 
the Regulators, with the following extract copied from the original letter 
in the public archives, from our delegates in Congress, William Hooper of 
Wilmington, Joseph Hewes of Edenton and John Penn of Granville 
The letter is addressed "To the Honorable the President and the mem- 
bers of the Provincial Council of North-Carolina" and is dated "Phila- 
delphia December 1st 1775." The associations of Hewes upon the Chow- 
an and Hooper upon the Cape Fear can scarcely be supposed to have bi- 
assed their minds in favor of the Regulators. Penn the neighbor of Glen. 
Person, if not one of them resided in their midst, and may well be re- 
garded as speaking from personal knowledge. 

" In our attention to military preparations, we have not lost sight of a 
means of safety to be effected by the power of the pulpit, reasoning and 
persuasion. We know the respect which the Regulators and Highlan- 
ders entertain for the clergy, they still feel the impressions of a religions 
education and truths to them come with irresistible influence, from the 
mouths of their spiritual pastors. The present controversy is the cause 
of liberty, of religion, of God — it is a theme worthy the character of the 
divine missionaries of the Holy Jesus, like him his followers ought to go 
abroad doing good, and what employment more meritorious, more purely 
evangelical, than to lead those who err into the way of truth, to 
confirm those who waver, and to call forth the powers of every American 
in" support of the constitution, and to struggle to prevent the downfall of 
the whole British Empire. Influenced by these views, the Continental 
Congress have thought proper to direct us to employ two pious clergymen, 
to make a tour through North Carolina in order to remove the prejudice 
which the minds of the Regulators and Highlanders may labor under with 
respect to the justice of the American controversy, and to obviate the re- 
ligious scruples, which Gov. Tiyon's heart-rending oath has implanted in 
their tender consciences. We are employed at present in quest of some 
persons who may be equal to this undertaking and at a future day shall 
inform you of the result of our inquiries. You will observe that the 
Congress here, conceived the continent so much interested in the meas- 
ure, that they have made the expense of their support Continental." 

I860.] LITERARY FAME. 139 



Floods of volumes annually issue from the press. Everybody seems 
to have been seized with a desire to write a book. Not a few seem to 
have adopted as a maxim : 

" Tis pleasant sure to see one's name in print, 
A book's a book, although there's nothing in't ; 

and the idea of a violation of it the scrupulous conscience of these men 
seems to have completely precluded. Nor is this prevailing propensity to 
trespass upon the public patience checked; it is, on the contrary, not only 
allowed to be indulged without censure, but in most cases is fostered by 
all the means within the power of a public press. Long before a book is 
published it is announced as forth-coming, and public expectation is rais- 
ed to the highest pitch. After its publication, whether it be really use- 
ful and original, or trite and worthless, it is heralded before the world by 
a thousand newspaper advertisements, and men are instructed to look up- 
on its author as a prodigy of learning. A really useful history or novel 
meets with scarcely a more cordial reception than the crude effusions of 
the collegian. By the critics of the day a laurel-crown is given to all 
alike. Yet how few of the books that now lie upon our library shelves, 
of recent publication, will survive ten years amid the general wreck ! 
There are so many books that we cannot read all, and we will only have 
the best. The others, with the names of their authors, must shortly be 
forgotten. Of course, the latter cannot be considered of the number of 
those who have attained to literary distinction ; for otherwise, all writers 
of the doggerel rhymes which we see in newspapers, and indeed all petty 
scribblers indiscriminately must be included in the same number. These 
may, indeed, be the object of praise in some paltry village; may be 
thought heroes or sages by some illiterate people of their immediate ac- 
quaintance. But their fame extends no further. A few short years will 
obliterate all traces of their works, and the world will still move on, un- 
mindful that they ever had an existence. Those only are entitled to lite- 
rary fame, who have written something intrinsically useful, instructive or 
interesting, and which will be worth preserving after the occasion which 
called it forth has been forgotten. By applying this test to every literary 
effort, it will be found that only a few there are who are entitled to dis- 
tinction in any branch of literature. 


Ever since the invention of the printing press, there has been a rapid 
and ceaseless increase of books, and an enormous accumulation of them 
every year. To convince us of this fact, we need simply fefer to some 
catalogue of those published in our own country ; in other countries, as 
in England or Germany, the yearly addition is perhaps still greater. Think 
only of the voluminous remains of Goethe and Schiller, of Byron, Scott 
and Macaulay, and of Irving and a' thousand others almost equally as cel- 
ebrated. To the prodigious number of books already published, each day 
is adding fresh accumulations; and it is impossible to determine what a 
vast, unmeasurable pyramid of volumes of every description, will in the 
course of a few centuries have been collected. 

In the knowledge of these facts, all may reasonably rejoice. Already 
we begin to anticipate a more general diffusion of knowledge, and the con- 
sequent enlightenment and improvement of all classes. We cannot indeed 
calculate the benefits which will inevitably result from such a wide dissem- 
ination of books. We only hope that the time may speedily come when 
all men from the smallest to the greatest shall receive a liberal education; 
for we believe that then and not till then will be realized the philanthro- 
pist's fond hopes of that universal prevalence of virtue and intelligence 
among mankind which will usher in the dawn of the happy " millennium/' 

But there is a darker side to the picture, which we cannot overlook or 
disguise. Work after work of science, of history and of poetry, is daily 
passing into quiet oblivion ; many perish from violence or accident, and 
many from natural decay. It is a fact which every lover of literature 
cannot but mournfully contemplate, that there is an annual decay or' des- 
truction of truly valuable books, which we have no means of preserving, 
almost equal or at least bearing a large proportion to the annual produc- 
tion of them. It is an impressive thought that every day s'ees the extinc- 
tion of the product of " some once busy and aspiring mind." And the 
printing press, the very means invented for their preservation, is but an- 
other instrument of their extinction — burying under the pile formed by 
recent publications those of an earlier date. Thus names once held in 
high esteem are continually passing away, or their works no longer read. 
Let the reader, no matter how well informed he may be, consider for a 
moment how many, many authors even of wide celebrity there are, of 
whose writings he has never read even ten pages. In this way, he may form 
some slight conception of the vast number of books which are annually 
being forgotten or mouldering into dust. 

But notwithstanding all the vicissitudes of fortune to which all the 
productions of the human mind are exposed, and the mutations which the 
tastes and the literature of each succeeding age may undergo; still, there 
are some deeds which cannot pass away, some names that cannot perish. 

I860.] LITERARY FAME. 141 

The names of Homer, Shakspeare, Milton, Bacon and perhaps of Goethe 
can never be forgotten. Empires may rise in power and splendor, and 
then in ail the glory of their magnificence may perish; whole kingdoms 
and cities may be overwhelmed amid the convulsions and revolutions of 
earth. But the works of men like these are as imperishable as the eter- 
nal hills, and their names will continue to shine on from age to age with 
undiminished lustre. 

Yet how few men like these the world has ever seen ! It may well be 
doubted if the world will ever again produce one other man, who so far 
surpassing in excellence both his predecessors and contemporaries, is capa- 
ble of so impressing his genius upon his productions, so moulding and 
shaping them to beauty, as to attain a longevity commensurate with that 
of the Grecian Bard. And it is a melancholy reflection that all those 
who cannot attain this superior excellence, must like a bubble be swept 
silently and rapidly away upon the current of Time, without scarcely cre- 
ating a ripple upon its surface ! But let not the young aspirant to litera- 
ry fame droop his head in despondency. 'Tis true, upon all things 
earthly is written " vanity," and the highest glory which industry and ge- 
nius can claim is as fleeting as a shadow. Well may youthful ambition 
sigh over the destructibility of all human performances, the instability of 
human works. Yet, though the dreams of the enthusiast may never be 
realized, the works of genius are capable of a much longer duration than 
these facts would seem to show. And to the author there is this consola- 
tion — if Ms works perish, so surely must the name and deeds of other 
men be forgotten also ; for to him they owe the perpetuity of their fame. 
Though no pen however powerful, no theme however grand, no skill how- 
ever consummate, no intellect however superior, may establish a celebrity 
which will fully gratify man's natural longing for immortality, still the 
author may erect for himself a monument more durable than that of brass, 
and perpetuate his memory for centuries. The corroding hand of time 
makes less fearful depredations upon his works than upon those of any 
other 5 and as his glory is more difficult to be won, so we believe it should 
deservedly meet with greater applause and gain a higher reward. 

In the remote ages of antiquity, it is true, the conquests and. triumphs 
of the warrior were more loudly applauded than the subiimest strains of 
the rhapsodist; and the time perhaps has been when even Homer's fame 
was as naught, compared with that of the heroes he celebrated. The 
hoarded treasures of a Croesus placed their possessor in higher esteem 
than the loftiest measures of the poet, and the exploits of the athlete 
once won a higher name than all the labors and researches of the historian. 
To win the palm at the Olympic games — or to return from the field of 
battle, commanding an army burdened with the spoils of war and covered 


•with the laurels of victory, and to enter the streets of ancient Kome at 
the head of a triumphal procession — such was once perhaps the summit 
of human ambition. But long since the time has passed away when men 
took delight only in the wild clangor of drums, the heavy tramp of the 
war-horse and the fearful clash of armies. Christianity and civilization have 
diminished the love of martial glory. Another era has dawned upon the 
world; the spirit of the times is changed, and men have now learned to 
appreciate the performances of those who have achieved great deeds in 
the department of mind. The brightness of Homer's fame has eclipsed 
that of his heroes, and while thousands have won by their writings a 
deathless name, ancient warriors and athletes, once so loudly celebrated, 
are now but vaguely remembered. Time throws a mist over the doings 
of the past which even the most vivid imagination cannot penetrate, and 
the people of a former age seem to "live in twilight and speak in whis- 
pers/' After the lapse of a few years the excitement produced by the 
exploits of the warrior gradually subsides, and finally dies away, and he 
is partially forgotten. But the work of a man of letters remains fresh 
and vivid. His works are still before us and we may judge them for 
ourselves. The historian leaves in his writings the evidence of his own 
labors and careful study; the poet stamps upon every page the impress 
of his own struggles and passions. By thus coming into intimate, per- 
sonal communion with the minds of his readers, the author still continues 
to excite our sympathies, and we unconsciously bring ourselves to look upon 
him as one of our own age. The writer, therefore, who has once attained 
great literary excellence, suffers no loss in reputation by the lapse of time. 
On the contrary, every age gives him a crown of fresh laurels; and while 
military glory decreases year by year, literary excellence gains louder 
and higher applause. Such has been the fortune of Homer and many 
others quite inferior to him, and such will probably be the destiny of 
some others who at present are held in comparatively little esteem. The 
writings of many an author, as we all are aware, are read, studied and 
admired long after the language in which he wrote has ceased to be em- 

And the work of an author is deservedly entitled to a higher reward 
than any other. If fame be the object of his desire and his works be 
truly meritorious, let his ambition be gratified. But just here there is a 
difficulty which cannot be overcome. There are many worthy names 
which posterity would willingly perpetuate, many valuable books which 
we would cheerfully save from decay, injury or destruction, were there 
any possibility of escape. There are many bright stars in the literary 
firmament which we would gladly see shine on forever with a lustre as 
glaring as when they first shone forth in all their glory upon the world; 

I860.] LITERARY TAME. 143 

but alas! unfortunately for them, yet happily for succeeding ages, bright- 
er luminaries will appear, and excel them in splendor; and they must be 
content to live in partial obscurity. 

Again, if an author's object be to improve and enlighten society, it is 
to be hoped he will gain his appropriate reward also. And it is interest- 
ing to remark not only how successful have been the efforts of those who 
have exerted the powers of their intellect towards the accomplishment 
of this purpose, but what grateful tributes of esteem the world is ever 
paying to their memory. Galileo, Copernicus and Newton still live; after 
having achieved an incalculable amount of good for the world, they have 
left behind them names which time itself cannot erase; for they are en- 
graven in eternal adamant upon the very face of Nature itself. 

But again, if the writer labors for pecuniary motives, here, too, let his 
wishes be realized. Authorship is seldom a lucrative profession, and if 
there were not higher motives to impel an author to his work, or greater 
rewards for his labor, than gold or silver, verily the number of writers 
would be few and the scarcity of good books would be lamentable. Gold- 
smith ever felt the pain of pinching poverty, Chatterton, the precocious 
child of genius, without a penny was driven to despair, and Otway, we 
are told, died of starvation. But for the author there are — there should be 
nobler aspirations, more powerful incentives to action, more desirable 
rewards of his industry, than the simple increase of his coffers above 
what is required in order to meet the common necessities of life. 'Tis a 
matter of no little consideration with him that he shall win the applause 
of his contemporaries and bequeath a lasting inheritance to posterity. 

Literary fame is perhaps the most difficult to win of all. Other men 
may be favored by circumstances; the warrior may take advantage of 
some favorable occasion to display his powers and push his conquests, and 
may establish his fame by performing some deed, not difficult to be done 
indeed, but conformable to the wishes of his contemporaries; and thence 
be transmitted to posterity as worthy of commendation. But the writer 
must not only work his way step by step up the hill of fame, but must 
stand the test of time and the criticism of each succeeding age. And 
unless hjs writings are adapted to the tastes of each following generation, 
he must either wholly relinquish his high position in the eyes of the 
world or suffer a partial degradation from it. But perhaps there are some 
who will deny that the writer is entirely unfavored by circumstances, and 
will maintain that he, too, owes much of his reputation to the state of 
men's feelings and judgment in the age in which he lives. Some men 
hold the opinion that had there never been an Edinburgh Review or a 
Mary Chaworth, the latent fires of Byron's genius would never have 
blazed forth upon the world. Now upon this point no very definite 


conclusion can be formed. Human sagacity and foresight are incapable 
of penetrating the future, or of determining in every case what cause 
will produce a given effect and what result will be brought about by the 
operation of a given cause. It should seem, however, that reason in this 
case would lead us to a decision somewhat different from that of those 
men just alluded to. No one will doubt that Byron's literary piques, dis- 
appointed love and personal deformity, ail acted as powerful influences in 
the moulding of his character; yet, in the absence of these influences, 
probably others and no less powerful would have roused his dormant ener- 
gies into action. It is only to be regretted that influences such as these 
did act upon him; for otherwise, his writings would not, in all probabili- 
ty, have been tainted by that misanthropy and licentiousness, which now 
pervade the whole. This seems to have been his own opinion, as we 
may gather from several passages ; thus, before concluding that most bitter 
satire, " English Bards and Scotch Reviewers," he exclaims : 

" The time hath been, when no harsh sound would fall 
From lips that now may seem imbued with gall, 
Nor fools nor follies tempt me to despise 
The meanest thing that crawl' d beneath my eyes : 
But now, so callous grown, so changed since youth, 
I've learn'd to think and sternly speak the truth; 
Learn'd to deride the critic's starch decree, 
And break him on the wheel he meant for me." 

A great many other passages might without difficulty be selected, that 
would corroborate this opinion. 

To those who advance the opinion that the writer is largely indebted 
for his success to the existing circumstances of his time, it may again be 
answered that those authors who select for their subject some topic or 
event of only transient interest ; that those who suit their works to the 
tastes of the present age alone, are the very ones which most speedily per.- 
ish. If an author would have his name perpetuated through the long 
march of time, he must choose a theme of permanent interest ; and the 
durability of his works will be in direct proportion to the length of time 
that his subject engages men's attention or curiosity. This rule, however, 
is not without exceptions. A work even of superior merit upon any sub- 
ject may be superceded by another upon the same subject of still.greater 
merit ; and for this reason, it is sometimes said that the poet has fairer 
prospects of immortality than the man of science. 

Upon the true historian — the faithful chronicler of events and the use- 
ful deductions drawn from them — too much praise cannot be bestowed. 
More is dependent upon him than men generally admit. To him we are 
indebted for the lessons of the past and, in a degree, the prosperity of 
the present and the fortune's of the future ; since past events furnish les- 
sons of wisdom by which we are instructed how to direct our course for 

1850.] COLLEGE LIFE. 145 

the future. It is a common observation that to write a history — to collect 
and arrange all the materials — to read and re-read thousands of volumes 
" dim with the mist of years " — and to weave an interesting narrative out 
of dull, naked facts — is no small labor. It would be, indeed, a pleasing 
task, were it in our power, to fulfill his " fond desire," to gratify his 
"longing after immortality." But alas ! 

" Omnes una manet nox 
Et calcanda semel via leti." 



Iii te omnis domus inclinata recumbet. — Virgil. 

As it is natural for the traveler, who gazes upon the pyramids or pauses 
by the scattered columns of some ancient city, to speculate upon the soli- 
tary grandeur of the one and the melancholy fate of the other, so the student 
who passes through the College mint will naturally reflect upon its opera- 
tions. But the majestic monarchs of the desert look down forever with the 
same mournful gaze upon the millions that have paused at their feet and 
passed away; while the College aspect changes with circumstances and the 
onward march of civilization. A four years residence in the halls of lear- 
ning modifies essentially the moral, mental and physical powers. Its in- 
fluence is felt least of all upon the moral, however, for they generally 
have been germed at home, and after life only develops its traits more 
prominently; the youth of firm principles and good morals while at home, 
needs much temptation to seduce him from the path of honor when 
abroad. The home influence is predominant, the tree that starts upright be- 
neath the parental roof, though it may bend to the blast or pine beneath the 
pestilent heat, will spring again to its position and still point to the sky. 

'"Tis education forms the common mind, 
Just as the twig is bent the tree's inclined." 

And as many are not thus prepared, they of course are liable to fall 

into bad habits. That Collegians (as well as others) have temptations, no 

one will deny — but that they affect as dangerously as elsewhere, is a matter of 

very great doubt. College dissipation is of a different cast from all other, 

a higher order; it is the refinement of the gross indulgence of the common 

herd. There being no necessity of concealment from their equals, and the 


moral expansion being incited by tbe mental, they discard the low, filthy 
degradation of the city debauchee, and only aim a-t those generous, liberal 
sprees, which though they weaken, do not degrade. Here the invitations to 
vice being fewer, the consequent indulgence is not so regular as to form a 
strong habit; though the affected sang froid of occasional hilarity often 
deceives observers into the belief that such is universally prevalent, and 
thus leads them to consider Alma Mater as the seat of all wickedness. 
But even those few who do sometimes dissipate, when they go forth into 
the world and find indulgence so insipid compared with the "feast of 
reason and flow of soul" that once prevailed, when instead of companions 
worthy of themselves they must embrace the scum of society, when they 
dare not acknowledge such associates in the broad light of day, when 
conscious of degradation they must blush beneath the glance of those they 
esteem; conscious of this change they generally reform in disgust. But 
he who imbibes a taste for debauch in its blackest form, who wanders 
forth from the joyous social circle where every endearment binds to vir- 
tue to seek the dens of vice, is generally stained forever. And the stu- 
dent, who for years is absent from home, centers round its memory all 
his brightest hopes, merges all his ambition to merit their confidence, re- 
members with fond regret its many joys, and learns to love it far more 
than he who never felt its want. But the great effect of education here 
is upon the mind. The world is beginning to know "'tis the mind that 
makes the man," the groans of the mighty steam as it wrestles in its bon- 
dage, and the song of the loom as it beguiles its captivity, tell mankind 
in tones unmistakable, that "knowledge is power." And as more atten- 
tion is devoted to its cultivation, and as Collegiate training has an impor- 
tant influence, this has received due consideration, and the long line of 
youth that daily seek its advantages is strong evidence of its merit. It 
is a gymnasium, where the faculties of the mind are strengthened and 
its powers developed. Every noble principle is excited by every stimu- 
lant that can be applied. Emulation spurs industry and excites activity. 
By comparison with its fellows, the mind discovers in what it is strong 
and what weak, what precocious and what backward. The problems of 
Mathematics exercise ingenuity, and Greek and Latin exercises encourage 
facility of translation. Eor a long time these three departments filled 
up the curriculum, and even then secured that perfect command of fiicul- 
ty and that grasp of comprehension which seldom failed of making their 
mark. But the utilitarianism of the age, unwilling to devote so much 
time to training for training itself, has introduced in the same space all 
those beautiful and instructive sciences which have resulted from the re- 
markable discoveries of the last century. These while they to some 
extent train, will also furnish the mind with the most valuable facts capa- 

I860.] COLLEGE LIFE. 147 

ble of immediate and practical application. By dealing in abstraction 
the mind learns to depend upon itself, but from the later sciences it forms 
a better idea of the wonderful structure of creation and the omnipotent 
Architect who planned it. 

Truth and beauty having no connection with selfish ends are sought for 
themselves alone. Libraries open their doors wide to the enquiring 
gaze. The experience of ages furnishes food for reflection and light for 
future action. The exercises of debate encourage eloquence; and those 
of composition, depth of thought and beauty of expression. The only 
danger is that this refinement may be carried too far and produce an 
aversion for the practical, or a mird too deep for comprehension. 

The collegian seldom possesses that shrewdness of trade, and that inti- 
mate acquaintance with the people which characterize the man who from 
earliest infancy has struggled with adversity. To him the people invari- 
ably give the preference, omnibus paribus ; for their logic is, that he who 
has the superior advantages if true to himself, would have made superior 
advancement, and if not true to himself, he will hardly be to us. And 
thus you often hear men say ''here is a collegian who is utterly worthless, 
and here a self-made man who has won the affection and esteem of thou- 
sands/' How' is this? Plain enough. College can not create mind, nor 
compel improvement ; it only proposes to offer the means of improvement, 
and if those means are neglected or the raw material is wanting, the fault 
belongs elsewhere. 

A proper education not only gives the signet stamp of superiority, but 
also that je ne scris quoi of refinement that scltens every action. The 
dullest plow-boy sees and yields to its invisible influence and the most 
turbulent assembly bows in respect. In every department it occupies the 
highest places; it adorns the ermine of the judge, it points the wit of the 
lawyer and clings to the robes of the senator. In politics, though often 
the breath of the blatant politician falls like a syren song upon ears dis- 
torted by passion, yet education carries that nobler consciousness of 
knowledge that will in the end prevail and grasp the highest honors of 
government. Such are its mental effects. The existence of health and 
bodily power, however, is the back-bone of a nation; it is not only neces- 
sary to the prosecution of agriculture and all those hardier forms of in- 
dustry, which are the bases of society; but it is the understructure which 
sustains the citadel of the brain, and when once this is undermined, the 
former preys on itself and falls a melancholy spectacle of ruin. Its prop- 
er development is therefore essential, and as at Southern Colleges this is 
too much neglected, lassitude, indigestion and frequent bad health ensue. 
The reason is this, that in order to attain and preserve good health, indus- 
try and exercise are indispensable. But the majority of Southern stu- 


dents are from the richer classes, and as poverty stings to exertion, while 
wealth allures to indolence, it results that very few of those raised in 
luxury ever make the exertion to secure the "mens sanain sano cor pore." 
And as these would at home have heen indolent and made no progress 
in mind or body, it follows that this is not at all owing to college educa- 
tion, hut is due to the weakness of our own society. And to this very 
fact, is due three fourths of the imperfection of college discipline, and 
that lack of shrewdness and industry that enable the Northerner to out- 
wit the Southerner. 

But there is another view of the student's life. The draughts of the 
Pierian spring are gemmed with many sparkling pearls and the hill of 
Science dotted with many flowery beds where the traveler can repose. 
What four years can be more enjoyed ? Is he rich? Here's the place to 
enjoy an innocent hilarity which excites not the sneer of envy. Is he 
poor? Here's where struggling poverty enlists our sympathy and de- 
mands our respect, where intellect is felt, and the fire of genius charms 
the generous hearts that hasten to its altar. Is he good-natured? Here's 
where a flow of soul mingles with congenial elements, and Friendship's 
temple ever blooms with freshest garlands. Is he morose? Here's 
where rough-edge is worn from his exclusiveness and his rustic manners 
polished with a refined gentility. 

Happy era ! Happy man ! To him Fate has mellowed the severity of 
her decrees and Fortune smiles upon him. Isolated from the cold formal- 
ities of the world, he dwells in a society whose every nerve quickened 
with the life-blood of the young, beats time to the march of progress, 
where rising health and budding hope dream not of decaying age and 
smile upon distant calamity. His every want supplied, no harrowing 
cares or financial crises chain his thoughts to the fickle wheel of fortune, 
no domestic quarrels fret his ease nor hungry babes madden his want, 
no national dangers call for his interference and no commercial disasters 
jar "the even tenor of his way." 

His mind is its own world, his soul's as boundless as the throbbing 
ocean and his thoughts as free as the passing breeze. The widest field 
of human inquiry lies before him and the voice of the mighty dead calls 
upon him to explore its mysteries. Learning equips the young traveler 
with the means of investigation, and fair Science scatters his path with 
those flowers which may one day distil the intoxicating perfumes of the 
never dying laurel. Both the past and the present furnish food for 
contemplation. In the past, no disappointments mar the happy hind- 
scapes, no stings of conscience lurk snake-like in the pleasant walks, 
sweet retreats and truly "happy vallies of our childhood;" for memory, 
young and golden memory, finds it no difficult task to linger among those 

I860.] COLLEGE LIFE. 149 

fairy bowers. But the future is peculiarly the student's own. Now 
vaulting ambition whispers to an attentive credulity more than magic 
tales, wantonly revels in unlimited power or wisely teaches 

"The applause of listening Senates to command 

The threats of pain and ruin to despise 
To scatter plenty o'er a smiling land 

And read our history in a nation's eyes." 

Hope now gilds the horizon with the bright rainbow of future promise 
and a fancy which may before have taken sudden and lofty flights, but 
lark-like soon fell, startled at its own rashness — now ventures like the 
soaring eagle to wing its steady way to the regions of the mid-day sun 
and gaze with an undimmed eye upon the splendor that dazzled his 
young glance. Ah young man ! despise not the present, nor overlook its 
advantages. To-morrow sharp disappointment will clip the wings of 
your fancy, frosty experience nip your budding hopes, and bitter reality 
teach the trusting heart that these were like fatal mirages of the desert 
that allure but to deceive. For when the man has grown old and hag- 
gard, or stained with vice, no gilding of memory, no splendor of the 
present, no promise for the future can calm the throes of a troubled 
heart, nor sing to rest with their soothing lullabies the whispers of a 
never-dying remorse. 




One morning in the palmiest days of Greece, 

The Golden Age, when all on earth was peace, 

From high Olympus mighty Jove looked down, 

His brow deep-furrowed with an angry frown, 

Upon his far-extending empire — earth : 

On man to whom his father's power gave birth. 

From Juno's vengeful tongue, in fretful mood, 

He just had fled, and thus in silence stood 

Gazing beneath him, and chagrined to see 

That man was happier, happier far than he. 

Then from his strong right-hand he quickly cast 

A thunderbolt which, loudly echoing, passed 

Adown the mountain's side ; o'er hill and plain 

The thunder followed in the lightning's train. 

Roused from his slumber Mercury arose 

Cursing his fortune, his disturbed repose. 

Then, borne on winged sandals through the air, 

He quickly reached the mountain summit where 

The Gods and Goddesses made their abode, 

And meekly asked the pleasure of the God. 

"Haste thee," spake Jove, " thou smooth-tongued villain go, 

Thou God of Thieves, to ' Lemnos lying low/ 

Bid Vulcan hasten hither ere the sun 

Another hour upon his course has run." 

The hour had passed when up the mountain side 

Slow came old Vulcan with his limping stride ; 

When in Jove's presence, like an awkward clown, 

He made a low obeisance and sat down — 

Sat in Jove's presence ? Crime too great to name ! 

Softly, my friends, he was a God, and lame. 

Then out spake Jove: "List thunder-framer, list 

To my commands ! Seest thou, (this is the gist 

Of what he said) seest thou on yon bright sphere 

How happy men are ? Not my subjects here, 

Not I myself, I burn with rage to own, 

Seated in might on Heaven's eternal throne, 

Am so contented and at ease as they, 

The careless grovellers, creatures of a day ! 

This must not be and it shall not, I swear 

By all the creatures of earth, sea and air ! 


Their hearts e'en now are filled with pride to see 

That they are happier than their God can be. 

Get thee to work ; thy genius can invent 

Some nice machine, some curious instrument 

Which shall remove of pride the smallest trace, 

And put some grievance direful in its place ! " 

" Thou hast, Jove, the mighty thunder-bolt 

With which to slay the nations that revolt 

From thy just rule ; thou canst smite all whom pride 

Renders rebellious : until all abide 

By thy decrees ; till every one shall own 

The power that emanates from Heaven's great throne," 

"No ! 'twill not do ! I do not wish to kill, 

But to inform them that great Jove reigns still 

Omnipotent. I wish their joy to blight ; 

That will, I know, impress them with my might." 

"Ah yes, it is the heart that thou would'st reach, 

Thou'dst send a missile to the heart of each. 

I can do nothing then. 'Tis in my power 

To heap up mountains, or their summits lower; 

But then the heart is far too tender 

For me to touch — my hands are rough 
And clumsy, I could never render 

The missile delicate enough. 
But yet I think it can with ease be done : 
In Heaven are gentle hands, there's many a one 
Would serve us well ; and Venus has a boy 
(Thou know'st his father) who could snatch all joy,. 
If but trained properly, from every heart 
And leave instead a poisoned, stinging dart." 
" So be it then," spake Jove. " Do as you will, 
But mind my orders are to grieve, not kill." 
Then Vulcan sought the place where Love lay hid, 

And took him from his mother's arms ; 
Performing only what his God had bid, 

He heeded not her tear-stained charms. 
Led by the hand, he took him to a grove, 
The one in which the three bright Graces rove, 
And to them gave the training of young Love. 
One formed for him a magic little bow 
And pointed arrows which unseen should go, 
Sped swift as lightning by his tiny arm ; 
One trained his glances, gave him power to charm — 
To overcome by his cpiick-flasking eye. 
The third taught how to let his arrows fly. 
Then down into the world he hied, 
O'erjoyed to have such fun ; 


On all he saw his power he tried, 

And pity had on none. 
Those happy times, the Age of Gold, 

Forever then were o'er ; 
Where sped this little bowman hold, 

There joy was known no more. 
The Age of Silver took its place, 

Times waxed still worse and worse ; 
He sped him on ; the Age of Brass 

Came next to mark his course. 
Was this the last? No, once again 

The times deteriorated ; 
The Iron Age came forward then, 

Ere Cupid's power abated. 
Then was a time of greatest woe, 

(And such you know 'tis now, sirs.) 
Woman was taught her power to know, 

And straightway donned the — -how, sirs, 
Shall I "unmentionables" call? 
I cannot mention them at all. 
Then men were thrown into the shade, 

As they themselves must own ; 
Then women statesmen's speeches made, 

For instance — Lucy Stone. 
All this was done, as we have said, 

By Cupid's magic dart; 
He put it into woman's head 

To try to rule the heart ; 
And this she did — with groat success, 

Ruled heart, and head, and all : 
She was the greater, man the less, 

Man's pride had thus its fall. 

A moral from this tale I draw, 

A moral good and wise, 
And let it be to each a law, 

To make him " mind his eyes." 


Whene'er you play with women's hearts, 

And catch a glimpse of Cupid, 
Then quickly "travel from those parts," 

Or be — uncommon stupid. 




It has become almost a universal practice among English Reviewers to 
disparage to a certain extent the writings of American authors. They 
have taken advantage of every opportunity to sneer at the literature of 
our country — to taunt us with the reproach that our standard of excel- 
lence is too low — to advance the oft-repeated charge that our best writings, 
of whatever character, bear not one mark of originality, but are merely 
imitations — in short, they would persuade us that no work of superior 
merit can be produced outside of England, and that it is but just that 
Americans should yield implicitly to their judgment. Even when it has 
been their province to criticise our best authors, those of universally ac- 
knowledged ability, they have been loth to notice the true merits, yet 
have pointed out the faults and blemishes without reluctance. They have 
endeavored to impress upon our minds, that " they, as foreigners, can pass 
judgment upon our literature with the impartiality of posterity;" and then, 
in a tone of assumed superiority and scorn, have spoken of the "insup- 
portable weariness," with which they have perused our most celebrated 
authors. We doubt not that these facts warrant the conclusion, that the 
imputation of national vanity which they have been so forward in bring- 
ing against us, may with equal propriety and justness be proffered against 
themselves. But it is not our purpose in this place to retort upon them 
with unbecoming severity; to answer their rude incivilities and malicious 
accusations with equal recrimination and abuse. We had hoped that 
the spirit of enmity and strife which formerly existed between this and 
the mother country had been soothed into a sentiment of friendship and 
good- will; that the liberal and charitable doctrines of the nineteenth 
century had been sufficiently ingrafted into the minds of the English peo- 
ple to prevent the existence of petty national prejudices and of those con- 
temptible cavillings so characteristic of contracted minds. Americans 
have not hesitated to acknowledge their admiration of the productions 
of English genius ; and the popularity which their writers have gained 
on this side of the Atlantic, bears ample testimony to this statement. We 
are not slow to own our obligations to England's great and gifted men ; 
we, who have drank at the pure, delightful fountains of her poetry and 
tasted the rich and varied fruits of her industry, feel our hearts swell in 
gratitude towards her. We are not unthankful for the inexhaustible 


treasures of thought, learning and wisdom, which she has garnered up 



and spread abroad over the earth. Of her historians, Hume, Gibbon and 
Macaulay have attained a high and deserved reputation among our people. 
Her distinguished orators and scholars have ever received a cordial tribute 
of admiration and praise from our most eminent critics. Her poets, too, 
have been justly appreciated by us ; and Shakspeare, Milton and Byron 
enjoy perhaps a greater celebrity and are more extensively read in America 
than in their own country. We have listened with rapture to the amorous 
songs of Thomas Moore ; we have admired the sublime imagery, chaste 
diction and fantastic conceptions of Shelley, and observed with deep regret 
the workings of his wayward and deluded mind ; and we have smiled 
more than once over the quaint humor and grotesque similes of Thomas 
Hood. The martial strains of Campbell have often kindled an enthusi- 
astic glow of patriotism in our bosoms ; and we have often been enrap- 
tured by the soothing melody of Goldsmith's winning muse. In a word, 
all the standard authors of England, both of the past and present, have 
received from us their appropriate share of praise, and many of them 
have acquired a reputation here greater than their native renown. Why, 
then, have English critics been so niggardly in their praises of American 
genius? Is it because a petty jealousy or envy has perverted their judg- 
ment? Or have they spoken with the deliberate conviction of a mind 
free from undue partiality or prejudice? We deem it no remarkable 
manifestation of generosity to allow them the benefit of the last supposi- 
tion. Yet we question if they have not expected too much of our infant 
republic. The truth is, that in most eases they have judged much too 
harshly of us; yet we cannot disguise the fact that there is really much 
of reproachful truth in the alleged deficiency of our literature. Its pro- 
gress in our country has been slow, and it has never reached that 
high standard whieh we think we can reasonably hope it will ere long at- 
tain. This deficiency has been attributed by different writers to various 
causes. Some have fondly told us that our people, on account of their 
active, utilitarian character, have not yet become sufficiently alive to the 
importance of an exclusively national literature, and that their attention 
has been too entirely absorbed by their business transactions in the pur- 
suit of wealth, to allow them to turn aside for refreshment under the luxuri- 
ant bowers of fiction, or to. seek recreation and repose along the fragrant 
paths of poetry. There is no doubt much truth in this assumption. It 
might have been added, however, that as soon as our people have acquir- 
ed sufficient wealth to enable a portion to live in leisure, luxury and ease, 
and have become sufficiently apprised of the great amount of worth and 
refinement which poetry adds to the intellectual wealth of a nation, Ameri- 
ca will astonish the world by the richness and beauty of her poetieal 
productions, as she has already done, by the variety and importance of 


her practical inventions; for whenever an art has been cultivated, there 
has not been wanting American genius to perfect it. 

Others, no less hopeful than the last mentioned, have proposed a solu- 
tion, by supposing that the dearth of books of superior excellence in our 
country, is due mostly to the great deficiency of judicious, fearless and 
independent criticism in America. Much of our intellectual poverty doubt- 
less depends on this also. There is a manifest disposition among our reviewers 
to eulogize every book submitted to their inspection; which can have no 
other tendency than to thwart the very end which criticism is intended 
to promote. That system of puffery, too, adopted by so many of our 
journals and newspapers, leads even to worse results. It not only defeats 
the purposes of criticism, but leads directly to the extinction of all grades 
of merit. Its evil tendencies are certainly too obvious to require any 
illustration or proof to convince us of them. It is surely a matter of 
great surprise that men of sense should ever have adopted such an inju- 
rious system ; a system as absurd in its practice as it is pernicious in its 
results. By what means can we so greatly retard the progress of our 
literature, as by bestowing our praises indiscriminately upon good and 
bad books ? In what way can we more effectually promote it than by ex- 
posing the imperfections and errors of inferior writers and securing to 
those of real worth their due reward? 

But the deficiency in our literature cannot be ascribed to any one of 
these supposed causes alone. The truth seems to be that a combination 
of causes has operated against us. Scarcely can we find in the whole 
course of our history an author who, laying aside all pretensions to every 
other profession, has devoted his talents exclusively to literary pursuits. 
Many of the poetical compositions of our most celebrated poets and some 
of our best biographies and novels have been written during the intervals 
of professional labor. And even when a writer has made authorship his 
sole profession, and relied upon that alone for support, he has been 
obliged to pander to the corrupt tastes of his readers; a circumstance 
which has had a tendency to depress rather than to elevate the standard 
of our literature, to retard rather than to facilitate its progress. 

But notwithstanding the repeated assurances which English critics 
have thought proper to give us of the poverty of our literature and the 
contempt with which they have sometimes affected to treat even our 
standard authors; we nevertheless think that many have arisen among 
us, of whose writings we may well be proud, and whose worth an imper- 
ative sense of justice has sometimes compelled even English Reviewers 
to acknowledge. Americans have justly complained of the little atten- 
tion which our literature has received at the hands of the English public ; 
for though it has not yet attained that high standard of excellence which 


the English claim for theirs, it is surely entitled to a higher position 
than that to which they have been disposed to assign it. In history, despite 
the many disadvantages naturally arising from the scarcity of the proper 
materials in our country, we have made very laudable progress. The 
names of Bancroft, Prescott and Irving should at least redeem our coun- 
try from the reproach of barrenness in this department. The critical sa- 
gacity and philosophic profundity of the first, the iron perseverance and 
refined elegance of the second, and the grace, ease and dignity of the 
last, constitute them formidable rivals to any historian whom England 
has produced in this or any preceeding age. Among our orators, we 
number Henry, Webster, Clay, Calhoun and Everett; a galaxy of bright 
names of which England herself might well be proud. Of those who 
have labored successfully in the field of philosophy, we may mention 
Edwards, (the author of the celebrated book entitled "Edwards on the 
Will") Emerson, Wayland and many others; the works of all of whom 
are too generally known, and whose reputation is too firmly established to 
require any passing tribute at our hands. Nor has the poetical talent of 
our country been left uncultivated. And even though "no world-re- 
nowned minstrel has yet arisen in the New Atlantis," many of our poets 
have been read and highly appreciated by intelligent readers not merely 
in England, but on the Continent. But it is in this department especial- 
ly that English critics have shown a disposition to disparage our litera- 
ture. They have asserted that scarcely any American poet shows " dis- 
tinctive features of originality either in thought or expression." Now 
we leave it entirely to the good sense of our readers to decide whether 
this assumption be either charitable or just; we are quite sure that their 
good judgment will not approve of it. As well might we assert that 
Milton has copied after Homer and Virgil, and claim the right to depre- 
ciate his merits on that account, as that Bryant has imitated Wordsworth, 
or Halleck, Campbell. The imitation is equally manifest; the accusation 
would be equally just. The truth is, that though Halleck does sometimes 
remind us of Campbell, and Bryant of Wordsworth, their language and 
ideas are quite distinct; and we doubt whether any of our readers would 
dissent from us, if we should claim that Marco Bozzaris surpasses any of 
Campbell's martial odes, and that Thanatopsis excels any passage in the 
Excursion. What Englishman would not be indignant with any one 
who denied that Gibbon, their favorite historian, has improved upon John- 
son ? And yet all who are at all acquainted with the writings of each, 
must acknowledge that the former made the latter his model. 

If the greatest success and the largest number of publications of an 
author be taken as the criterion of the greatest merit, Longfellow surely 
stands at the head of American poetry. His claims to superiority, how- 

I860.] dreAm land. 157 

ever, are contested by Bryant, Poe, and according to some by Halleck. 
The great number of candidates for poetic fame in our country is truly 
astonishing. It is therefore impossible to assign to every one his appro- 
priate grade. Willis, Sprague, Dana, Percival, Holmes and Saxe may 
however be mentioned as having gained the next highest position in the 
eyes of the public. 

True, no great epic has yet ' been produced in America, yet who shall 
say that posterity a thousand years hence will not hold the name of Edgar 
A. Poe in grateful remembrance? What vision can penetrate the dim 
mist of the future and disclose to us the final destiny of that unfortunate 
man, when time shall have thrown a veil of eternal oblivion over the er- 
rors of his life, and wrought its myriad of changes upon the opinions 
and doctrines of mankind? That genius, for such even his enemies ac- 
knowledged him to be, has given his " Eureka" to the world, with these 
significant words : " What I here propound is true; therefore it cannot 
die — or if by any means it be now trodden down so that it die, it will rise 
again to the Life Everlasting." 



Fairies round me hover 

Bright their wings with gold, 
Soft winds waft me over 

To the land of old. 
Rich with memory dreaming 

Sweet that olden land, 
Deck'd with jewels gleaming 

Girt with golden strand. 
Kings in martial glory 

Kneel before the fair, 
Knights of olden story 

Do their battle there. 
Persia's glittering hosts 

Crowd the foaming ocean, 
Tyrants vaunting boasts 

Fail for Greek's devotion. 
Roman conquerors march 

Strong in mighty legion, 
Span with triumph's arch 

Lands of every region. 
Banners proud are flapping 
. High on castle walls, 


War in pompous trapping 

Leads the festal balls. 
Bards in whitest neatness 
Sing in tones all clear, 
Songs of heavenly sweetness 

Charm the listening ear. 
On its shore Time's Ocean 

Beats in silvery surge, 
Sings in music's motion 

Nations' funeral dirge. 
All the myths of fable 

Real there do live, 
Language best unable 

Faint conceptions give. 
Sunset's brightest flashing 

Gilds my childhood's home, 
Silvery brooklets plashing 

Cool the milky foam. 
Stern in manhood's duty 

Father's voice I hear 
Sweet in heavenly beauty 

Mother's smiles appear. 
'Gain I see the treasures 

Sleeping in its dell, 
Still I feel its pleasures 

Bind with magic spell. 
Queenly there is reigning 

Blue-eyed maiden fair, 
One my soul enchaining 

In her golden hair. 
Zephyrs softly breathing 

Waft me to her arms, 
Silken garlands wreathing 

Bind me to her charms. 
Blessed be that olden 

Dreamy realm the best 
In its vineyards golden 

Weary minds ean rest. 
There I often loiter 

Tired of the strife, 
In its crystal water 

Taste the gems of life. 
If around me linger 

Storms to cloud my march, 
Hope with rosy finger 

Paints her rainbow arch. 



What can the man mean by such a caption? My dear friend, that is 
just what I intend to explain; and I hope that when you have smelt the 
flavor of what I shall extract from these two words, you will confess that 
they contain more, and better, stuff than you at present believe. It 
may be a weakness with me, but I love to excite the curiosity, and to 
lead it somewhat of a chase; but I am never so cruel, as to refuse to 
gratify it at last. As well might a man refuse to pay a servant who 
had worked for him, as to send away empty that curiosity which he has 
excited for his amusement. So, my dear lady, you need have no fears 
of being defrauded by me, as I promise to do my utmost to explain the 
meaning of these two words. Between every writer and reader there 
is a virtual compact. The one promises to amuse, or instruct, or myste- 
fy, according to the nature of his subject; and the other, a willingness 
to be amused, or instructed, or mystefied, as the mood of the writer may 
direct. Now, before I write another line I have the right to exact the 
following promise, to wit; no one shall read this article, unless he, or 
she, be in a good humor. The time and place I permit each one to settle 
for himself, or herself, only remembering the condition. Sitting near 
the window of my study — for be it remembered, I am a young sprig of the 
law — and watching the ebb and flow of busy people along the street, a 
queer thought came into my head; suppose every one attended to his 
own business, and let other people's alone, what would be the conse- 
quence? In the first place, every lawyer would starve. Granted; that 
would be one benefit. People would get along a great deal better. 
That would be another benefit. Then I conclude that half the ills of 
humanity originate in this fact : many concern themselves about what 
they ought not, and do not concern themselves about what they ought. 

What concerns me? That is the question for me to answer, and an- 
swer honestly, and live by. It is what all of us should keep at our tongue's 
end; so that at every emergency we may be ready to say — "That con- 
cerns me," or "That is none of my business." If the temptation come 
a thousand times to speak ill of my neighbor, I must trample it down. 
I am not responsible for him, why should I speak ill of him? He must 
answer for himself, and I must answer for myself, and Grod sees us both ; 
or the civil magistrate takes him to task for evil doing. Herein lies our 
great mistake — we forget our office. We all imagine ourselves sheriffs 
to execute the criminal; and no sooner is a crime committed, than we 


begin our work, and soon the whole town is singing with his name. The 
most of us are under-executioners. We have framed an unjust code of 
laws; and thus a man is trebly punished — his soul, by God; his body, 
or estate, by the magistrate; and his character, by ourselves. Not that 
a malefactor should not be punished in every form ; but who is a male- 
factor ? Here lies the error; for we often condemn him, whom neither God, 
nor the magistrate finds guilty — and this, because each man acts as 
judge, jury, attorney, and sheriff in the same cause. What right have 
we to abuse, or in any wise injure, what is not our own ? And yet we 
daily bemud the character of our neighbor by speaking evilly of him. 
Whenever we injure a man's reputation, we deprive him of money; and 
and if we do it wantonly, we are downright robbers. I speak plainly; 
the conclusion is irresistible. A man's reputation is the means of ob- 
taining his employment — that is, money ; hurt his reputation, and you 
cripple his means, and his pockets remain empty. This is the employ- 
ment of our scandal-dealers and busy-bodies. Let them look at it and 
see its effects — this is why the Good Book forbids it. And when we 
work out the wherefores of each precept as we have done this, we will 
find that they are just and reasonable. 

Some of you will say, "I know a neighbor who ought to read this." 
By these very words you condemn yourself — thou art the man. Does it 
concern thee? If so, strive to give thyself a better disposition, and pray 
for it; if it concerns thee not, let thy neighbor ask himself the same 
question. The answer is for him, not thee. But if you have at any 
time repeated something to your neighbor's detriment, how dare you 
shout, " not guilty I" Remember that an Eye saw you, and an Ear heard 
you — they are witnesses against you, and I believe them in preference to 

If you find a church-member acting contrary to his profession, or a 
preacher who is an extortioner, or a miser ; what is that to thee ? Are his 
professions founded on correct principles ? Is preaching beneficial ? Then 
yourself profess the same doctrines, and be yourself a preacher, and let 
others take care of themselves. You are not here to correct all the in- 
consistencies in the world; your hands are full, if you rule yourself 
properly, and this is your legitimate work. There is, undoubtedly, a 
great deal of evil-doing in the world — there always has been. In former 
times it set one philosopher to weeping, and another to laughing ; and 
there is forever enough of it to make us weep ourselves away, or split our sides 
with laughter, if it were our business. Any given man would go stark 
mad, were it his duty to take cognizance of every mean act. But it is 
not his duty. It can by no possibility be so construed by any twisting of 
the social compact. But there is one evil resulting from society, and al- 


ways attendant upon associated bodies ; it prevents the full realization of 
one's individuality. And we come to look upon the crowd as a part of 
ourselves; and we forget what pertains to ourselves, and to them as indi- 
vidual men. This is what I am striving to enforce, Does it concern me ? 
But men may concern themselves even in their own affairs in a manner 
that they ought not. They may let some particular accident affect them 
too grievously ; or they may let their general business weigh too heavily 
upon their minds. Does it concern me ? Yes. Is it worthy of concern ? 
Let us see. If we wish to excite a man's interest, how do we set to work ? 
We prove to him that it is worthy of interest, and then appeal to his pas- 
sions. No man can be enthusiastic, when he is all the while thinking, 
"T his is a very foolish business ; and those fellows yonder are laughing at 
me." But convince him that it is not foolish; and let them laugh on — ■ 
'twill redouble his fury. This is the root of the matter, conviction ; 
which is affected by a process of reasoning. Now to apply our conclusion. 
Reason says that it is folly to grieve at what we cannot help ; because it is 
beyond our power : and it is folly to grieve at what we can help ; because 
it is within our power to obtain a remedy. We may be sorry that we can- 
not help it,, but we are guilty of folly still. This is what I desire, to dem- 
onstrate the folly of despair. What though my business is irretrievably 
confused, and in my old age I am left a beggar — will despair help me ? 
Will it put food into my mouth, or clothing upon my back, or replenish 
my coffers, or increase u>j respectability ? Away with such a thing ; I 
will not have it to reign over me. Suppose I have staked the happiness 
of heart and soul upon any measure, and I lose, can I possibly retrieve 
the matter by surrendering myself to gloom and inaction ? I will try to 
compass my ends another way ; possibly I may succeed next time. If I 
be in any way unfortunate, I know one thing, and it is worth remember- 
ing — despair never yet pulled a man out of the mire. The good Sir Isaac 
and his dog, Diamond, have spoken volumes to posterity ; and they are 
valuable volumes too : "Ah ! Diamond, Diamond, thou little knowest the 
mischief thou hast done ;" but the good man set to work immediately to 
repair it. Let us repair our losses. Perhaps we may not restore them com- 
pletely as before ; but let us do what we can. This is to live with profit. 
If the fire consume my store, I rebuild it. If it be again consumed, I'll 
clear away the ashes and build again. This is what nature taught the 
American Indian — to battle with the fire, but laugh over the ashes. We too 
may learn from nature. This is true courage, to meet the ills of life with 
a brave heart ; and the more fiercely they assail us, the more stoutly we 
withstand them. I would trust such a man with the safety of an army of 
men ; he would prove a very ScEevola, or an Horatius Codes. There is no 
back-down in him; it is all stand and take, and God help the right. I 



love such a man ; eve,ry body loves him — he is a good citizen ; he is a true 

But the man who shrinks from a difficulty, is a veritable coward. He 
may increase his substance, may pass for a brave man; nay, he may 
even be a blusterer, but let him be tried — and he'll run. Can such a man 
quietly and sternly bare his breast to fate, and force misfortune to do him a 
favor ? A coward may fight a man of flesh and blood; but he is a brave 
man who struggles against an unseen arm. This is the test — the strug- 
gling with fate, the conquering one's own faint-heartedness. A coward is 
never brave when alone ; and misfortune must often be born'e in silence 
and solitude. And he who shrinks is a coward. He who despairs can 
never gain our affections. We may pity him, but we never decree him a 
monument, or a statue. Such a man will never have a biographer. He 
can set no example but that of a poltroon ; and no man is willing to figure 
to such disadvantage. Horace bared the root of the matter when he 
counselled his friend : 

" Aequam memento rehus in arduis 
JServare mentem" — Ode III, Lib., II. 

This is the thing to determine upon — I will never despair. u Keep a 
stiff upper-lip/' as the adage goes — the thing has been worked out before 
for us. These are the questions: Does it concern me ? Is it worthy of 
concern ? I hope I have answered them for you ; if not satisfactorily, 
answer them for yourself; but beware of the folly of despair. This 
brings me to my second part. 

Hitherto I have been engaged in showing that we often concern our- 
selves about things in which we have no business to interfere ; or when it 
is our business, we are often too much distressed. Now I will turn the 
picture over and look at the other side. We do not sufficiently concern 
ourselves about many important matters. This is the philosopher's business 
— to study both the negative and the positive, what is forbidden, and 
what is enjoined. Every principle teaches two grand lessons; every law 
embodies two commands. "Thou shalt" commands also thou shalt not: 
and "Thou shalt not" enjoins what thou shalt. Now for our principle : 
Attend to thine own business. What does it mean ? It forbids us to in- 
terfere with others; it commands us to observe ourselves. Who is ob- 
servant of himself? Or, rather, who are not observant of themselves ? 
More people than we are accustomed to believe. Let us see. 

You are a young man of good family, of tolerable expectations, and 
have quite a good opinion of yourself. Thus fir you will pass muster, 
but this is not all. You have a strong desire to appear manly ; you smoke 
a great deal and talk a great deal about it. You play billiards ; you play 
cards ; and strut about in a gambling house, to appear at home in such a hell 


as this. You swear loudly, and are guilty of things that I dare not put upon 
paper ; and yetyou very innocently ask, "Who is not observant of himself?" 
I would be at a loss to imagine, did not your blush betray you. Thou art 
the man ; I see it on your face — there is no hiding it. Ask yourself this, 
Does it concern me ? Your conscience will not lie, were your face as im- 
pervious to a blush, as the very ground you spit on. Even Talleyrand, 
the iron-faced, could not get his conscience to lie; for it was the only 
spark of divinity within him — his intellect was the devil's work. Look 
at the general principle he had worked out : "Words were invented to 
conceal intentions." Is there anything of God about that ? I like a blush 
— it is the tint of innocence. You are a gay young man, and not obser- 
vant of yourself; and a present occupant of the Poor-house was a gay 
young man and not observant of himself — look to it. Is it harm to be 
gay ? An euphemism is an argument of the devil. I like plain words, 
and I will put the question in plain words. Is it harm to get drunk — to 
gamble — to visit brothels— to waste your time in idle company — to be a 
companion of the vicious — to spend your substance, body, soul, and mon- 
ey, in riotous living ? That is your gaiety ; and it drags you to the Poor- 
house, or the gaol — and thence to hell. I hate mincing; I would rather 
be rude and speak the truth. A lukewarm man never controls anybody; 
and I would make you all observant. Earnestness is always plain. 

"I am sowing my wild oats now," you say. Yes, and you will reap 
rocks and hardships. What harm is there in taking a drink with a friend ? 
It is a very innocent matter. What harm in taking two ? Oh ! there is 
no harm. In taking a dozen ? It is perfectly angelic. And you keep act- 
ing like an angel, until your landlord kicks you out of his house for a 
nuisance. This is the beginning of hardships. Your way grows rougher 
and rougher, until you lie down and die from sheer tire of living. This 
is the biographer of a drunkard — a plain, unvarnished tale, which may be 
predicated of every drunkard. Shall I concern myself because I have ta- 
ken one drink ? Until he forgets to concern himself, when he is lying in 
the ditch, sleeping in Market-houses, pawning his dead-mother's wedding- 
ring for a drink, and kicked from post to pillar, like a brute ; and all the 
while wearing God's holy likeness — a living lie. Fly for thy life ! Man, 
who hast begun to reason thus. The Pursuer is upon thy heels ; it con- 
cerns thee to fly speedily, thou needest a veritable Clavileno. This is the 
wild oats which thou hast sowed. The dragon's teeth sprung up into men ; 
and from these wild oats of thine will spring up demons to torment thee. 
This is enough to concern thee ; be observant of thyself. 

Thou who seest thy brother-man falling away, lend him thine hand. It 
is none of thy busines? Thou art not answerable for him ? But in this 
matter thou art. If I send a number of men to work my will, I blame 


them if it be not done. They should have bound the unwilling man, 
rather than disobey my orders. I shall blame him for his disobedience, 
but thee, for not binding him. It concerns thee to make thy brother 
good, to save his soul from the burning, to preserve unstained the image 
of Grod. Thou art not the accuser; for thou art not sinned against; but 
thou art blamed, if thou strivest not to bind him. If thy brother want, re- 
lieve him. So shalt thou send him on his way rejoicing, and thyself become 
a creditor of Heaven ; for "he that giveth to the poor, lendeth to the Lord." 
Thou owestlove to thy brother ; and love is charity. If thou pay est not thy 
debts, thou art sued ; and it will cost thee more than the original sum. If 
thou canst not pay, thou art a bankrupt, and a pensioner upon charity. It 
concerns thee when thou art able, to pay thy debts. The hoarder, the ex- 
tortioner, the oppressor of the destitute is verily a pitiable object, a most 
crawling worm, a naked beggar in the sight of Heaven, while he feels at 
heart that he hates it. To beg the one we hate — the last, most bitter, of 
degradations. Be not thou like him. It concerns thee vitally. 

Meum et tuum — these are words of wondrous import. The Meum is 
mine ; I will take it into my house and see to it ; for I am bound to pay 
it with usury to my Lord. It concerns me to know how I may best im- 
prove it. Do my possessions consist in riches, or in talents ? If I am 
rich, how shall I employ my treasures ? This is the question ; and the 
answer lies deeper than the principles of political economy. A man is 
something more than incarnate Greediness; and there are possessions 
more valuable than money — possessions for which a man would do well 
to empty his treasury. This is the goodly pearl — how is it obtained ? 
Of one thing I am sure, it can never be bought by extravagance. Rich 
presents, fine clothes, costly dinners, are not the pearl. They may bring 
you the plaudits of flatterers, the envy of fools, or may leave you with 
indigestion and disease; but God flatters not, envies not, and hates gour- 
mands. Though your breast sparkles with diamonds, and your fingers 
are behooped with the gold of Ophir — they are not the jewel — they are 
not worth your money even — a fig for a bespangled walking-machine. 
Though you have a dress fresh from the hands of Madame Mantalini, or a 
coat and wig just from the Parisian shops, a man is something more than 
an animated clothes-horse ; and Fashion is not the jewel. Ihe secret of the 
thing lies in this; men have hearts. It is true that there are some emp- 
ty-pated, hollow-breasted fellows, who have nothing within but blood and 
guts; and who bring nothing out but a few slang sentences and their 
own excrements; but still my principle generally holds good — Men have 
hearts. It is more pleasant to feel that you have pleased your wife, and 
to see her smile, than to have a fine coat. It is more pleasant to pleaso 
your husband, even at some self-sacrifice, than to dance all night in a 


ball-roorn. There is nobler enjoyment in helping the needy and deserv- 
ing, than in stuffing a costly dinner down your throat. It is more pleas- 
ant to do a charity, than to drive the beggar from your door and lock up 
your money in a coffer. This is the deduction — to improve your money 
is to do good with it. This is the jewel, the consciousness of doing good. 
To feel that in your circle, be it little or great, you are working under 
the love of God, to benfit your brethren — this is to live. I am doing 
my little part, feebly 'tis true, but as well as- 1 can, to serve God and do 
good to men — whosoever can say this truthfully, he is a true man and a 
Tiappy. ! man, who can not say this, it concerns thee to say it speedily; 
for thou mayst die while thou canst yet declare, "I never did one good 
thing, and I never tried." 

Reader, have I told thee aught for thy good ? Then, go thou, and do 
it quickly. Many things concern thee not, and many concern thee vital- 
ly; learn to distinguish between them, and live always as under the eye 
of God. 


BY H . S . 

The proper study of mankind is man. — Pope. 

Thus sang a bard of high exalted name, 

One who, though dead, immortal lives in fame. 

Here poet and philosopher in one, 

At once both Wisdom's and the Muse's son ; 

For what in human lays we rarely meet 

In this brief line we may delighted greet — 

A thought of beauty well express'd and true 

Believed by most, admired by many too — 

But oh ! so wide the gulf 'tween act and creed, 

Though all approve, but few its teachings heed ; 

While most, as 'twere knowledge 'nough acquired 

To know he eats, drinks, sleeps, and rests when tired, 

Still wander dully on through life's brief span, 

Content to live in ignorance of man — 

Crown-piece of God's most finish'd works below, 

That only may himself presume to know — 

That only can thoughts God-like pleasures feel 

And angel's joys strive for with hope and zeal. 


True, vast the field — opposing labors great, 

And great the skill it needs to cultivate. 

But what does this but urge us eager on 

To grasp a prize so worthy to be won ? 

Let us preserve in mind from day to day — 

Where outlay's small, so too will be the pay. 

Old Troy renown'd in song as Helen's home, 

With all its wealth and many a sculptur'd dome, 

At length succumb'd to perserving foes ; 

By toil proud Rome's earth-wide dominions rose. 

Who then so lost to worth will stand aloof, 

And say, 'tis all in vain, because forsooth 

Some difficulties may dispute the way 

With him who would the noble task essay ? 

Go, seek the miser's grave — there sit and muse, 

For gold think how he toil'd but to abuse ; 

Or docile, view the march of pleasure's train. 

Who soul-absorb'd base shadows seeks to gain, 

Then mute with shame, since folly's fool so long 

In sacrificing years in ways of wrong, 

Awake, arise, for once act like a Man, 

And human nature now resolve to scan. 

But think not strange if progress seems but slow ; 

For real progress must be always so. 

In hope the thrifty farmer sows his grain, 
And patient waits the joys of coming gain. 
Aggressive Time invades the future fast, 
And weeks increase the number of the past ; 
Ere yet the radiant beams of morning's sun 
Give sign that vegetation is begun, 
When peeps the tiny blade above the sod, 
Where in full time the golden harvests nod — 
A rich reward from nature's hand at last, 
For all the cares and labors of the past. 
Man's character peers ever through his acts, 
Hence teachers wise are history's hosts of facts. 
Wherever found or sacred or profane, 
If read aright sure none can read in vain 
That book which tells of actions done by Man, 
Since time and he their pilgrimage began; 
For human nature, like the human face, 
Identity yields not to time or place ; 
Though each of all its varied forms we'll find, 
Unlike the rest yet diff'ring not in kind. 
As trav'ler who in wand'ring far from home, 
From place to place resigns himself to roam, 
Is sure in ev'ry land or clime to find 


Some image of his own to still remind 

Him of his home, and yet things the more, 

The more he roams, he'll find, unseen before : 

So those who study of mankind pursue, 

At ev'ry step will make discov'ries new — 

Something, indeed, to please — a sunny spot, 

But much, alas ! he well may wish was not. 

Read hist'ry, then, but study it with care ; 

In deeds men past with present men compare. 

Guard well the thoughts, those rovers of the mind, 

That wanton wildly stray when unconfin'd, 

Lest like the shade of eagles' wings in flight 

Which flit away and soon are out of sight, 

Great truths unheeded pass before the mind, 

And leave no trace of their great worth behind. 

Do you read of the good, the brave, the great ? 

Think who deserves these names in Church or State — 

A Cataline, then think of those who now 

For self their country's head in shame would bow. 

Thus from effect in thought proceed to cause, 

And see how all unite in gen'ral laws. 

But hist'ry learn'd sans its philosophy 

Appears so much downright tom-foolery ; 

For what, pray, does it profit us to know 

Great Caesar's death or Pompey's overthrow ? 

Unless ambition's end we here discern, 

And many other useful lessons learn. 

If then in human nature you'd be wise, 

Not hist'ry's self but hist'ry's teachings prize. 

Weigh well the present too ; for sad's the plan 

That for the dead neglects the living Man, 

All eyes observe men single and in mass, 

The past beholding here as in a glass. 

Strive then to know but not to know alone ; 

For others' follies may correct our own. 

To know one's self is height of human lore, 

More useful than both school and college store ; 

Because not long can vanity enthrall 

The soul of him who knows himself at all, 

Nor can that man be proud that's thus endow'd %, 

For none that knew himself e'er yet was proud. 

Let's mind that study of the human race, 

The study of ourselves does too embrace, 

That while for this to strive we never cease, 

In that from day to clay we may increase. 

In all our efforts, then, be this our end — 

Our faults to know, that we may wisely mend. 


But if what is we're not content to know, 
And fain would understand the whys also, 
Sincere in search of truth let's seek, dear friend, 
The Book of God, with humble heart attend, 
And meekly learn what nowhere else we can. 
To man the Bible teaches most of man; 
It tells what Human Nature was at first, 
It teaches what it is by sin accurs'd, 
It purifies the grossness of the heart, 
And does this great — this glorious truth impart — 
That if we'd know what man is yet to be, 
By living right we will in Heaven see". 
August, 18G0. 


When Roman arts were trodden in the dust by the barbarians of the 
North, and the star of civilization which had beamed upon the farthest 
limits of the Ronisn Empire was shut out by dense clouds, then a dark- 
ness such as the world had never known before, settled upon humanity. 
The Gothic nations having overcome their enemies, were not slow in tur- 
ning their arms against each other. From beyond the Caspian Sea to 
the British Isles men were in commotion; dashing their strength against 
each other, and neglecting all the arts of peace. The spirit of war was 
thoroughly aroused; and when there were no distant enemies t'o struggle 
with, each man looked upon his weaker neighbor as a proper prey. Rob- 
bery, and murder, and oppression iucreased the horrors of that dismal 
time. The weak fled to the strong for refuge, and for protection bartered 
their liberty. There flourished then no science, no study of nature's 
laws, no culture of letters. Siroccos of passion swept across the desert 
of mind and buried or blighted every blooming thing. Lawlessness 
stalked about the world unhindered; the cry of the oppressed was 
drowned by the clamor of war; and earnest men who could have thought, 
were busied with battles, and sieges, and crusades. Learning, driven 
from fair villas and the free light of heaven, fled to the monasteries and 
left men to the baneful reign of ignorance and superstition. 

A few centuries have passed away — and mark the change. Old opin- 
ions that repelled the spirit of inquiry have been driven from their strong- 


holds. Into almost every department of knowledge men have pushed 
thfeir investigations, and have not feared to assert the truth, however ad- 
verse it might be to existing prejudices. A system of equitable laws, 
impartially executed, has quelled those violent men who flourish in lawless 
times. Newspapers and books are enlightening public opinion and culti- 
vating those intellectual and moral faculties, which alone raise man above 
the brutes around him. Science, among her numerous gifts, has opened 
communication between distant continents; and Commerce has bound 
great nations together by the ties of interest ; while those principles of 
international law, which have their origin in eternal justice and are bin- 
ding upon men by virtue of their common brotherhood, have softened 
the asperities of war and increased the advantages of peace. Diplomacy 
now decides the fate of nations ; and men trust more to the wisdom of 
the statesman than to the sword of the soldier. 

How was this change effected ? Who tore away the clouds from that 
beautiful star, that its beams might soften the rough souls of men ? To 
whom are we indebted for all these blessings? To the kings of the 
earth? They who feed upon oppression, are not likely to make men free. 
They who desire no laws but what their wills dictate, are not likely to 
study the rules of justice. Every liberty granted to their subjects, is so 
much abstracted from their own authority. The power of the people is the 
weakness of the prince. Their privileges overthrow his, their influence 
conflicts with his freedom is the death of despotism. The ruler and the 
ruled are natural antagonists. The one ever seeks to increase his impor- 
tance, to gather every power into his own hands, and to check every in- 
road made upon his prerogatives. The other as constantly labor to un- 
dermine the foundations of kingly authority, to pluck every power from 
his grasp, and to lift themselves above his oppression. Thus are they 
ballanced; ever watchful of each other, mutually jealous of every move- 
ment, and ready to improve every favorable circumstance. That king 
would be blind indeed, who would throw the weight of his own influence 
into the popular scale. He would be almost a suicide, who would give 
the death-blow to his own power, and strengthen his people against the 
fear of his arm. Not to kings, then, must we be grateful. Every beam 
from that star which illumines their realms, shines in opposition to their 
wishes ; they would have shrouded it in blackness forever. 

To whom are we indebted for this change? To the nobility? They are 
but monarchs of a weaker growth. Banish royalty, and the nobles are 
undone. As the sovereign would wave a despotic sceptre over all the 
state, so the nobility would be absolute masters within their own domains. 
While the people are ignorant, they may be oppressed. They can have 
no unity of action, and one by one, their very life-blood may be wrung 



from them. Superstition may throw her dark mantle over them; and 
there is no alternative but to work, and groan, and die ; while their rulers 
fatten on the spoils. This the nobles know; and think you they ' 
would, from sheer philanthropy, weaken their own authority and diminish 
their incomes ? Selfishness is too strong a passion to permit it. They 
know that their influence remains only so long as the people are below 
them ; that education mocks at oppression, that when the mind is cultiva- 
ted the body will not be enslaved ; that unity of interest begets unity of 
action ; and when men can think, they will communicate their thoughts-. 
And they know full well that this would hurl them from their places of 

To whom, then, are we indebted for this change-? It is to the people 1 
Despite the exertions of kings and the oppression of nobles, they have 
grown from weakness to strength, and from barbarism to civilization. 
Despised, at first, and trodden upon, they have demonstrated in many try- 
ing times their importance to the state. Not by debasing others to their 
own level have they grown powerful, but by elevating themselves. And 
how did they thus raise themselves from the dust and ashes ? By their 
capital ! How did they obtain their capital ? By their industry ! In- 
dustry, then, is the ultimate cause of the people's greatness, and but 
few arguments will suffice to prove that it is the ultimate cause of their 

There is in man an inherent energy that compels him to labor; and often 
he feels that despite his own will he must surrender to it. As well might 
we endeavor to restrain the ocean's eternal flow, as to stop the impetuous 
current that sweeps men to their toil. It is a necessity imposed by Heaven it- 
self. Lock man in a dungeon, load his body down with chains, if you will; 
yet will his mind be busied, yet will he dream of labor. Act — act — act — 
he sees it written upon the frowning walls, he hears it swelling from the 
depths of his inmost soul; and he wrings his chains in agony, because he 
must lie there, in inactivity while the sounds of hurrying footsteps come 
like tantalizing music from without. Labor is life and health to man, and 
the hostage of his success. 

But there is yet another law equally as unchangeable and insurmounta- 
ble : When men do labor they will claim the enjoyment of its fruits. 
With these two necessities impelling them, they are bound to toil, and 
they are bound to wrest security from their sovereign. It may be slowly 
done, but still it is as inevitable as the decree of fate. When the popus- 
lation is thin, fear restrains them; but as year by year their numbers in- 
crease, their murmurs grow louder, and their confidence bolder; until 
some flagrant injustice of the ruler affords an opportunity to vent their 
long-hidden anger. The murmurs swell to shouts; the shouts, to demands; 


the demands, to threats, until their terrified prince grants them the 
liberties they want. Security obtained, they readily turn to the acquisi- 
tion of capital; and capital accumulated, they demand that themselves 
shall declare how much they shall pay to the government. 

With increase of capital, the demand for labor increases ; and thus they 
go on mutually enlarging each other, until whole communities and king- 
doms are industrious, prosperous, and happy. And what thoughtful man 
will deny the assertion, that with the diffusion of wealth comes the diffu- 
sion of knowledge, that enlightenment always follows capital ? With the 
means of gratification in our hands, our desires begin to multiply. Pride, 
ambition, and self-interest prompt us to study, that we may be equal to 
other men and able to cope with them in the great struggle. And more 
than all, the holy love of knowledge which God has planted in the hearts 
of all mankind, springs up into a beautiful tree laden with the rich fruits 
of intellect. An eternal, ever-increasing longing to know the truth, drives 
men to the study of books, and of nature. Soon schools arise in every 
hamlet, and children are brought there to be educated. 

But all is not yet accomplished. There are many even in our own land, 
who are degraded and ignorant. There are many nations yet groaning un- 
der despotism and groping in mental darkness. But the time shall surely 
come when industry will raise all men to an equality; and when the trav- 
eler in some far Eastern land will recognize his brother-man, not by a 
kindred form, but by a kindred intellect. Then the earth shall be again 
transformed into an Eden, and men be again worthy to associate with 
angels ; and then the curse that fell upon our first father shall have been 
converted into a great, eternal blessing. 




There's a spot where, in pleasure supreme, 

The student of beauty may roam, 
By the hanks of some sweet limpid stream, 

In the land of the Seminole's home. 
; Tis a clime where the soft summer skies 

In loveliness reign through the year, 
And the breeze, like a fair maiden's sighs, 

By its softness the lover may cheer. 

'Tis a spot where, in splendor unchanged, 

The Jessamine opens its flow'rs, 
Where the Live-oaks in grandeur are ranged, 

'Mid the depths of the old forest bow'rs ; 
Where in fullness Magnolias expand 

Their giant-like petals so fair, 
And, by April's mild zephyrs oft fanned, 

Where the mosses stream darkly in air. 

'Tis a spot where, in clearness undimmed, 

Gleam the water's of silvery sheen ; 
Where fountains, whose surfaces skimmed 

By some fragile canoe, may be seen. 
And so bright glistens each crystal wave, 

It seems 'twas not folly which led 
A Be Leon his limbs here to lave, 

In the hope that new youth he might wed. 

Oh ! then give me this soft fairy clime, 

'Tis the choice — 'tis the home of my soul, 
Where gently the fingers of Time 

Touch hearts as its wheels swiftly roll. 
And oh, here let my last breath be drawn, 

When Life's fitful dreams shall have fled, 
And the soft perfumed dew of the dawn, 

In its sweetness rest over my head. 
August, 18G0. 

I860.] WHAT IS MAN? 173 


BY G. 

There is a time, when melancholy, robed in sullen gloom, takes her 
■abode in the human heart, and draws from man those stern reflections, 
which are often calculated to make deep and lasting impressions. 

Wrapped in the lonely shades of Solitude, my mind is taught to in- 
•dulge in the reverie of the Past, and behold the fading wreath of splen- 
dor, which decked the withered brow of royalty; and when awaking 
from this day-dream of pleasure, I oft exclaim, what is man? Echo an- 
swers, Scan the pages of the Past, and you will read his History, on the 
pillars of Time, emblazoned in letters of living light. 

I feel now, that I stand on that noted Mount, near into the waPs of 
Jerusalem, and distinctly hear the voice of the Almighty, pouring forth 
eternal wrath on the city, where once smiled the hopeful joy of redeem- 
ing Love. I hear the morning zephyr, as she sweeps o'er the shades of 
^departed saints, and sighs in mournful strains for those lovely maidens, 
now bending around the Altar, consecrated to the Gods of their wild 
imaginations. Methinks I hear the crystal streamlet, flowing so gently 
in its winding course, and murmuring in doleful accents"" the lamented 
destiny of the most prideful city, ever favored with the radiant beams of 
celestial light. And now serene amid the fiery tempest, I behold the 
storm, breaking o'er the spires of the fated city, a sulphurous flame ris- 
ing supported by clouds of pillared darkness, which heaves and tosses 
with the broken cries and groans of perishing thousands, while the de- 
mon of the tempest rides at leisure on the fiery wings of desolation and 
yells in tones that strike terror to the most obstinate soul, what is man ? 

I have stood upon the battlements of ancient cities and gazed on the 
mighty works of Artists reared in Gothic style to perpetuate the illustri- 
ous deeds of some daring Chieftain, whose hands are imbued with the in- 
nocent blood of unnumbered millions, and whose voice has oft been sti- 
fled by the mournful cries of orphans and groans of famishing mothers, 
yea, even by the woful lamentations of nations, whose orb of light has 
been hurled from the galaxy of the Universe. 

I have stood serenely and admired the gleeful countenance of the hero 
smiling contemptuously at the frowning sycophant, lowly bending to receive 
the servile mandate of his haughty Tiord, amid the enthusiastic shouts of 
an enraptured people. Again I have stood on the loftiest heights of eter- 
nal mountains and beheld at a distance the glittering armies of unnumber- 


ed powers, rushing madly in the contest with brandished swords, now red- 
dened with the dripping gore of countless myriads, piled up as an atoning 
hecatomb # to satiate the inordinate thirst of some prideful spirit of the fiend 
incarnate, whose only ambition is to win the fading crown of royalty, 
already encircled with the evanescent wreath of worldly grandeur. 

I have seen the cities of antiquity, which once rang with the sound of 
the gay and cheerful, and vibrated to the melodious voice of a fairy queen 
and echoed with the wild huzzas of admiring heathens, gazing on lively 
beauty, still flushed with the joyous emotions of conscious youth. And I 
see still the gorgeous habitations of man, decked with lofty cathedrals and 
palaces, now mouldering beneath the corrosion of age, when all has van- 
ished save some stately column of colossal grandeur, which continues to 
point upward as an imperishable memorial of that gigantic nation, whose 
Star has passed the horizon of Time. Lastly I have stood on the distant 
verge of the starry firmament and gazed with awe on the mighty convul- 
sions of Nature and been absorbed with the unrivaled sublimity of the 
planetary system, where star after star in quick succession rolled trium- 
phantly along the aerial space. 

With deep feelings of solemnity I have viewed these strange scenes of 
stern reality ; when in seasons yet to come I behold the iron car of Time, 
guided in its hurried course by the angel of Death, whose head is whiten- 
ed by the winters of countless ages, yet blooming in all the vigor of pris- 
tine greatress, he drives before him one planet after another, which, wheel- 
ing from its orbit flies onward through the trackless waste, till each has 
reached its destined point in the great center of attraction ; then each sys- 
tem, still pursued, hurries on through boundless immensity to the great 
goal of all earthly matter and an indivisible world of unuterable ruin. 
Then beyond the ken of human vision all creation sinks beneath the great 
fall of unending eternity, and still beneath the impenetrable darkness, 
which envelops the wreck of all earthly matter, there rises a voice which 
no longer strikes on mortal ear. 

I860.] BULWER. 175 


Mr. Bulwer is undoubtedly one of the best writers of the age, if uni- 
versal popularity can be taken as a criterion. His plain yet forcible style, 
beautiful and fascinating imagery, and true-to-life delineations of character 
delight and enchant the reader, and thus place him in a position both use- 
ful and dangerous. Useful, if he employ these rare gifts in exposing vice, 
inculcating principles of morality, and holding up to the sensualist and 
hypocrite their depravity. But dangerous in the extreme, if he prostitute 
them in softening crime, obscuring the distinctions between virtue and 
vice, and letting the baser passions triumph over reason and judgment. 

No novelist since the time of Scott has enjoyed so wide-spread a repu- 
tation both in Europe and America, and deservedly too ; for none have 
labored under greater disadvantages and overcome greater difficulties. He 
began his career when the practical age, or as some style it the age of criti- 
cism, had superseded the poetical. The mind was as active in accounting for 
and rejecting the superstitions of the past, as the imagination had been in 
creating them. Men who professed to be governed by reason,likethe rabble 
who are governed by the passions, were certain to neglect every other con- 
sideration and to proceed to extremes. And if any works of fiction were 
produced they were like the flowers, which springing up out of their 
season, soon wither and die. It is true that the earlier ages were distin- 
guished by few poetical productions, and even these were very defective — 
not because imagination was wanting, for it was perhaps more vivid than 
now — but language was wanting to convey their thoughts. Each person 
formed a little world of his own, he lived within himself, and accounted 
for the phenomena of nature perhaps on totally different principles from 
his neigbor. When language came to his assistance, he could lay his wild 
dreams and fancies before others, and the mind was too much delighted 
and bewildered by the novelty to notice their strangeness or absurdities. 
Language, the instrument by which the imagination worked, expanded, and 
with it the beauties of poetry; while the imagination itself, if it did not de- 
cline, remained the same. Thus we can easily see that an age would ar- 
rive in which poetry would reach its comparative perfection, flourish for a 
short period, which is called the poetic era, and then begin to decline. On 
its decline began " the age of reason." From this time, the purely imagi- 
native poetry was but little appreciated. It was thought effeminate to be 
governed, or even entertained by fiction — all tended to the practical, 
mixed up with every-day occurrences. 


It was the misfortune of Bulwer to be thrown into such an age. To 
one less ardent and determined it would have presented insurmountable 
obstacles, but to him it was the very gymnastic to fully develop those power- 
ful energies of the niind, which have placed him among the best writers 
of the age. Unlike most authors he is not content with excellence in a 
single department, but has discovered a versatility equal to his genius. 
He has gained a high rank in almost every species of literature. In the 
epic, in the drama, in the history, in the argument, and especially in the 
fiction. And what is remarkable, his first attempt in the most of these 
was a signal failure, but that energy which had prompted him to under- 
take, crowned him with complete success. 

To fiction he has devoted the most of his time, and the varied produc- 
tions of his prolific mind have been suited to please the light-minded 
and lovesick, the practical and poetic, the pensive and gay, the chivalrous 
and daring, the chaste and classic. He sits with ease and surveys the 
present with the eye of a philosopher, looks forward into the future with 
almost prophetic vision or, with a single sweep of -his majestic wand, 
brings the past in review. The heroes of antiquity, their histories and 
times, are familiar to his mind. The deversified field of nature is spread 
before him, and he culls the choicest fruit from the rarest trees. One of 
his greatest excellencies consists in the ease with which he adapts his 
characters to their conditions. Whether in the palace of the prince or 
the cot of the peasant, he sits with equal grace. " He walks with as much 
ease in the crowded street as in the presence of lords ;" his characters 
are natural whereever he chooses; for he is master of the human heart, 
of its strange workings and secret impulses. With these rare gifts, he 
combines the gentleman, the scholar and the poet. He almost occupies 
that position in the field of fiction that Napoleon did in military tactics, 
" a man without a model." This may be considered rather extravagant, 
but not in the least, when we notice the great influence he has over the 
minds of his readers. 

A review of the writings of Mr. Bulwer seeins to be rather out of date, 
and entirely superfluous. They have been before the public so long that 
their comparative merits have long since been established. Yet the evil 
tendencies of some of his most popular novels are apt to be overlooked by 
the young and thoughtless, to whom he is most particularly attractive. The 
lettered ease, graceful manners, and the silvery cloak that he spreads over 
all, are well calculated to attract; and the young adopt without consideration 
whatever opinion he may advance. It is to this powerful influence of the 
novelist that the comparative laxity of morals of the present is owing. 
Their characters are mostly selected from the earlier ages, and that they 
may be natural, they are compelled to introduce the customs and habits of 

I860.] BULWER. 177 

those times. Their intention certainly is to benefit by presenting the de- 
formities, but our nature is such that we adopt the evil, seldom the good, 
without profiting by the example. Thus the youthful, and often those of 
mature years, erect a false standard of taste, and allow too great a laxity 
of morals, at a season of life when their hearts and intellects are easily 
shaped by every surrounding circumstance. 

It is a sad thing that so many of our ablest minds are given to this 
prostitution of virtue, this wholesale murder of the unsuspecting. None 
are more capable than the novelist of giving lessons of morality, of refi- 
ning and elevating the taste, and of teaching us lessons of wisdom by the 
experience of others. The representations of the drama have a more 
powerful influence on us than the simple narrations of history. "We have 
the^living, acting characters before us, we see the expressions of counte- 
nance, the flash of the eye, the motions, gestures, the workings of the 
passions and a thousand other little incidents which cannot be conveyed 
by the narrator, and which have more influence than the words that are 
spoken. We read the story of vice and expect the natural consequences, 
but here we see the hellish workings of the foul heart, and we are disgust- 
ed with its exhibitions. 

W"e may admit the reasoning of the teacher of ethics, wonder at the 
subtilties of his arts and pronounce him a man of genius, but noth- 
ing more; when we see mirrored true to nature the deceitful imag- 
inings of our own heart, its wicked workings, and feel its base motives 
are made plain to all, we are restrained by the fear of punishment — more 
powerful than all the allurements of reward. 

Were many of Mr. Bulwer's most entertaining fictions divested of all 
ornament, the charms of a glowing imagination, and the gorgeous trap- 
pings of a highly cultivated classical taste, their evil tendencies, glaring 
deformities and utter dessecration of every moral principle would be their 
best correctives. But by his captivating arts the unsuspecting victim of 
his false philosophy is infused with the poison, and the pure fountains of 
the heart are polluted. In Ernest Maltravers he has introduced into the 
most refined circles characters the most revolting to common decency. 
He casts~a golden mantle over all, and while we are fascinated with the 
glittering surface, he conducts them through every purlieu of vice with 
which that age was cursed. , 

The hero is a young man of high mental endowments, commanding ap- 
pearance, refined manners and of a pure and lofty ambiton. He is return- 
ing home from college after having completed his education, and meets with 
a young girl, who, though capable of high mental improvement, is the 
most ignorant being imaginable, not knowing even the existence of a 
Grod. Her extreme poverty and simplicity, which are very carefully de- 



lineated, are intended as palliatives for many of the errors of after life. 
But after all his care it is hardly natural that a girl, so quick and eager 
to learn as she afterwards shows herself to be, would have lived fifteen 
years in sight of a church, associating every day with the girls that went 
to school and not have known even the existence of Grod! However, 
this is but one of the few inconsistencies with which we meet in his works. 
The fault is not in the style and plots, but the lessons taught. After an 
effort of her father, (who is represented as a devil incarnate,) to rob him, 
Maltravers escapes with her and becomes so interested that he deter- 
mines himself to instruct and reclaim her from the degradation in 
which she had formerly lived. In a beautiful situation he selects a small 
house and decorates it with classical taste and oriental splendor. Beneath 
gentle bowers perfumed by myriads of flowers, consecrated by poetry 
and made doubly charming by music, her intellect expands, her mind is 
purified and chastened and she merges into beautiful womanhood. As 
an innocent and unsuspecting victim prepared for the altar, he at last 
sacrifices her upon that of his ungodly lusts; and then commences the 
reckless career of this bold adulterer and heartless libertine, and the long 
and checkered life and deep misery of his ignorantly sinning victim. As if 
the picture were not revolting enough, in his glowing style he attempts 
a labored apology for these high crimes on the score of blind and resist- 
less love on his part, and of profound ignorance on hers. " But Alice 
was purer and gentler and as far as she knew, sweet fool, better than ever. 
She had invented a new prayer for herself, and she prayed as regularly 
and as fervently as if she were doing nothing amiss. But the code of 
heaven is gentler than that of earth and does not declare that ignorance 
excuseth not the crime. If a jury of cherubim had tried Alice's offence, 
they would hardly have allowed the heart to bear witness against the 

I have neither the time nor inclination to follow her through her suffer- 
ings and misfortunes crowded into the following eighteen years of her life. 
Widowhood with its subdued tones, pensile brow and melancholy look, 
calls for our sympathy; but widowhood, coupled with abject poverty and 
with the care of an infant whose brow is stamped with the mark of Cain, 
is a picture we cannot endure. From one victim to another our hero walks 
as cooly and with as much ease, as when in early youth he had pursued the 
paths of virtue and rectitude. He takes advantage of the hospitality of 
his unsuspecting guest to declare, at his very fireside, his infernal passion, 
which is dignified with the name of resistless love, to M. Valarie de St. 
Ventadour. His affections are changed from Alice to Valarie, then to 
Florence, to Evelyn and again to Alice with almost as much ease and in 
as rapid succession as the representations of the phantasmagoria. When 

I860.] BULWER. 179 

the reckless libertine is thus permitted to invade the domestic circle, to 
sport with the affections as if they were mere toys, and to sacrifice his 
victims at the altar of his lusts, we may well tremble for the sacredness of 
our homes ami distrust the purity of all friendship. Mr. Bulwer's apolo- 
gy " for this affliction of the good and triumph of the unprincipled" is, 
that the erring may still hope to regain their former position, and that the 
blackness of crime may be eradicated by the purities of virtue. For every 
such hope that is established is he not giving freer reins to our natures 
which are ever prone to evil ? Is it not saying to the young that they 
may indulge to satiety all the baser passions and at last rise as pure as if 
they had never been contaminated, and as deserving of esteem as if they 
had always been an ally of virtue ? 

Pelham and Falkland are in the same class with Maltravers — the mere 
exhibitions of vice and foul seduction by presenting them in their most al- 
luring forms, smoothing down their most rugged features and taking away 
the disgust which they always should inspire. Eugene Aram is thought 
to be one of his greatest efforts. It certainly did require a labored one to 
clothe the hideousness of that felon with the inspirations of genius, the 
lofty and varied acquisitions of the refined scholar, the feelings of a man 
of virtue, the winning manners and exterior graces of the most refined 
and delicate affections capable of appreciating such true and unconcealed de- 
votion. We are charmed with the man, and his deep afflictions and solita- 
ry, moody life have excited our liveliest sympathy before we are aware of 
the cause. We deeply pity the heart-broken lover, and are shocked with 
his just death. What can be the moral of this work ? Does he wish so 
far to soften vice as that the murderer should go unpunished ? Does he 
want us to believe that the barriers erected in society between the evil 
and the good are the false and prejudiced effects of a mistaken feeling? 
Does he wish to teach us that genius can consecrate a crime, necessity jus- 
tify it, and the growth of the gentler affections forever eradicate the stain ? 
Such indeed is the tendency of this work. It assails us at our weakest 
points, and hurries us to a justification before we can reflect upon the hein- 
ousness of the deed. 

The dramatic talent of Bulw-er is finely represented in the " Lady of 
Lyons." It is one of the most popular plays of the day and contains 
passages that would not discredit even the genius of a Shakspeare. This, 
however, Avas the only successful attempt after many failures, and I think 
he has come to the wise conclusion that the laurels to be gained from fic- 
tion will be won with more ease than those from the drama. 

If Bulwer deserves censure for the bad taste of some of his novels 
the sterling merits of others deserve equal praise. The lessons of wisdom 
taught, the re-peopling an age that is almost lost to history and the giving a 


charm to those times and places which have become disgusting to us be- 
cause of their early association with the pedagogue and birch rod, are 
some of the advantages to be derived from these works ; which but very 
few have ever attempted and none have ever accomplished so satisfactorily 
as himself. 

In no way could we get a better notion of the glaring absurdities and 
vain pretences of the old German philosophers in their search for the 
"philosopher's stone" than from the history of Zanoni — of the fraud 
they practiced upon the ignorant and superstitious peasants — their readi- 
ness to attribute every change of nature, every phenomena that occurred, 
every passion that rioted in their breast, to some mysterious agent — and 
more than all, of the inscrutable workings of the human heart, when di- 
rected by a false philosophy, urged on by a supposed philanthropy and 
filled with all the vain imaginings of the superstitious. In the simple 
history of the beautiful and accomplished Viola Pisani we have a faithful 
history of those who trust to the applause of the populace, which cries 
" hosanna !" in one breath and " crucify !" in the nest. And although 
for the great sacrifices and unsuspecting devotion we could have wished 
her a better fate, still a true delineation of the depravity of the age re- 
quired the sacrifice. By skillfully mixing his characters with the French 
Revolution, Bulwer gives a frightful picture of "that short but terrible 
tragedy." In the sudden rise and equally as sudden fall of the cold 
blooded and unprincipled Robespiere, we have the results of an ungodly 
ambition and a second exhibition of the uncertainty of popular favor. 
From the individual, we are led to notice the national sympathies and an- 
tipathies. The Parisian mob is in contrast with the Italian. Both are 
governed by passion and superstition, and both shock and disgust with 
their excesses. 

"The last days of Pompeii" and "Rienzi" are the master pieces of 
Bulwer. The blankness and desolation of the "city of the dead," its 
destruction so awfully tragical, the contemplation of its sufferings, vague, 
horrible, unsearchable; and the uncertainty which shrouds the history of 
"the last of the Roman Tribunes," his great influence, mighty genius, 
and resistless eloquence, gave full scope for the range of his exuberant 
fancy and indulgence to his refined and classical taste. In the history of 
Rienzi we see the last flickering rays of expiring liberty. As a taper 
when about to expire gives for a moment a brighter light, so this. The 
ray penetrated the thick gloom of ignorance that had settled upon a peo- 
ple, corrupted by vice, enervated by luxury, and oppressed by tyranny: 
they caught up the spark and endeavored to rekindle it; but amid so 
much corruption the vain effort proved a mockery of their former mag- 
nificence. In viewing this sad catastrophe our sympathies; ever active 

I860.] BTJLWER. 181 

for others, overlook our own condition. Our fate is mirrored in that of 
theirs; for the same causes that proved their destruction are at work in 
our own midst. 

The design of Mr. Bulwer in making Pompeii the scene of a novel, 
and the magnitude of the undertaking are fully and clearly set forth by 

" I was aware, however, from the first, of the great difficulties with which I 
had to contend. To paint the manners and exhibit the life of the middle age?, 
required the hand of a master genius ; yet, perhaps, the task is slight and 
easy, in comparison with that which aspires to portray a far earlier and more 
unfamiliar period. "With the men and customs of the feudal time, we have a 
natural sympathy and bond of alliance ; those men were our ancestors — from 
those customs we received our own — the creed of our chivalric fathers is still 
ours — their tombs yet consecrate our churches — the ruins of their castles yet 
frown over our valleys. We trace in their struggles for liberty and justice 
our present institutions ; and in the elements of their social state, we behold 
the origin of our own." 

It is somewhat remarkable how far the customs and habits of a nation 
■can be determined from their private dwellings and public edifices. 
This did not escape the notice of the ancients, and in complaining of the 
vice and corruption of the age, Demosthenes says that formerly men were 
devoted to the good of the commonwealth, and that it possessed affluence 
and was resplendent with glory. None of the great men raised themselves 
above the multitude, nor erected private dwellings in any way distinguish- 
ed above others. But the public buildings were extravagantly magnifi- 
■cent. He complains that contemporary statesmen erected dwellings that 
•excelled in splendor the public edifices. 

This we find to have been the case in every subsequent age, and accord- 
ingly the barbarous customs and the ease and luxury of the inhabitants of 
Pompeii at the time of its destruction, could easily be ascertained by the 
peculiarities of the various buildings and the magnificence with which 
they were fitted up. The character of the rich and stately Diomed is 
perfectly consonant with the luxuriant mansions of the excavated city. 
The small building decorated with Grecian paintings and architecture 
coupled with the known slavery of Greece and the servile imitations of 
the Romans, would suggest the graceful and accomplished though ener- 
vated Glaucus, and the beautiful and lovely lone. The known commerce 
of the Egyptians, the dark superstitions connected with the goddess Isis, 
who possessed such a mysterious influence over the age, would readily 
suggest the wise and crafty, but unprincipled Arbaces and the base low 
minded Calenus. These are the principal characters of the fiction, all of 
which are gathered from the exterior of the place while the managing 
the plots, re-peopling the blank and desolate city, re-adorning its fairy gar- 


dens now strewn with scinclers and ashes with the delicate flowers, refill- 
ing the fountains with the pure gushing streams, present a field for the 
fancy, a subject for the descriptive powers and a condition for represent- 
ing the sublimest emotions that can elevate the soul. 

We are introduced to the characters in their favorite amusements / the 
feasts, the bath and the theatre. And although these are rather lengthy 
and in some instances lacking in interest, they give us an insight into the 
national character and the fearful ravages of the destroyer. Climate, po- 
sition and surronding circumstances certainly have their influence, but 
the deep and dark passions of the human heart, though the motives that 
excite them may differ, cannot be altered by years, nor destroyed or remod- 
eled by locality, though it may tinge them with a " shade more sombre or se- 
rene." Consequently in the ancient, we have to a certain degree a picture 
of the modern Italians, and this happy discovery by Bulwer has saved us 
from the " stilted sentences and the cold didactic solemnities of language/' 
which have made all former works uninteresting or rather disgusting. 

" It is an error as absurd tomiake Romans in common life talk in the periods 
of Cicero, as it would be in a novelist to endow his English personages with the 
long-drawn sentences of Johnson or Burke. The fault is the greater, because, 
while it pretends to learning, it betrays in reality the ignorance of just criti- 
cism — it fatigues — it worries — it revolts — and we have not the satisfaction in 
yawning to think that we yawn eruditely. To impart anything like fidelity 
to the dialogues of classic actors, we must beware (to use a university phrase) 
how we "cram" for the occasion ! Nothing can give to a writer a more stiff 
and uneasy gait than the sudden and hasty adoption of the toga. We must 
bring to our task the familiarized knowledge of many years — the allusions, 
the phraseology — the language generally — must flow from a stream that has 
long been full: the flowers must be transplanted from a living soil, and not 
bought second-hand at the nearest market-place." 

One of the most beautiful passages in this work is the clear and vigor- 
ous sketch given of Arbaces. Enamored of lone he sought by subtle 
reasonings to dupe her zealous but unsuspecting brother, that he might the 
more easily gain his object. Failing in his design, the dark Egyptian pas- 
sions are aroused, and he determines to obtain by force what persuasion 
and his subtle arts had failed to accomplish. In the midst of his hellish 
designs, the lover and brother rush upon him and Arbaces, clasping a col- 
umn containing an image of Isis, exclaims : 

"0 ancient goddess! protect thy chosen, proclaim thy vengeance against 
this thing of an upstart creed, who with sacrilegious violence profanes thy 
resting place and assails thy servant." 

"As he spoke, the still and vast features of the goddess seemed suddenly to 
glow with life; through the black marble, as through a transparent veil, flush, 
ed luminously a crimson and burning hue — around the head played and dart- 
ed coruscations of livid lightning — the eyes became like balls of livid fire, 

I860.] BULWER. 183 

and seemed fixed in withering and intolerable -wrath upon the countenance of 
the Greek. Awed and appalled by this sudden and mystic answer to the pray- 
er of his foe — and not free from the hereditary superstitions of his race — the 
cheeks of Glaucus paled before that strange and ghastly animation of the 
marble; his knees knocked together — he stood, seized with divine panic, dis- 
mayed, aghast, half unmanned before his foe! Arbaces gave him not breath- 
ing time to recover his stupor: " Die, wretch I" he shouted in a voice of thun- 
der, as he sprang upon the Greek ; " the mighty mother claims thee as a 
living sacrifice." 

While Glaucus is thus stunned Arbaces springs upon him, but just at 
this moment a terrible earthquake caused by the pent-up wrath of Vesu- 
vius, shook the temple like a leaf : 

"As a Titan on whom the mountains are piled, it roused itself from the 
sleep of years — it moved on its daedal couch — the caverns groaned and trem- 
bled beneath the motion of its limbs. In the moment of his vengeance and 
his power, the self-prized demigod was humbled to his real clay. Far and 
wide along the soil went a hoarse and rumbling sound — the curtains of the 
chamber shook as at the blast of a storm — the altar rocked — the tripod 
reeled — and high over the place of contest the column trembled and waved 
from side to side." 

The head of the sable goddess fell from its position and struck the vile 
wretch to the floor, seemingly though not entirely lifeless — and Glaucus 
escapes with his lover. Apaecides still remembering the insult offerred 
his sister, threatened to expose the hidden abominations of his life and the 
deceit practiced by the priest. " Tremble ! even now I prepare the hour 
in which thou and thy false gods shall be unveiled. Thy lewd and Cir- 
eean life shall be dragged to-day — thy mumming oracles — the fane of 
the idol Isis shall be a by-word and a scorn — the royal name of Arbaces 
a mark for the hooting hisses of execration. Tremble !" This second 
thwarting of his designs aroused all the fiery passions in the breast of the 
Egyptian. The darkness and loneliness of the place gave full scope to 
their action. "Die then in thy rashness," he muttered; "away, obstacle 
to my rushing fates !" and Apascides fell mute, without a groan, pierced to 
the heart. At this moment G-laucus, a raving maniac, deprived of reason 
by the "love philter" obtained by Julia, the vain unprincipled daughter of 
Diomed, and administered by the unsuspecting Nydia, the devoted blind 
girl, rushes upon the dead body of the unfortunate youth and with con- 
fused mind stoops over it. Arbaces springs upon him and calls for help 
to secure the murderer. We pass the heart-rending grief of Nydia when 
she hears of the deed she has done — the deep anguish of lone at the 
treachery of her lover who had been the murderer of her brother — the 
condemnation of the beautiful Greek to feed the jaws of the lion and 
satisfy the curiosity of the rabble — the assemblage of all classes high and 
low to witness the inhuman sights of the arena — the detection of the 


treachery of Arbaces just as Glaucus had entered the arena with the lion, 
and the tide of popular indignation which now cries as loud for his death 
as before for that of the Greek. The Egyptian stretched forth his hand 
on high; his lofty brow and royal features assumed an unutterable solem- 
nity and command. He shouts with a voice of thunder, 

"Behold how the gods protect the guiltless! The fires of the avenging Orcus- 
hurst forth against the false witness of my accusers." 

"The eyes of the crowd followed the gesture of the Egyptian, and beheld 
with ineffable dismay a vast vapour shooting from the summit of Vesuvius in 
the form of a gigantic pine tree : the trunk, blackness ; — the branches, fire ; 
that shifted and wavered in its hues with every moment, now fiercely lumin- 
ous, now of a dull and dying red, that again blazed terrifically forth with in- 
tolerable glare!" 

The description of the eruption of Vesuvius is one of the most sub- 
lime passages of the work. In fact I have seen but few that can equal 
it in the English language. I would quote it, but it loses half its beauty 
unless you had a view at the same time of the dismay and superstitious 
terror depicted on the countenance of the multitude, who, amid their 
gayeties and pleasures see their sudden and awful doom. In an instant 
all became palpable darkness — over the crushed vines, the desolate streets, 
the wide amphitheatre itself, far and wide with many a mighty splash in 
the agitated sea, fell that awful shower of ashes mixed with vast fragments 
of hissing, burning stones. The terrified citizens rush in all directions 
through the Egyptian darkness. Glaucus flies to lone and under the 
guidance of the blind Nydia, to whom only the darkness is no obstacle, they 
find the sea-shore and embarking upon its troubled waters they seek those 
climes endeared by earlier childhood; and in peace and happiness enjoy 
the rich blessings that ever crown a happy union. 

Such is the brief and very imperfect outline of this clief d' oeuvre of 
Mr. Bulwer. We rise from its perusal with the certain knowledge that 
we have been benefitted ; and this can be said of but very few novels. 
It has the character of a work of philosophy and deep erudition, rather 
than that of a romance. Its merits can be appreciated by those only who 
have read and studied it. 

I860.] editors' table. 185 


William Alexander Graham, a portrait of whom graces our present 
number, was born in Lincoln county, North Carolina, upon the 5th day of Sep- 
tember 1804. His family is of Scotch-Irish extraction. His father, the late 
General Joseph Graham, was an ardent patriot, and an active and brilliant of- 
ficer of State-troops in the Revolutionary War. 

Mr. Graham received his collegiate education at Chapel Hill, and in 1824, 
upon Lis graduation, received the highest honors of the University. In those 
honors were associated with him the late Thomas Dews, a man of genius, who 
died in early life, a well known and brilliant lawyer of western North Caro- 
lina ; Matthias E. Manly, long a Judge of the Superior Court, and now fill- 
ing so well a seat upon the bench of the Supreme Court of the State ; and Ed- 
ward D. Sims, who turned his attention to Letters, became a man of great 
accomplishment in his vocation, and died some years ago a Professor in the 
University of Alabama. Mr. Graham read law in the office of Judge Euffin, 
at Hillsboro', and, having been admitted to the bar in 1827, fixed his resi- 
dence at that place. In his new home the merits of the young man were speed- 
ily recognized. In 1833, 1834, and 1835 he represented the town of Hillsboro' 
in the General Assembly, and, that borough having been disfranchised in 1835, 
in the year 1836 he was elected to the House of Commons from the County of 
Orange. He was Speaker of that body in the years 1838 and 1840. During 
the latter session, shortly after taking his seat, he was chosen a Senator of the 
United States for an unexpired term ending upon the 4th of March 1843. In 
1844 Mr. Graham was elected Governor of North Carolina, and was reelected 
by a largely increased majority in 1846. In the month of June 1849 he de- 
clined the Mission to the Court of Spain, upon its being tendered by Presi- 
dent Taylor. In July 1850, at the accession of President Fillmore, he became 
Secretai-y of the Navy, and resigned that office in June 1852, upon receiving 
the nomination upon the ticket with General Scott. During the winter of 
1854 Mr. Graham served his fellow-citizens as Senator from Orange in the 
State Legislature. 

In 1836 Mr. Graham married Miss Susan, daughter of the late John Wash- 
ington Esq., of Newbern, and their family now consists of eight sons and one 

Except when in the public service Mr. Graham has been engaged in the as- 
siduous practice of his profession, and he enjoys the reputation of being an 
eminent lawyer and a very successful advocate. His personal appearance is 
very prepossessing. Erect in carriage, and of great dignity of deportment, — 
a well developed forehead, penetrating and steady dark eye, and compressed 
lip indicate to all those traits of energy, even-temper, high ability and nerve 
which have characterized his life. 


The career of Mr. Graham is one of the ornaments of North Carolina. It 
is an ornament in perfect keeping too with her other honors ; for his fidelity 
to principles and to promises is scrupulous, and embraces all the transactions 
of life, public and private. Refraining from any expression of opinion upon 
his political views or conduct, we may be pardoned for saying that he has de- 
veloped those views and pursued that conduct with great consistency, a high 
sense of honor, and a courage as undaunted as it is quiet and unassuming. 
For nearly thirty years, in the midst of a generation whose tendencies are 
to the- contrary, he has pursued unswervingly the path of conservatism; and 
such has been the weight of his character, and so great the qualities which 
he has offered to the service of his fellow citizens that he has found this path 
to lead to high public employment, and a general and solid popularity. The 
conservative sentiment which marks North Carolina leans much upon his 
arm, and there is none of her sons to whose voice in time of trouble she 
would lend a more attentive or respectful ear. 

The excellent proportion and harmony of Mr. Graham's high qualities, 
moral and intellectual, assign him to a class of men apt to be underrated by 
the inconsiderate. Many who are struck by a trait whose effect is in some 
degree due to deficiencies in other endowments will pass the same unnoticed 
where playing only a due part in a sj'stem, as it were, of valuable and well- 
developed qualities. Reflection and experience convince us of the ra/ity and 
the value of men so furnished. They are of a class to which Washington' 
belonged, and for belonging to which it has pleased many to indulge in de- 
preciation of his great name. 

Mr. Graham's residence is a handsome place on the eastern outskirts of Hills- 
boro'. embowered in a fine grove of forest-growth, and in the midst of ample 
grounds tastefully adorned. Of his home it may not be intrusive to say that 
it has received a thousand blessings, dropping upon it like the gentle rain 
from heaven. 

Since the year 1834 the honored subject of this sketch has been a Trustee of 
this University, and as such has shown himself a true and demoted son of 
his Alma Mater. 

For the above sketch, the Editors acknowledge their indebtedness to Samuel 
F. Phillips, Esq., of this place, and return him their sincere thanks for the 

Special Notice. — Those of our subscribers who have not settled their ac* 
counts, are respectfully requested to do so at their earliest convenience, as 
we are at present very much in need of funds. We dislike very much to be 
driven to the necessity of sending to each subscriber who is yet in arrears, a 
letter reminding him of his delinquency ; but we shall be obliged to adopt 
some such plan shortly, unless our subscribers become more punctual in re- 
mitting their dues. We hope these remarks will be sufficient to induce all 
those to whom they apply, to attend to this matter. 

1880.] editors' table. 187 

Local Matters — During the past month, no event of great interest has oc- 
curred to divert our minds from our studies ; the wheels of College still roll 
quietly and smoothly on. Some of the "love-lorn" in our midst have express- 
ed a regret that a belfry has been erected upon the South Building; "for," 
say they, "the old bell now arouses us every Saturday morning (we presume 
the most "susceptible" among us appropriate this particular time to thoughts of 
their absent "fair ones") from delightful dreams of our dulcineas". But we 
think we should rather rejoice that the bell (we intend neither encouragement 
nor offence to any political party) has been placed in its present position ; since 
being more distinctly heard, it will be more effectual in calling the delinquent 
to his duties. 

Many are accustomed to speak of College life as a "dull monotony", and to 
sigh impatiently for the time when they, having been disengaged from the la- 
borious studies which they now pursue, will be at liberty to act in every way 
and at all times as best suits their own convenience and pleasure. But they for- 
get that we are now enjoying the happiest moments of our life. True, the daily 
routine of college duties may sometimes grow irksome, and the most pleasant 
exercises exhaust our patience by long continuance or frequent repetition ; but 
we should be willing to submit to some inconveniences in order to enjoy, and 
more keenly too, the rich and varied literary repasts which are here prepared 
for us. Not to speak of the valuable instruction imparted by a most able 
Faculty, we have free access to large and well-assorted libraries, which are 
rapidly increasing ; we are thus allowed to avail ourselves of the accumulated 
learning and wisdom of all ages and countries. Nor is this our only source 
of improvement and pleasure. A youth, at home, among those who love and 
care for him, does not feel that any exertion on his part is necessary. Every 
obstacle that retards his progress in learning, is removed by his ever-watchful 
parents ; his life, like a placid stream, flows smoothly on, till misfortune or 
perhaps the unrelenting hand of disease, has taken away his kindest friends ; 
he then finds himself entirely unprepared for the coming storms of life. But 
here he is taught to think and act for himself — to be a man! Left to the guid- 
ance of his own judgment, shaped in some degree, it is true, by previous im- 
pressions and parental advice, he yet feels that he must rely upon his own 
strength for support and success, while self-love and a laudable ambition in- 
cite his sleeping energies to action. Old and experienced men, too, are accus- 
tomed to regard their College days as the most pleasant period of their whole 
lives ; and often they recall them to their recollection with pleasurable emo- 
tions, even after the dim, distant future has thrown its shadow upon their 
wrinkled brows. Here, too, we have pure water? a healthful climate and 
beautifully picturesque landscapes. What greater comfort than all these can we 
ask ? Then, why should we not be contented ? May we all spend our College 
days profitably and agreeably, and so end our career as not in after life to look 
back upon it with shame and regret ! 

A few weeks ago, the Kev. J. P. Moore, of Tirza, N. C. Agent of the 
American Bible Society, visited the University for the purpose of raising 
funds to be appropriated to the dissemination of Scriptural knowledge among 
the destitute. The students, we understand, contributed vory liberally. 


The Antigone of Sophocles. — We have in our possession a somewhat cu- 
rious manuscript, which we are more than half inclined to place before our 
readers, not from any intrinsic merit of its own, but for other reasons,. The 
spirit of extreme bitterness and hate, which pervades it throughout, does not, 
as might have been expected, excite disgust or contempt, but rather has a 
tendency to provoke our laughter. It is hardly necessary to state that we do 
not concur with the writer in his criticism upon this, one of the most celebra- 
ted of the tragedies of Sophocles ; yet we should not be at all surprised if 
certain members of the Junior Class receive it with a hearty approbation. 
The author, whose real name we shall conceal, was a member of the last 
Junior Class ; he wishes us to call the attention of his class-mates particularly 
to this article, and to request them to recall the emotions which they experi- 
enced about the 1st of Nov. 1859 (when it was written) and to ask themselves 
if at that time they would not have endorsed his sentiments. He has al s 
very recently informed us that he was in an extremely good humor at the 
time of its composition, which, he says, " manifests itself in an undercurrent.'' 
Without further comment, we give the manuscript entire : 

Antigone may pretty be, 

Dear Mr. Sophocles ; 
But I declare I'd rather share 

A bed with dogs and fleas, 
Than have to study a book of muddy 

Thoughts such as you write ; 
And I aver if you were here 
We'd surely have to fight. 
You think it's good to talk of blood 

And make your maiden frisky ; 
Tim Tinker thinks your poem stinks 

Of nasty rot-gut whiskey. 
And I believe you tried to weave 

A web just like the spider's, 
That you might vex and more perplex 

Your tragedy's deriders.* 
Yet though you " scratch," you cannot match 

The ever cunning spider ; 
For when you wrote adown your throat 

Was freely poured the cider. 
What was your end in having penned 

That d ed jargonic chorus? 

Now all agree in this decree : 

"You wrote it just to bore us." 
But I am glad, (as well as mad,) 

And who can blame me for it? 
That I am done with Antigone ; 

0, how I do abhor it ! 
No joy I've seen nor hour serene, 

Since first I did begin it ; 
And hence I deem again joys gleam 

In this auspicious minute ; 
Antigone may pretty be, 

But I'll ne'er again look in it. 

*A11 Juniors half-advanced. 

I860.] editors' table. 189 

The Swain Prize. — We would again call the attention of our fellow-stu- 
dents to the prize, which we have offered for the best article contributed to the 
Magazine during the present collegiate year by the students of the University, 
the Editors alone excepted. We surely need not remind them of the high 
honor, which will be conferred upon the successful competitor ; in addition to 
this, he will be allowed to choose either a medal, or to employ the money 
awarded in the purchase of valuable books. We know that there are among 
our fellow-students men of taleiTt and ability, and not a few who aspire to lit- 
erary fame. To all such we would say, now is the time to begin your career, 
ere your bodies are enfeebled by age or disease, and while your minds, in all 
the freshness and vigor of youth, are undisturbed by the harassing cares of 
active life in the "outer world." It is quite a mistake to suppose that any 
one, no matter how superior his talents may be, can attain to great literary 
excellence, simply by one performance, even though he shall have employed 
every energy of his soul and all the strength of his intellect upon it. Great 
superiority in any profession or art can be acquired only by slow degrees and 
long continued exertion. In order to become an eminent writer, one must 
first learn to write compositions of a simple character ; and a taste for liter- 
ature cultivated here will render the higher literary efforts of after life easy 
and agreeable. 

Besides this, there is another inducement to the ambitious youth. Should 
he win the prize, not only will he receive the plaudits of an admiring pub- 
lic, but his praises will be echoed back from the magic circle of home ; and 
a doting father, a kind mother or perhaps a sweet sister will welcome him 
with heartier smiles of approval on his return. His dulcinea, too, will greet 
him with brighter smiles and a countenance beaming with joy at his success ; 
and we do not hesitate to say that the appearance of a good, sensible article in 
the Magazine from his pen, whether it be successful or not, will meet with a 
more favorable reception from her, than all the lunatic sonnets which he may 
compose during the Avhole college course. But will any dare say — " But sup- 
pose I fail V — remember, there's no such word as fail I 

Considering the great inducements to literary effort, we are not a little sur- 
prised that hitherto there should have been so little competition among the 
students for this, one of the greatest honors of College. We have as yet re- 
ceived but comparatively few contributions from them. We hope this will not 
continue. We desire to elevate the standard of literature in our midst, and 
this can never be so successfully done as when by honest emulation each strives 
for superiority. Then, fellow-students, hand in your articles, and be not fear- 
ful of disgraceful failure ; for the name of no contributor will be revealed 
against his wishes, and even if one fail to attain the object of his pursuit, let 
him be assured that the labor he bestows upon the articles contributed will 
not be spent in vain. 

We return our cordial acknowledgments to Wilson W. Whitaker, Esq. Sec 
retary of the Executive Committee of the State Agricultural Society, for- 
complimentary tickets. It will afford us great pleasure to be at the Fair, and 
if it be in our power, we will attend en corps. 


Tennyson. — We presume most of our readers have read and admired Ten- 
nyson's new poem, which was published about the first of this year. The 
"dreams" are certainly very natural and appropriate, the imagery pictur- 
esque, the sentiment sweet and pleasing, and the poem worthy of much 
praise — but respecting this there is a diiference of opinion among men, as 
the following extract from one of our exchanges will show : 

"Tennyson, the Poet Laureate of England, has written a new poem, enti- 
tled ' Sea Dreams, an Idyl,' for which it is said he has been paid fifty dollars 
a line. The editor of the Paducah (Ky.) Commercial, after styling it 'miser- 
able, namby-pamby nonsense, Avhich most any school boy would be ashamed 
to claim the paternity of,' ' takes it off' as follows : 

Here is eight hundred dollars' worth of Tennyson's gem, being just sixteen 
lines : 

What does little birdie say 

In her nest at peep of day? 

Let me fly, says little birdie, 

Mother, let me fly away. 

Birdie, rest a little longer, 

'Till thy wings are little stronger; 

So she rests a little longer, 

Then she flies away. 

What does little baby say, 
In her bed at peep of day?- 
Baby says like little birdie, 
Let me rise and fly away ; 
Baby, sleep a little longer, 
Baby, too, shall fly away. 

Isn't that grand? (says the Paducah editor.) Isn't it the quintessence of 
poetry? Here's sixteen lines of our own, same style, measure, and embody- 
ing about as much sentiment, for which we will willingly take a quarter : 

What does little froggie say 

In his pond at peep of day ? 

Let me swim, says little froggie, 

Bullfrog, let me swim away. 

Froggie, rest a little longer, 

'Till your little legs are stronger ; 

So he mounts upon a stump, 

And into the pond he goes ker-chunk ! 

What does liitle piggie say 

In his sty at peep of day? 

Piggie says, like little froggie, 

Let me go and root to-day ; 

Piggie, wait a little longer, 

'Till your snout is hard and stronger; 

If you suck a little longer, 

Piggie then may root away. 

I860.] editors' table. 191 

Clubs — The number of secret societies in our University has increased very 
rapidly during the last three years. A few years ago there were only three 
or four; now there are between ten and fifteen. A great many men are op- 
posed to all societies, whatever be their object, which keep their laws and 
transactions secret; urging as the grounds of their objection that it is not 
necessary, especially in this land of freedom, to conceal from the world any in- 
stitution that is high and honorable or that has for its object the accomplish- 
ment of any laudable purpose, and furthermore, that those which do require 
secrecy may reasonably be suspected of some dark and dangerous design. 
Now these objections may be answered at once by simply referring to the 
great snd good results which have been brought about by the various secret 
societies now existing throughout our country. The simple fact that a body 
holds its meetings in secret cannot, we think, be made a just ground of oppo- 
sition ; for if so, many of the best institutions of our land are liable to seri- 
ous objections. The Senate of the United States, on particular occasions, as 
well as a debating society among the pupils of a preparatory school, transacts 
its business in secret ; and there is scarcely an association either religious, social 
or political, ' which does not at times find it conducive to its interests to 
seclude its proceedings from the gaze of men. It frequently happens, indeed, 
that in order successfully to promote the ends of an institution, even though 
its objects, if known, be not offensive to the community, secrecy is expedient, 
and sometimes it may be absolutely necessary to its verv existence. It is 
not denied that secrecy is best adabted to the concoction of schemes of villainy 
and corruption ; yet, while this is true, it does not necessarily folloAV that all 
societies of this kind have no nobler end in view. And should secret societies, 
therefore, be forbidden? The right to prohibit the secrecy of the deliberations 
of a body, implies the right to compel the individual to unbosom his thoughts 
to the world ! 

That the secret societies in our University have been productive of evil, we 
have not yet been able to discover ; that they have done much good, we do not 
doubt. Since they have been established here, those jealousies and bitter an- 
imosities formerly existing between the two Literary Societies of the Institu" 
tion have been gradually removed, while a spirit of honest rivalry still remains, 
and incites each to strive for superiority ; a happy result which we can attrib- 
ute only to the immediate influence of the clubs. We do not undertake to say 
that such has been the object for which they were established. For all that 
we know to the contrary, the ends which they are intended to promote and 
the interests they cherish may be as different as are their badges. Their vari- 
ous objects, the times and places of their meetings are all shrouded in mys- 
tery; nothing, indeed, is known of any of them except that they exist and that 
certain men belong to them. It has been suggested that, judging by the character 
and pursuits of their members, we might reasonably suppose that some of them 
are purely literary societies and are devoted solely to the advancement of lit- 
erature. This opinion we neither attempt to establish nor overthrow. We 
believe that none of the clubs are local institutions ; most of them are branch- 
es of an original chapter which has subordinate chapters established in all 
the principal Colleges throughout the United States. 




Philanthropic Hall, August, 1860. 

Whereas?, the sad intelligence of the death of our esteemed friend and fellow- 
member, Samuel M. Brinson, of New Berne, N. C, reached us a few days 
since, — -he who left us but a few years ago, crowned with high honors and 
gifted with talents that promised him a glorious and successful career in his 
profession of Law ; he whose kindness of heart, unstained morals and manly 
bearing won for him the esteem and admiration of all who knew him, and whose 
high prospects of a happy and useful life were so prematurely blighted by 
the chilling hand of death ; the Philanthropic Society deeply deploring his 
loss have therefore 

Resolved, That while we bow with humble resignation to the allwise dipensa- 
tions of the Almighty Disposer of events, we cannot but regret most sincerely 
the loss of him who was such a worthy member of our Society, and pause to 
shed a tear of heart-felt grief over his early grave. 

Resolved, That in his death, we have lost a kind and affectionate friend; 
the Philanthropic Society, a member whose superior talents reflected honor 
upon it; the community in which he lived, one of its best and most useful 
citizens ; and that his relatives have sustained a loss which can never be re- 

Resolved That as a student, his habits of industry and perseverance were 
worthy of imitation ; as a man, he was truthful and just ; and as a companion, 
his uniform gentleness of deportment endeared him to us all. 

Resolved, That while we would not intrude upon the sacredness of domes- 
tic grief, we tender our warmest sympathy to his bereaved family and friends, 
and while weeping with them at the common altar of grief, we would point 
them to that Eternal Source from which alone flows that balm which can 
heal the wounded and bleeding heart. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the family of the 
deceased, and to the University Magazine, New Berne Progress and Raleigh 
Register with a request for publication. 


M. R. GRIGSBY, \ Com. 


Philanthropic Hall, Sept. 29, 1860. 
With the deepest sorrow the Philanthropic Society has received intelligence 
of the death of our late fellow-member, Edward Graham. He left us but a 
short time since in the bloom of youth ; high mental endowments gave the 
pleasing promise of a rich and abundant harvest, but ere the hope was half 
realized the cold frost of death forever blasted his cherished prospects. There- 
fore, in her affliction, be it Resolved, that the Philanthropic Society, while 
she humbly says "Thy will oh! God, be done," cannot but mourn his early 

Resolved, that the Society tenders her sympathies to the bereaved relations, 
and exhorts them to put their trust in Him who docth all things well. 

Resolved, that a copy of these resolutions be sent to the family of the de- 
ceased, Raleigh Register, New-Bcrnc Progress and the University Magazine 
with a request to publish them. 

R. S. CLARK, ) 

F. J. HAYWOOD, \ Com. 




Will visit Chapel Hill every season. mar — 6m. 





Sheet Ilfeic, Btfisf's Wfefetfsjis, ^icfyre Ji^foie?, &c, 

A L WAYS on hand a supply of TEXT BOOKS— also Theological, Law, Med- 
■**- ical and Miscellaneous BOOKS; Grift Books, Albums, Autograph Books, 
Bibles, Prayer Books, Hymn Books, for all denominations. He also invites 
attention to his stock of superior STATIONERY', comprising a great variety 
of the finest English, French and American Letter and NotQ PAPER; En- 
velopes, Visiting Cards, Blank Books, Patent Adhesive Letter Files, &c, &c. 
Mathematical Instruments, Writing Desks, Port Folios, Strings for the Violin 
and Guitar, of the best quality ; Engraviags, Lithographs, &c. 

$*gT Visiting Cards engraved to order. NEW BOOKS received and for sale 
as sx>n as published. 
j^~ A full supply of OIL and WATER COLORS always on hand. 



THIS School is situated in a moral, healthy neighborhood, one mile from 
Mebanesville Depot, on the North Carolina Railroad. 

The Principal will board his pupils in his own family ; being convinced that 
the teacher, standing in relation of parent, can more successfully discharge 
the duties of that relation when he has his pupils under his constant supervi- 
sion. The course of Instruction is preparatory to the University and other 
first-class Colleges. 

The Scholastic Year is divided into two Session of twenty weeks each, 
beginning respectively about the middle of Janurary and July. 

TERMS— Per Session, for Board and Tuition, $100 in advance. 

References : Faculty of the University ; W. J. Bingham & Sons, Oaks, N. 
C; A. Wilson, D. D., Mellville, N. C. 

March, 60. WM. B. LYNCH, Principal. 


TV/TALLETT & CO. keep on hand all the College TEXT BOOKS. Also Med- 
-"-*- ical and Law Books, together with a general stock of Standard Authors, 
and other Miscellaneous Works, Bibles, Common Prayer, Hymns, Hymns and 
Psalms, and Psalmody, Gift Books,Albums and Autographs, Writing Desks, 
Portfolios, Mathematical Instruments, with a full supply of Stationery 
Books or other articles ordered as short notice. March, 1860. 


258, 259 and 260 Broadway, 


TX/"E desire to call the attention of gentlemen of the University to this the 
* * most extensive Clothing House in the Union. Facilities unequalled by 
any other firm in the trade render our establishment the fountain head of gar- 
ments of taste and elegance. 

All commands entrusted to us will meet with prompt attention, and will be 
executed in our well known superior styler 


New York, February 1st, 1860. 



T S prepared to execute at short order all manner of printing on exceedingly 
J- moderate terms. Particular attention paid to the printing of catalogues, 
addresses, pamphlets, reports, invitation cards, &c. 

He has on hand a large stock of cards, bronzes, colored inks, and other 
materials, which, with his long experience in- the business, will enable him to 
compete with any similar establishment in the State or elsewhere. 

"STlssi-tiiELg? Ca^cdis £4,t &1 per 3po.ols_. 

All kinds of Sheriff's, Clerks', and Constables' blanks on hand or supplied 
at short notice at 75 cents per quire, cash. When a large quantity is ordered 
a discount of 10 per cent, will be allowed. 

All he asks is a trial to give satisfaction. 


'THIS PREPARATION has the property of rendering the Hair SOFT and 
-*- GLOSSY, at the same time that, by its tonic and stimulant properties, it 
tends to arrest its premature decay. To accomplish this it should be rubbed 
thoroughly into the roots, at least once a day. It will remove and prevent 
dandruff; it will stop the itching from the bite of insects. It causes the hair 
to assume a darker appearance. It is easily applied. Prepared by ' 

R. B. SAUNDERS, Druggist, Chapel Hill, N. C. 
"Who has constantly on hand a general assortment of Drugs, Medicines, 
Paints, Oils, Window-Glass, Dye Stuffs, Brushes, Perfumery, Fancy Articles, 
&c, &c. ' mh,60 

Book-Binder & Blank-Book Manufacturer, 


Binding in all styles done at short order and on moderate terms. Those 
having Magazines, Addresses, Periodicals, &c, would do well to hand them to 
Mr. J. B. Neathery, at the Magazine office, who charges nothing above cost 
for forwarding. Specimens of his work can be seen at the Editors' office. 


'-r : --<-# 

\ - : J 

Vol. ^„ 3SG"0'V3E3ia i ffl:333ES3a- 3KTo. -4 

\wntW V. WMVV.V 




E. Manly, 193 


RARIES AT THE BAR, By Hon. W. II. Battle, 204 


lished Communication of Hon. Bartlett Yancy, 216 


FOUNDED ON FACT, By Theta, 225 


7. AUTUMN, (Poetry,) By Nina, 238 


By "Cousin John," 240 

9. OLD LETTERS, (Poetry) By Nina, 243 

10. OLIVER GOLDSMITH, By Tukes, 244 

11. STANZAS TO MISS F. W. H., By L'Etudiant, 246 

12. EDITORS' TABLE— Our November Number; "There's no 

sueb word as Fail;" The State Fair; "Putting a Freshman 
Through;" "Hurrah for the Chapel Hillians;" Lithographs 
of the University; The Gaelic Element in North Carolina; 
Ambition; Hymeneal; John A. Broadus, D. D.; 247 — 255 

13. TRIBUTES OF RESPECT, [Allen— Williams,] 256 

We acknowledge the following receipts since October L-t : Mrs. R. A. 
Wilson, $2; Hon. M. E. Manly, 02; L. M. Jiggitts, 02; R. L. Sykes, 
02; John H. Hicks, 02; E. C. Yellowly, 02; R. W. Anderson, 02; N. 
B. Cobb, 02; T. S. Armistead, 02; D. H. Foy, 02 ; W. R. Kenan, 02 ; 
Hon. Geo. E. Badger, 02; Prof. II. H. Smith, 02. 


As we receive a good many letters asking the price, &c, of the Magazine, 
to save time and trouble we publish below all necessary information. 

The Magazine is issued regularly at the beginning of each month (except- 
ing January and July.) TERMS: For single copies $2 per annum invariably 
in, advance; six copies $10; and for clubs of more than ten a reasonable de- 
duction will be made. 



£ page $2 05 $8 $15 

i page 3 7 12 '25 

I page 4 9 15 30 

1 page 5 12 20 40 

gggh All letters should be addressed to tho " Editors of the North Carolina 
University Magazine." 

i : : . ■:.^a j ©a 

/1/^yC^u: J^fc^JF^Z- 



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Vol. X. NOVEMBER, 1860. No. 4. 



The facility of transmitting, unimpaired, to posterity high standards of 
excellence, is one of the happy advantages of modern times over the ear- 
lier ages. Seats of learning and education are especially interested, from 
motives of policy as well as duty, in presenting ennobling models to those, 
who, in their turn, must enter " the world's broad field of battle," to be- 
come the glorious victors over circumstances and habits, or to fall ignoble 
slaves to indolence and vice. 

The sanctity that settles on the memory of William Gaston, (as emi- 
nently good as he was great) is the judgment of posterity upon the opin- 
ions of his contemporaries. We look mournfully into his grave, and the 
question arises, why were such powers, affections and attainments, so sud- 
denly, removed from a world, which had such need of them ? We still 
hear the dirge, " Quando ullum invenict pacem?" "But gratitude, for 
such a life, should not be lost in grief for such a death/' which has but 
put a seal upon its excellence. 

Doctor Alexander Gaston was a native of the north of Ireland; of a 
Huguenot family which left France towards the close of the 17th century. 
Having graduated at the Medical College of Edinburgh, he served in the 
capacity of a Surgeon in the British Navy, in the expedition against the 
Havana. While attending the sick, during the prevalence of the dysen- 
tery, he was stricken with the disease ; when, resigning his position, he 
sailed for the North American Colonies, and took up his residence in 
New-Berne. There he married Margaret Sharpe, an English Catholic lady, 
then on a visit to her two brothers, who were engaged in commerce in this 


country. William, the second son of this marriage, (the oldest died when 
an infant) was horn the 19th September 1773. Doctor Gaston had ren- 
dered r irnself most obnoxious to the Tories, by his devotion to the oppress- 
ed colonies; he generally served in the capacity of Surgeon, but in the 
spring of '76 he was a captain of the volunteer corps, and marched at its 
head, to the assistance of Wilmington, at the time that Sir Henry Clinton 
was approaching that place. In the month of August '81, Major Craig 
advanced towards New-Berne, with a small detachment of regulars. The 
tories, emboldened by such assistance, rushed into the town, which was 
finally given up to them, after a brave, though unsuccessful defence, by 
the Whigs. 

Doctor Gaston, having reached the wharf, and secured a scow, for the 
purpose of removing, with his wife and children, across the Trent to his 
farm on Bryce's Creek, was shot through the heart. While Mrs. Gaston 
on her knees, was imploring these cruel traitors to spare her husband's 
life, the musket was leveled over her shoulder, and that husband fell a 
martyr for the country he had so sincerely adopted and ardently served. 

Mrs. Gaston was now left, at the age of twenty-six, without a protector, in 
a foreign land, with limited means. William and an infant daughter, were 
the only objects of earthly love left to her w 7 idowed heart. Sustained by 
those profound sentiments of Religion which formed the consolation of 
her life, and the rich inheritance of her children, she devoted herself to 
the education and proper training of her only son, with an energy that 
never failed. The youthful Gaston, thus bequeathed to his country by 
the testimony of his father's life-blood, did, indeed, become one of the 
columns of her national grandeur. He gave early indications that nature 
had endowed him with extraordinary gifts ; but to his Mother's discipline 
- — that rare blending of unwavering authority with strong love — was he 
indebted for all those habits, moral and intellectual, which should rcn:ler 
his character a model to the youths of America. A simple anecdote will 
give an insight into the lives of both Mother and Son: 

" William," said one of his little, weary, dull, schoolmates, " what is the 
reason you are always head, and Jam always foot of my class ?" " If I 
tell you the reason," replied the seven-year-old boy, " you must keep it a 
secret and promise to do as I do ; when I take my book to study, I always 
say a prayer my mother has taught me, that I may be able to learn my les- 
sons." His companion could not remember the words of the prayer, and 
that evening, William was found writing, behind a door, and his mother 
discovered he was writing the prayer for him tl at he might commit it to 

At the age of thirteen, he was sent from home, trained in the love of 
all things " honest, just, pure, lovely and of good report," to enter George- 


town College, whence the Rev. R. Plunkett wrote to Mrs. Gaston : " jour 
son is the scholar, and the most exemplary youth we have in George- 
town." As the Chancellor of England, Cardinal Morton, predicted of the 
youthful Thomas Moore : " This boy, whoever lives to see it, will prove a 
marvelous man •" so, the preceptors of the College expressed themselves 
with regard to young Gaston — looking on him as another Samuel, set 
apart for the special service of God; and with reason, for he was ever 
recognized, as a valiant soldier of the Cross, and an obedient son of the 
Church. From too close application to learning, his health began to suf- 
fer, and Mrs. Gaston re-called her son to his native climate. After some 
months of preparatory study, under the Rev. Thomas P. Irving, he enter- 
ed the Junior class at Princeton, and there graduated, in 1796, with the 
highest honors. These were won by diligent efforts. The two classmates, 
who. like himself, were striving for supremacy, when wearied with late 
study, would be stimulated to prolonged exertion by "the light from Gas- 
ton's room;" and the proudest moment of his life, when he communicated 
the news of his graduation to his Mother, was saddened, by sympathy for 
the disappointment of his two classmates. 

Nature had indeed moulded him of that clay, of which she is most 
sparing. The love of study, so early acquired, served to make his life a 
continued effort to advance, step by step, through successive gradations of 
excellence, towards that perfection, seen at a great, though, to Mm not 
hopeless distance. 

Upon his return home, his Mother, restraining the usual outbursts of 
maternal joy and pride, ere she embraced her only son, laid her hand up- 
on his head, a^ he was kneeling before her, and exclaimed : "My God I 
thank thee!" and she declared, that no honors were so precious in her eyes 
as the fact, that he had preserved the innocence of his youth, and the 
practice of his religion. 

3Ir. Gaston studied law in the office of F. X. Martin, afterwards one of 
the judges of the Supreme Court of Louisiana. In 1798, he came to the 
bar, when he was twenty years of age. In 1800, he was elected member of 
the Senate of his State ; in 1808 he was chosen an elector for President 
and Vice President, for the Congressional district of New-Berne. As an 
instance of his services at this time, we will mention that the act of As- 
sembly, regulating the descent of Inheritance was drawn up by him. 

In 1811, Mr. Gaston lost his mother, 

" Whose footsteps seemed to touch the earth, 
Oaly to mark the track that leads to Heaven." 

After her son's marriage, she had resided with him, and was to be found 
at all hours with her Bible, or her favorite book of devotion " The follow- 
ing of Christ," by Thomas A. Kempis. During the thirty-one years of her 


widowhood, she never laid aside the habiliments of mourning, and save to the 
sick and poor, did she ever make a visit. A room in her house was used 
as a place of catholic worship, whenever a Priest would visit New-Berne. 
Mr. Gaston was elected to Congress in 1813, and reelected in 1815. 
Of the brilliancy of his career while in Washington, we may form a just 
estimate from the reply of Daniel Webster, to a member of Congress 
from Ohio, who once asked : " Who was the greatest, of the great men, of 
the War Congress?" Mr. Webster replied : "The greatest man was Wil- 
liam Gaston," adding, with a smile : " I myself came in along after him." 
With equal magnanimity did Mr. Clay acknowledge in conversation at 
Raleigh : " I once differed with Gaston, but found out afterwards that 
Gaston was right." The speeches on the " Loan Bill " and the " Previous 
Question," are models of Parliamentary debate. Some of the subjects of 
debate, in which Mr. Gaston took part were the proposed amendments of 
the Constitution, by which the mode of choosing and organizing the elec- 
toral College was to be changed ; his own resolution in relation to the 
Canadas ; the bill to prohibit the ransoming of vessels ; the Maryland me- 
morial, and the resolution in relation to the embargo ; the resolution to is- 
sue Treasury Notes ; the bill to incorporate the United States Bank ; the 
Militia Bill ; the Commercial Convention ; the repeal of the direct Tax ; 
the right of Indiana to cast her electoral vote ; the contested election of 
the Missouri delegates, &c. At the time of Mr. Gaston's opposition to 
the Loan Bill, he was the recognized leader of the Federal party in the 
House. He was, from necessity, a public man, for early in life he was a 
a statesman. The Statute Book of North Carolina is full of the fruits of 
his wisdom. He framed the law, establishing the present Supreme Court 
of North Carolina. His speech in defence of the Constitution in 1831, 
and that upon the subject of the State Currency in 1828, were efforts 
worthy of such a champion. The most brilliant era in his legislative ca- 
reer, was the Convention of 1835. The notice of his offorts to have ex- 
punged the clause in the Constitution of North Carolina, discriminating 
against Catholics, in their civil and political rights, is from a protestant 
pen in the State. "The hour of the repeal of the political disfranchise- 
ment of Catholics, was probably the proudest of his life. His speech on 
that occasion, was one of the rarest and most admirable specimens of elo- 
quence ever produced. His whole soul was poured into the task. He 
felt it must be achieved by him, or not at all. Those, who do not remem- 
ber, cannot imagine the bitter spirit of prejudice, which bigotry and intol- 
erance had conjured up, at that period, in ignorant minds. The efforts of 
Judge Gaston was successful. To him is due the gratitude of the wise 
and tolerant of every land. To him as North Carolinians we give our 
thanks, for the erasure from our Constitution, of that relic of the bigotry 


and ignorance of the dark ages, which stood in the front of our Statute 
Book, the wonder of other States, and the shame of every enlightened 
North Carolinian. Future generations must pay the debt in the venera- 
tion with which they enshrine his name." 

The following description of Mr. Gaston's oratory, is from the pen of 
one who often felt the enchantment of his eloquence. "It was as an ad- 
vocate that Judge Gaston, was most illustrious. The forum was an arena 
in which he trod the undisputed victor. There, all the excelling quali- 
ties of his mind and heart were called into display. As a criminal advo 
■cate he long enjoyed unrivalled reputation, in North Carolina. His was 
not a cold and mercenary advocacy. Such was the- warmth of his sym- 
pathy, that from the moment he heard the story of the wrongs or misfor- 
tunes >of his client, he became his zealous friend. He threw himself, 
heart and soul, into the defense, and made it his own personal cause. No 
fury of popular prejudice, or apology, could bend his unwavering devo- 
tion, or frighten him from the courageous defense of injured innocence, 
■as he himself firmly believed it. All that zeal could accomplish, aided 
by every weapon which untiring industry could gather from the stores of 
boundless learning, by the acutest subtlety of perception, and the most 
insinuating and pathetic eloquence, he did. Who that has ever seen 
does not freshly remember? Who can forget, that noble l'onn, as he 
rose to address the jury in some case of life or death; the head slightly 
declined, the calm grey eye, the expansive jutting brow, overshaded with 
thought; the embarrassed beginning, hesitating, pausing, stumbling along; 
the words falling singly, slow, like drops of rain before the storm, but kind- 
ling an unaccountable interest and curiosity; but now the manner be- 
comes more animated, words come like disciplined troops, obedient to 
the will and arrange themselves in their positions, each so apt and ex- 
pressive; and now and then one concentrating such a world of thought 
it seems to fly to and bury itself in your heart. Those deep grey eyes, 
now luminous with the fire of thought, look on you, and you behold, in 
their bright mysterious depths, unutterable thoughts, of which the words 
which now fall like snowflakes, are but the dim echoes. The earnest, 
emphatic gesture seems but the action of the thought. Those deep de- 
liberate, tones are earnest indeed. You feel it is no holiday show, no 
spouting rhetorician you are seeing, but a man deeply moved, earnestly 
thinking. The thought that consoles the orator is effused into your soul. 
You sit enchained, entranced; time, space, visible realities are forgotten. 
The thought that fills you, alone, is real; you live but in the thought 
which you breathe in, like some maddening gas, and yield yourself, sub- 
dued and willing, to the power of a spirit mightier than your own." 

Mr, Gaston's dovotion to North Carolina was such, as to preclude his 


acceptance of emolument and fame elsewhere. " Providence lias placed 
me here, and 'tis my duty as well as pleasure, to do what I can for my 
native state," was the answer he ever gave to all solicitations for removal. 
He declined to exchange his seat on the Supreme Bench of North Car- 
olina for one in the Senate of the United States. In a letter to one of 
his daughters he says: "The resources of our State lie buried and unknown ; 
when developed, as thev must be ere long, she will be raised to a conse- 
quence not generally anticipated. I shall in the course of things, not 
live to see this happy result; but having struggled for her so long, so ear- 
nestly, and with heretofore so little good fortune, I am cheered with the 
prospect of better days to come, for those who may follow me. " Chief 
Justice Marshall was repeatedly heard to say that, ho would cheerfully 
resign his seat, if, by so doing, he could secure the appointment of Judge 
Gaston, in his stead. In so brief a sketch as this must be, it is scarcely 
possible to give an outline sufficiently distinct to convey an idea of the 
surpassing beauty of the finished picture, which 31r. Gaston's life presen- 
ted to those who knew him. Mild and conciliatory in his manners; just 
and benevolent in thought as well as deed; coveting only the means of 
doing good; fully endorsing the aphorism ol La Place: Ce que nous 
counoissons est peu; ce gue nous ignorons est immense; we know not 
which we most admire, his great acquirements, or the humility that was 
so apparent in his intercourse with society. Every one who knew him 
must appreciate the Hon. Edward Stanly's application of the immortal 
Poet, to the character and career of Judge Gaston: 

" His life was gentle, and the elements 
So mixed in him, that Nature 
Might stand up and say to all the 
World. ' This was a man.' " 

Having early acquired a taste for literature, Mr. Gaston always found 
time for general reading, during a life devoted to duties, professional, 
•legislative and judicial; that he could accomplish so much, must astonish 
all who did not know his habits of industry, and that power of fixing his 
attention steadily on whatever engaged him at the time. To all literary 
research he brought such amplitude of mind, and such enjoyment of in- 
tellectual pursuit, as to afford emphatic verification of one of his favor- 
ite maxims. " Optima', eligite el consueludo /octet jucundisimum." 

Mr. Gaston's address before the literary societies at Chapel Hill in 1832, 
should be the vade mecum of the young graduates of his beloved North 
Carolina, and the address at Princeton in 1884, must prove invaluable to 
him, who would be prepared to stand for his fast examination and take 
his last degree — his examination and degree in Eternity. 

On the morning of the 23d of January 1844 Judge Gaston attended 
court at Raleigh in his usual health, and was in the active discharge of 


his duties when he was suddenly stricken down by apoplexy. By timely 
and skilful application of remedies, he revived, and was engaged in 
cheerful conversation with the friends who surrounded him till within 
five minutes of his death. He was relating the particulars of a convivial 
party, at Washington, many years before, and was speaking of one who 
on that occasion, had avowed himself a free-thinker in reli-ion • -from 
that day," said Judge Gaston, « I always looked on that man with distrust 
1 do not say that a free-thinker may not scorn to do a mean action, but I 
dare not trust him. A belief in an overruling Divinity who shapes our 
ends, whose eye is upon us, and who will reward us according to our 
deeds, is necessary. We must beFeve and feel, that there is a God all- 
wise and," raising himself and seeming to swell with the thought "Al- 
mighty." Such were the last words of William Gaston 

In his death, North Carolina lost her favorite son, of whom the pub- 
lic voice proclaimed, «A simple and unvarnished history of his life will 
be tne highest eulogium that can be offered to his name." 

Numerous testimonials were placed on record by the legislative bodies 
the courts, colleges, public and private associations, popular assemblies 
from every portion of North Carolina. The coloured population of New- 
Berne were indulged in a public expression of their sorrow and re-ret 

Ihe wail of grief that roused the sleeping inhabitants of Jud-e Gas 
ton s place when the news of his death was brought, proved that 
he was most loved where he was lest known. 

The Attorney General, after announcing to the court his death, said 
I cannot speak of Judge Gaston as he deserves to be spoken of. His 
eulogy 18 on the lips of the whole country; the force of his example will 
perpetuate his praise. Sorrow often produces its own consolation : I was 
present when Judge Gaston died: that he lived constantly mindful of 
the grave I have no doubt. The evening before he departed this life, he 
remarked to a friend that death had to him no terrors, that the years' h 
had numbered were but so many steps in the completion of that journey 
assigned him by his Master, and that he rejoiced that his armo would 
soon be put off. 

As a sandal-wood tree communicates its fragrance to the axe that fells 
it, so the character of William Gaston diffused its sweetness over the clo- 
sing hours of his life. 

" Calm in the bosom of thy God, 

Great Spirit rest thee now ; 
Even while with us thy footsteps trod, 

Sis seal was on thy brow. 
Dust to the narrow home beneath, 

Soul to its place on high, 
They that have seen thy look in death 

x\o more may fear to die." 


The following from the pen of one who, more than any other, can tell 
of the closing years of Judge Gaston's life, is appended : 

It is easy to speak from a full heart, hut the heart may, 
too full for utterance. 

To enter into the sanctuary of the private life and character of William 
Gaston inspires such emotions, as must be felt by those, who are admit- 
ed into a sacred fane, where the ashes of the mighty dead -repose, and 
the spirits of the departed hover around." Our soul is filled with awe, and 
we fear to tread upon such holy ground. 

The virtues of our venerated subject seem to stand, as " a guard aBgelic 
placed," to forbid intrusion. . 

The uprio-ht citizen, the benevolent, hospitable gentlemen, the kind ma . 
ter the faithful, benignant friend, the dutiful, loving son, the affectionate 
brother the devoted husband, the tender father, the pious christian rises 
before us, without one shadow to dim the radiance of the vision. 

The younger Pliny has said; in the confines of great qualities, are 
generally found vices of an opposed nature. In the train of the virtues of 
William Gaston, it would baffle the most hypercritical, to discover any 
attendant vice. 

He was charitable, according to the Apostle's definition, not, only in 
deed but in word and thought: clear-sighted to the good, he seemed not 
to see the evil in his fellow creatures; detesting vice, in every shape, he 
was yet, compassionate to its unfortunate victim; from the mountain- 
heights of his own purity he would not "cast a stone" upon even, the 
most degraded, beneath him. His assistance was never asked in vain. 
Many of his most beautiful acts of beneficence have not transpired to 

the public. 

The presiding genius of every convivial party, he yet, knew and prac- 
'ticed the wisdom of « Est modus in reins ." He would not « dip so deep 
in pleasure, as to stir the sediment that rendered it impure and noxious. 
The powers of memory and remarkable talent for anecdote, which he pos- 
sessed were never exercised at the expense of the feelings of the humblest 
individual: they served only to season the intellectual feast, which his 
varied conversation offered. 

Many of his arecdotes and humorous sayings, are treasured and repeat- 
ed by his fnends; but, who can give them the zest which his speaking 
eye expressive voice and inimitable manner imparted to them. 

His habits and tastes were simple and unostentatious. He always 
rose early, and took a cold bath, in winter, as well as summer; his diel 
was plain and moderate, and he used but little wine. 

Agriculture was his favorite pursuit. All the leisure hours he coulc 


command, were spent at his plantation. There, " exempt from public 

haunt" he truly, found: 

" Tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything." 

One of his favorite quotations, which, he said, embodied his own wishes- 
were these lines of Dr. Johnson : 

" But grant the virtues of a temperate prime, 
Bless with an age exempt from scorn and crime, 
An age that melts with unperceived decay, 
And glides in modern innocence away ; 
Whose peaceful day, remembrance endears, 
Whose night, congratulating conscience cheers ; 
The gen'ral fav'rite, as the gen'ral friend : 
Such age there is, and who shall wish its end?" 

How were these wishes more than realized by him ! 

As the last rays of the setting sun are the most beautiful ; so the bright 
virtues, which had illuminated the path through life of this truly good 
man, were, in his declining years, diffused in new and varied hues, un- 
wonted splendor. 

The day before his death, he repeated, from memory, at the breakfast- 
table, the whole of the " Vanity of Human Wishes." 

The silence of the grave has closed over those, who could bear testimo- 
ny to his excellence, in the near relations of son, brother and husband. 
His early letters to his mother are replete with every sentiment that should 
animate the bosom of a good and affectionate son. 

The following lines, addressed to his only sister, are certainly remarka- 
ble from a youth of only sixteen years : " The receipt of your letter has af- 
forded me pleasure not easily to be expressed. I was glad, not only to 
hear from a much loved sister, but, also, to see such improvement in her 
style and in her writing. Nature has gifted you with an excellent heart 
and good parts, and you would be deficient in your duty towards God, and 
towards yourself, did you not endeavor to improve them. What reason 
then, have I not to exult in possessing a sister, who is by diligence and 
application, endeavoring to render the amiable gifts of kind nature, still 
more amiable ? My feeling are such, as, I think, yours would be, were 
you to hear of my acting in such a manner, as to reflect honor upon you. 
Continue my dearest sister, to advance rapidly in the path of perfection, 
that you may cause the declining years, (long ! long ! may they last) of a 
tender mother, to pass on in sweet and trauquil succession. 

" Know that fine hair and a beautiful face may be destroyed by sickness, 
but that a mind stored with useful knowledge, and a heart blessed with 
the residence of virtue, will teach you to smile at the changes of fortune, 
and make you happy in the midst of adversity. 

" Forgive your sermonizing brother. He would be gay, but having 



fallen on a subject so near his heart, levity flies away and fraternal lore 
directs his pen." 

The multitude of letters, written by Mr. Gaston / at the various stages 
of his life, are models of epistolary style — particularly those to his chil- 

One of the most attractive traits of this lovely character, was his pa- 
tience with children, and his fondness for their society. However deeply 
immersed in his book, he would put it aside, to answer the simplest ques- 
tion, to join in their sports, or to soothe their griefs. He used to say, 
that there was no one, not even the youngest child, from whom he could 
not learn something. 

His tenderness for his own children cannot be expressed. With hearts 
full of grateful love do they recall his watchful care, his judicious instruc- 
tions, and his untiring effort to implant, in their minds, a taste for intel- 
lectual pursuits, and such principles as would make them " grow in wis- 
dom and in favor with God and man." 

Ever ready to sympathize in all their pursuits, how often, when he has 
found one of them, laboring, with clouded brow, over some weary school 
task, he has taken her upon his knee, and with a few words of clear 
explanation, removed the difficulty, and opened a way, through which her 
own mental vision could pierce, what had before seemed impenetrable ob- 
scurity. The hour of gloomy toil was thus converted into one of cheer- 
ful exertion, for which his approving smile was ample recompense; though 
this was often heightened by one of the merry songs, with which he so 
delighted the young. 

But the brightest gem of tho coronal that adorned the brow of this il- 
lustrious man — the crowning glory of his life, was his Christianity. Per- 
severingly he carried out the motto, which he had adopted early in his 
life — " sapere aude;" he dared to he wise, not only in earthly things, but 
in those that pertain to Eternal life. True to the principles of the Cath- 
olic faith, instilled into him by his pious mother, he was never deterred, 
by sneer or taunt, from the most exact fulfillment of its minutest re- 
quirements. The boy who would not commence a task, without reciting 
the prayer for Divine assistance, was, indeed, " father to the youth," who 
wrote to his mother during his college course : " I propose spending my 
vacation at Princeton, as I can board here with less expense, than else- 
where ; but, I must go for a few days, to Philadelphia, to perform my 
Easter duties. My dear mother will see that I have not, altogether, for- 
gotten her good and pious instructions, or, in my cousin's words, my 'big- 
otry and attachment to superstition.' ' God grant' that I never may!" 

In after years, when it was proposed to send, his two youngest daugh- 
ters, to school in Connecticut, he wrote: "Above all, let it be under- 


stood that their religious opinions are to be treated with respect, their re- 
ligious practices to he in no manner interfered with, and that they are, 
not, even to be, invited, much less, required, to do any act inconsistent 
with the avowed profession of the faith in which they have been nurtur- 
ed. Much as I respect Connecticut, I know full well, the rancorous and 
unenlightened hatred, which is there felt against my venerable religion, and 
the extreme difficulty, which must be experienced by those who are under 
the influence of this confirmed prejudice, in treating with decency, what 
is so completely misunderstood, and feared, and detested. I would spare 
my children the mortification of seeing that insulted which they have 
been taught to revere, and save them from the greatest of all moral evils 
— the unsettling of their faith." 

He often said, that religion — the sincere devotion of the heart to God, 
furnished the most exquisite felicity of which human nature is suscepti- 
ble. " Love God, love your fellow-creatures, pursue wisdom, and then, 
whatever may happen, you cannot be altogether unhappy." 

In all the various aspects, in which their venerated father appears to his 
children, there is none more delightful to their contemplation, than, as 
they have often seen him, pacing up and down the garden paths, with an 
additional shade of seriousness upon his thoughtful brow, and his head 
bent over the well-worn prayer book in his hand. They knew him to be 
then, in commune with his own heart ; sounding its depths for aught that 
should be submitted to that tribunal, which Divine mercy has appointed 
for the forgiveness of sin, for the due humiliation of the penitent, and his 
reconciliation with his offended God. Wonderingly, they question, what 
impurity could be found in this abundant fount of excellence ? 

The rich inheritance of humble faith, bequeathed in his example, is far 
more precious to them than all his intellectual fame — than, could be, un- 
told millions, or the heirdom of a kingdom. 

Like Cowper, they exclaim : 

" My boast is not that I deduce my birth 
From loins enthroned and rulers of the earth ; 
But higher far my proud pretentions rise — 
The son of parents, passed into the skies." 




In an article on the subject of "American Independence" written in 
1815 and supposed to have been from the pen of the late Hon. Richard 
Rush, who was then the Attorney General of the United States, occur 
these remarks: "If we were inclined to run a parallel between the mind 
of this country and that of Europe, but especially of Britain, we know 
of no line to which we could so fairly resort as to that of the law. Here 
it is where we think that a test of the relative intellectual cultivation and 
force of the two hemispheres may be found with the fewest intrinsic 
disadvantages to ourselves in the comparison. The theory upon the sub- 
ject may be plainly resolved into this; that the prodigiously greater in- 
centive, which is forever applying itself to mind in Europe, rouses it into 
more keen action, and gives it momentum towards purposes which it does 
not yet require, and which therefore it cannot be supposed to reach, here. 
A numerous and condensed population, an infinitely intricate organization 
of society, producing habits and tastes not merely artificial, but in the 
highest degree fastidious and dainty in a countless variety of ways; every 
possible avenue in which human genius can exert itself, thronged with 
the most eager competition; the spectres of poverty at hand to reani- 
mate, by their powerfully stimulating admonitions, flagging industry with 
resulting rewards, proportioning their incitements to the difficulty and 
the rarity of success — these and not royal munificence, have in all coun- 
tries been the essential promoters of literature and the arts. 

In the department of jurisprudence, the United States probably ap- 
proach, if not in all of these yet in other great excitements of mind, 
nearer to a rar with the old nations than in any other that could be 
named. Here the law is every thing. It makes its appeal to the stron- 
gest motives of interest and of ambition. In most instances it leads to a 
comfortable subsistence, and in many to independence and wealth. To 
public honors, if so they are to be denominated, it unquestionably opens 
a wider door, than any other pursuit." 

In running the parallel between the legal profession in the United 
States and in Great Britain, which Mr. Rush seemed to think that we 
might do without discredit to our country, it must be a source of gratifi- 
cation and pride to every North Carolinian to reflect that his own State fur- 
nished her full proportion of learning and talent to the general mass of 


professional ability and renown. Indeed, when we consider the compara- 
tive poverty of our state at that early day, arising from the facts that she 
had no large commercial town within her borders, and that her great min- 
eral and agricultural resources, had then scarcely begun to be developed, 
we may justly claim that she contributed more than her average share of 
eminent names to the great roll of American lawyers. Among these 
names none stood higher than that of the principal subject of this brief 

John Haywood was born in the county of Halifax, a few years before 
the commencement of the American Revolution, but in what particular 
date we are not informed. His father, Egbert Haywood, was a member of 
the convention, (or -congress as it was then called) which sat in the town of 
Halifax in the latter part of the year 1776 and adopted the constitution of 
the State, and he represented the county of Halifax in the House of Com- 
mons during the two succeeding years. In the distracted condition 
of the country during the progress of the war, and for a short 
time after its close, the means of instruction were so scanty that the sons 
of gentlemen of even comparative wealth could with difficulty obtain a 
respectable education. From this, or some other cause, young Haywood, 
was compelled to enter the profession for which he was destined, under 
the great disadvantage of an imperfect preparation for it. He was in 
this respect, more unfortunate than those who came to the bar either be- 
fore the commencement of the Revolution, or some years after peace was 
established, when schools of a high order began to spring up in the coun- 
try. To the want of systematic intellectual culture, was added the dis- 
advantage of an ungainly person and a harsh voice; but being possessed 
of strong mental powers, an ardent love of study, and a stirring ambition 
to take a high rank in his chosen profession, he soon overcame all diffi- 
culties and began to make for himself a name at the bar, and to contend 
successfully with its ablest advocates for its emoluments and its honors. 
About the time when he made his debut, there were not a tew men whose 
place at the bar was already well secured, a place which they had nobly 
won, not only by the exercise of great talents in their profession, but by 
the performance of patriotic deeds, some in the civil, and others in the 
military, service of their country. Among the most distinguished of 
these were William Hooper, and Archibald McLane, of Wilmington, 
Samuel Johnston, and James Iredell, of Edenton, Abner Nash, of New- 
Berne, Waightstill Avery, of Mecklenburg County, Alfred Moore, of 
Brunswick County, and William R. Davie, of the town of Halifax. Rich- 
ard Caswell, of the County of Dobbs, (afterwards Lenoir) and Thomas 
Burke, of the County of Orange, the first and third Governors of the 
State, had been eminent lawyers prior to the Revolution, but during its 


progress and at its close, they were too much occupied with the great 
affairs of State, to allow of a return to the practice of the Courts. In- 
deed the latter gentleman was prevented by death from returning to the 
bar after the war, as he died the same year in which the definitive treaty 
of peace was ratified between the United States, and Great Britain. 
Three other gentlemen of eminence in the profession were withdrawn 
from the bar by being chosen to fill seats on the bench of the Superior 
which was the highest Court established in 1777, upon the organization 
of the judiciary system of the State. The gentlemen first selected for 
that office were Samuel Ashe, of the County of New Hanover, Samuel 
Spencer, of the County of Anson, and James Iredell of Edenton. The 
last named gentleman resigned after a few months, when the office was 
tendered to Richard Henderson, (who had been a Judge under the colo- 
nial government) but he declined to accept it, in consequence, probably, 
of his being President of the Transylvania land company. Archibald 
McLane, was then elected to fill it, but he declined to accept whereupon 
it was conferred upon Colonel John Williams, of the county of G-ranville. 
Of those whom we have named as resuming a practice at the bar which 
the war had interrupted, the greater number still continued the discharge 
of high public trusts whenever they could do so without entirely neglect- 
ing the private interests of their clients. William Hooper had been a mem. 
ber of the continental Congress of 1776, and as such had had the rare 
honor of connecting his name indissolubly with the history of the Inde- 
pendence of his country by becoming one of the signers of its Declara- 
tion. He afterwards served a few sessions as a member of the State Leg- 
islature. He was one of the most elegant writers of his day, and as such 
was selected by his compatriots to prepare some of the most important 
public documents of that time. Those, who read his letters, to his friends 
during that interesting period of his country's history, cannot but admire 
that curious felicity of language, those exquisite turns of humor, and that 
occasional severity of sarcasm which, reproduced by his grandson in his 
Address, entitled " Fifty Years Since," gained from President Buchanan 
the high compliment of being the finest specimen of wit and humor he 
had ever heard. In his style of public speaking, Mr Hooper was stately 
and diffusive, and with such a style, aided by his fine attainments as a 
classical scholar, it is not supprising that his return to the bar, should be 
followed by an extensive practice. His fellow-townsman, Archibald Mc- 
Lane, was never a member of the continental Congress, but he filled, du- 
ring the war, an important public trust in the State as a prominent mem- 
ber of the Committee of safety for the town of Wilmington, and subse- 
quently for the district in which Wilmington was situated. He was de- 
void of the learning and accomplishments of Hooper, but he hadjstrong 


native powers of intellect -which, enabled him to grapple successfully with 
the difficulties of the law, and to establish such a reputation as an able 
member of the bar, that he was tendered a judgeship in 1779, which, as 
we have seen, he declined to accept. 

Samuel Johnston was, perhaps, more of a statesman than a lawyer. 
He filled successively many of the highest public trusts, both during and 
after the war, which left him but little leisure to devote to his profession. 
He did not, however, abandon it entirely, for we know that nearly twenty 
years after the close of the war, and after he had been Governor of the 
State, and Senator in Congress under the federal constitution, he accepted 
and held for three years the office of Judge of the Superior Court, which 
still continued to be the highest in the State. His friend and brother-in- 
law, James Iredell, was truly a great lawyer. Upon the organization of 
the judiciary system of the State, he was elected one of the three judges 
of the Superior Court, an office which he accepted with reluctance, and 
which he resigned at the expiration of a few months, for the more lucra- 
tive practice of the bar which the moderation of his fortune made neces- 
sary for the comfortable support of himself and his family. He subse- 
quently became one of the associate justices of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, and as such was spoken of by Chief Justice Marshal as 
" a man of real talent/' 

Abner Nash, like his compatriots of whom we have already spoken was 
constantly engaged in the service of his country. He succeeded Caswell 
as Governor of the State during the war, and was afterwards sent as dele- 
gate to the Continental Congress, a trust which he continued to discharge 
until his death. As a speaker at the bar he was vehement and fiery, 
forming a fine contrast to the measured and elegant style of Hooper. 
One of the last cases in which he appeared as counsel was that of Bayard 
vs. Singleton decided at New-Berne, November Term 1787, and reported 
by Martin at page 48. The case is remarkable as having been the first 
in any State of the Union, in which the Judges vindicated their right, 
and fearlessly performed their duty, of upholding the constitution, by declar- 
ing an act of the Legislature to be void, because contrary to its provisions. 
He argued in favor of the binding force of the act, in which he was ably 
assisted by Alfred Moore. The opposite side of the question was quite 
as ably, and more successfully, sustained by Iredell, Johnson and Davie. 

Waightstill Avery was a member of the convention or congress at Hali- 
fax in 1776, when, as we have already stated the constitution of the State 
was adopted, being a delegate thereto from the county of Mecklenburg. 
He was also a member from the same county of the House of Com- 
mons in the first General Assembly which convened under that constitu- 
tion in 1777. In the arrangement of the court law, which was enacted 


at that session, provision was made for the appointment of an Attorney 
General, whose duty was to act as prosecuting officer in the Superior 
courts throughout the State. The office was therefore at that time, one 
of great dignity and importance; and we learn from the interesting biog- 
raphy of Judge Iredell (recently published by Griffith J. McRea Esq.) 
that he would have prefered it to that of Judge which was then conferred 
on him. We need not demand any other evidence of the high profession- 
al reputation of Mr. Avery than his election, under such circumstances, 
to such an office. 

Messrs Davie and Moore were not ante-revolutionary lawyers, but came 
to the bar just after the close of the war. They had both borne arms in 
the patriot cause, and had both distinguished themselves as young officers 
of uncommon merit. With the prestige of such service, aided by industry 
and talent, they soon and rapidly rose to the "upper story" of the profess- 
ion, in which Mr Webster is reported to have said, there is always plenty 
of room for the aspiring votaries of the bar. As the older lights of the 
law were extinguished by death, or removed to the bench where they 
could shine in a different sphere, these new luminaries had ample scope 
for sending out their brilliant rays to every part of the State. They 
were contrasts as well as rivals of each other ; and public opinion was 
divided as to which excelled at the bar. The late Judge Murphey, in the 
first address which was ever delivered before the Literary Societies of our 
University, thus beautifully and graphically describes the personal appear- 
ance and manners of each. 

"Moore was a small man, neat in his dress and graceful in his manners; 
his voice was clear and sonorous, his perceptions quick, and his judgment 
almost intuitive; his style was chaste, and manner of speaking animated. 
Having adopted Swift for his model, his language was always plain. The 
clearness and energy of his mind enabled him almost without an effort, to 
disentangle the most intricate subject, and expose it in all its parts to the 
simplest understanding. He spoke with ease and with force ; enlivened 
his discourses with flashes of wit, and, where the subject required it, 
with all the bitterness of sarcasm. His speeches were short and impres- 
sive: when he sat down, every one thought that he had said every thing 
that he ought to have said. Davie was a tall, elegant man in his person, 
graceful and commanding in his manners; his voice was mellow and 
adapted to the expression of every passion; his mind comprehensive 
yet slow in its operation compared with his great rival. His style was 
magnificent and flowing; and he had a greatness of manner in public 
speaking, which suited his style, and gave to his speeches an imposing 
effect. He was a laborious student, arranged his discourses with care, 
and where the subject suited his genius, poured forth a torrent of elo- 


quence that astonished and enraptured his audience. They looked upon 
him with delight, listened to his long, harmonious periods, caught his emo- 
tions, and indulged that ecstasy of feeling which fine speaking and pow- 
erful eloquence alone can produce. He is certainly to be ranked among 
the first orators, and his rival, Moore, among the first advocates which 
the American nation has produced." Davie, at a subsequent period of 
his brilliant career, became Governor of the State and while in that office 
he was selected by the President of the United States and sent as one of 
the Ministers Plenipotentiary to the court of France at a very important 
and critical period of our national affairs. Moore confined himself more 
closely to his profession, and ended a career scarcely less brilliant than 
that of his rival as a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. 

It was to a bar thus adorned and illustrated by a bright array of great 
advocates that Mr. Haywood came to seek fame and fortune. We have 
briefly alluded to S01213 of the disadvantages under which he labored, but 
they were not all, against which he had to contend. His opponents had 
not only age, experience, genius, eloquence, scholarly accomplishments, 
elegance of person, and gracefulness of manners, on their side; but they 
had great deeds of patriotic service, performed in the council and the field, 
to recommend them to the patronage of their fellow-countrymen. A 
young man coming forward, without any of these advantages, to enter the 
lists against such intellectual giants might well have quailed before the un- 
equal conflict, and have contented himself to move in an humbler, but 
more secure walk of the profession. Not so, our young aspirant to pro- 
fessional fame and distinction. He had a powerful and intrepid mind, 
and he determined to march boldly on, and to overcome the effect of all 
his deficiencies, by making himself the most learned and profound lawyer 
of his day ; and he did it. We are told that at first Mr. Hooper did all 
he could to sustain him in the unequal contest; but it was to his own in- 
domitable energy, and to his laborious attention to all the duties of his- 
profession that his success was due. He soon (as Mr. Murpbey says in the 
Address to which we have alluded) " acquired a reputation that placed 
him at the head of his profession in this State, and gave him rank among 
the ablest common lawyers in the Union." Chief Justice Marshall added 
the weight of his great authority to this estimate of Mr. Haywood, by 
saying that he had often heard him at the bar, and that he was " unques- 
tionably among the ablest lawyers of his day." 

The eminent and complete success of Mr. Haywood was soon manifest- 
ed by his appointment to high office. In the year 1791 he was elected by 
the General Assembly, Attorney General of the State, the peculiar digni- 
ty and importance of which at that period, we have already noticed. It 
had been previously filled, and its highly responsible duties most ably dis- 


charged successively by Messrs. Avery, Iredell and Moore, of whose great 
abilities we have already spoken. That the office suffered no disparage- 
ment in the hands of Mr. Haywood, we are assured in the recorded testi- 
mony of a distinguised Judge of the Supreme Court given under all the 
solemnity of a judicial opinion. In Spier s case decided in 1828 (see 1 
Dev. Rep., 496) Judge Hall, in reference to an opinion pronounced by 
Mr. Haywood after he became a Judge, says : " I may add that that 
opinion drew after it the approbation of the profession, and I believe I shall 
not treat with disrespect the memory of the dead, or the pretensions of the 
living, when I say that a greater criminal lawyer than Judge Haywood 
never set upon the bench in North Carolina." He held the office of At- 
torney General until the winter of 1794-5 when he was elected a Judge 
to supply the vacancy caused by the death of Judge Spencer. That he 
made a very able Judge we well know. lu the reports of the cases de- 
cided during the time he remained on the bench, we have some of his 
opinions given at length ; and we hesitate not to say that for extensiveness 
of research, for logical precision, and conclusiveness of reasoning, they 
will compare favorably with those of any other Judge in this country, or 
in England. 

In the spring of 1800, he resigned his office, having been induced 
thereto, it is said, by a large retainer to defend Mr. James Glasgow, 
against a criminal charge of having issued fraudulently certain false land 
warrants whilst he was Secretary of State. The trial took place before a 
Court specially appointed for the purpose, and the defendant was convic- 
ted, and no doubt properly convicted, but when we notice the wonderful 
astuteness of his counsel, in assigning errors on a motion to arrest the 
judgment for alleged defects in the bill of indictment, we cannot resist 
the conclusion that there was no want of skill and ability in the defence. 
(See Conf. Rep. 38). After his return to the bar Mr. Haywood contin- 
ued to practice with great success until his removal from the State in the 
year 1806. We have heard it stated that he was induced to take that 
step in consequence of the unpopularity which he incurred in the State 
by the resignation of his seat on the bench, under the peculiar circum- 
stances in which it was made. He was named as one, of the Judges in 
the special commission under which the court was to y be held. The com- 
mencement of the term was fixed for the 10th day of June 1800, and 
his resignation was sent in on the 31st day of May, eleven days only be- 
fore that time. As the commission authorised the then four Judges, or 
any two of them, to hold the Court, it was in fact held at the time and 
place appointed, so that the resignation of Judge Haywood, did not im- 
pede nor delay the regular administration of justice, but as he resigned 
for the express purpose of defending the accused ; his conduct, whether 


right or wrong, incurred a degree of odium, from which he never recov- 
ered, and which finally prompted him to leave his native State, and to 
seek a new field in Tennessee for the display of his great abilities. Go 
where he might his success was certain ; and in his adopted State he, 
accordingly, took rank at once with her ablest advocates, at the head of 
whom, at that time, was the celebrated Jenkin Whiteside. , He continued 
at the bar until the year 1816, when he was elevated to the Supreme 
court bench in the. place of Judge Cooke, deceased, and he remained on 
that bench until his death in December 1826. Of his reputation as a 
lawyer and Judge in Tennessee, we have a passing notice in an able and 
elaborate argument made before the Supreme court of the United States 
in 1839 in the case of Scott vs. Rcid, by Thomas Washington, Esq. The 
sketch must, in some of its depreciating terms, be taken with some grains 
of allowance, as the counsel was endeavoring to weaken the force of the 
Judge's opinions in some cases which bore very strongly against the cause 
of his clients. He says " Judge Haywood was a fine genius, and a most 
powerful and unrivaled advocate; of very liberal and extensive attain- 
ments. He possessed inexhaustible stores of imagination ; was full of 
resources in argument, but, withal his judgment was essentially defective. 
He was so much under the dominion of the imaginative faculty, that the 
eccentricity of some of his opinions, with those, who did not understand 
the character of his mind, sometimes brought the purity of his motives 
into question; and the uncertainty of his conclusions was a subject of 
regret with his friends In addition to this, he was a man who had many 
sympathies in common with hit"! fellow-men, and highly cherished their 
good opinion, particularly of his own fame. I do not think that I should 
do him injustice by saying that he never delivered an opinion, without 
desiring the presence of a large audience, and he certainly was actuated 
by a wish to be considered the master spirit in the settlement of all great 
and leading questions of jurisprudence." 

Judge Haywood found time, notwithstanding his arduous labors and 
multiplied engagements at the bar and on the bench to adventure into the 
field of authorship. While residing in this State he prepared and pub- 
lished a "Treatise on the duty and office of Justices of the Peace, Sher- 
iffs, Coroners and Constables," " A Manual of the laws of North Caro- 
lina " and two volumes of reports. The two first named works were found 
to be very useful, were great favorites with the public; and each went 
through as many as three or four editions. The " Manual " embraced the 
statues laws only, " arranged under distinct heads, in alphabetical ordef, 
with reference from one head to another, when a subject is mentioned in 
any other part of the book than under the distinct head to which it be- 
longs." It furnished the hint for the plan upon which the first volume of 


the Revised Statutes of 1836 was prepared; a plan found to be so con- 
venient for popular use that it was strictly followed in the last Revised 
Code adopted in 1854. 

The first volume of the Reports appeared in 1799 while Judge Hay- 
wood was on the bench. As there was no supreme appellate tribunal in 
the State during the period from 1789 to .798 when the decisions report- 
ed were made, the volume is a book of what is technically called Nisi 
Prius Reports ; and as such it is a work of very high merit; and has al- 
ways been so considered by the profession. The writer remembers to 
have heard the late Chief Justice Henderson say, that it was one of the 
best books of Nisi Prius Reports which had ever been published. It is 
a book of peculiar interest to the writer, because he owes to the publica- 
tion of a second edition of it, with notes, the beginning of whatever suc- 
cess he has met with in his profession. The second volume of the Re- 
ports was a hasty production, and is greatly inferior to the first. 

After his removal to Tennessee the Judge published three volumes of 
cases adjudicated in that State, but they are numbered as if they were a 
continuation of his Reports in this State, and hence are called the 3rd, 4th 
and 5th volumes of Haywood's Reports. 

In addition to his works of a purely professional kind, he wrote and 
published one volume of a theological, and two of a historical, character. 
The first of these works made its appearance in 1819 under the title of 
" The Christian Advocate" by a Tennesseean;" but, though published 
anonymously, it has always been known to have been from the pen of 
Judge Haywood. Its general tenor may be gathered from its table of 
contents. It is divided into three books of which the first treats, 1, of 
Prophecy; 2, of the nature of prophecy; 3, of the evidence from the ful- 
fillment of them; 4, of Cyrus; 5, of Isaiah; 6, of Egypt; 7, of Arabia; 
8, of the seventy weeks; 9, of Judea; 10, of Jerusalem; 11, The visita- 
tion of Judea; 12, of rebuilding the temple; 13, The Jews distinct from 
others; 14, of Gog and Magog; 15, of Melchizedek; 16 The Jews, a pro- 
verb; 17, The days of desolation ; 18, of the beast with seven heads, Rev. 
ch. 13; 19, of the septenaries; 20, The seven seals Rev. ch. 6; 21, The 
fifth trumpet Rev. ch. 9; 22, The sixth trumpet; 23, The seventh trum- 
pet; 24, The four winds of the ocean Dan. ch. 7; 25, The death of 
Christ ; 26, of the great earthquake and hail Rev. ch. 17 v. 19 and 20 ; 27, 
of the Millenary Sabbath ; 28, of the precedency of prophecies ; 29, of 
prophetic signs; 30, of prophetic, events; 31, of the last fulfilments. 
The second book is headed with " Tne world was made and will perish" 
and treats 1, of planetary infirmity; 2, of a animal mechanism; 3, of the 
soul ; 4, Man did fall. The third books asserts that " All men are from 
one common ancestor," and in support of that proposition, argues to prove 
that " The aboriginal Americans emigrated from Asia." 


We have not the time nor the ability to discuss the merits or demerits 
of this singular production. Its object seems to have been laudable, 
to prove the divine origin of the Holy Scriptures and "to vindicate the 
ways of Grod to man." It displays extensive and varied {learning, but its 
author seems to have so lost himself in the mazes of his mighty themes that 
he became utterly unable to distinguish between fact and fiction. He 
was a firm believer in supernatural apparitions, and spiritual influences, 
-and he presses them into his service to prove the immortality of the soul. 
We will give one or two (what he says are well authenticated) instances 
of the reappearances of disembodied spirits, in order to show the people 
of North Carolina, that more than half a century ago, their own State, 
as well as her daughter Tennessee, wa3 either blessed, or cursed (as the 
case may have been) with messengers from the land of shadows, though 
in later times these messengers seem to have selected a more northern 
latitude for their chief manifestations. "John Rains, an old gentleman 
living within one mile of Nashville, and known by his acquaintance who 
are numerous, to be a man of as much veracity as ever lived, two or 
three years ago remained late at night in Nashville before he attempted 
to go home. Oa his way he went near an old log house, formerly used 
as a blacksmith shop. Seeing a great light there he went to the door, 
where he saw two persons, then lately dead, but whom he well knew 
whilst living, going around the block where the anvil had stood, seeming 
to be in the act of making nails for shoeing horses; two others stood by 
them whom he did not know. He never was alarmed in his life time 
with any danger, or apprehension of it. He noticed these particularly, 
and describes their dress, the same they vro:e about the time of their 
death. After standing at the door and looking in for some time, he with- 
drew and went on the road towards home. About one hundred and fifty 
yards from the shop, his mare that never before started at any thing, 
then started and drew back, and would not be driven by many blows to 
go forward. He turned into the woods, on the right hand of the road, 
and when the beast came to a point opposite to that where she had star- 
ted in the road, she started again and drew back here likewise, and could 
not be got forward, and he was obliged to return and remain in town all 
night." In this instance the ghost-seer is not recorded to have suffered 
any evil from the effect of his nocturnal adventure. Not as with the 
subject of the next supernatural visitation. "Henry Pugh, Esq., of Stew- 
art County in this State, formerly resided in North Carolina, in Bertie 
County, eight or ten miles from Windsor. His elder brother died, and 
sometime afterwards another brother riding from Windsor, suddenly saw 
the hand of a man on the mane of his horse, and a man walking with 
the horse as he travelled, and kept up with him. He knew him to be 


his elder brother, and hastened the gait of his horse; after continuing to 
walk some distance, the apparition prononnced these words " Prepare for 
death," and instantly disappeared. The living brother came home, told 
the family what he had seen and heard; began his preparations, and in a 
short time afterwards was taken sick and died/' We do not like to ques- 
tion the veracity of ghost stories particularly when they are well authen- 
ticated. We cannot but remember that the peasant bard of Scotland has 
immortalized in verse the not less marvellous and equally veracious do- 
ings and seeings of one "Tarn O'Shanter" when all "glorious" he was 
late in going home from a town. 

These spiritual influences, the author shows, acts sometimes upon insects, 
small quadrupeds and reptiles unconnected with the presence of man. 
Thus he says that " about twenty years ago, in all directions from Nash- 
ville, and to the distance of many miles, bees were seen, as if in much 
hurry, flying towards that point. There they actually met on the planta- 
tion of Judge McNairy, settling in swarms upon the fences, trees, rocks 
and other convenient places, and after remaining there several days 
dispersed. Not many years ago, the squirrels assembled in vast numbers, 
and crossed some of the North American rivers. In the year 1059 an 
immense number of snakes assembled in a plain near Turney in Flanders, 
and forming themselves into two bodies fought with incredible fury, until 
the one had nearly destroyed the other. The people killed the other 
band." The snake story we recommend to the consideration of the 
American people, at this time, with the hope that the citizens of the 
different sections of our Union will extract a moral from it, and profit 
by it. 

The two volumes of history were published in 1823, just three years 
before the death of the author. One is entitled, " The Natural and 
Aboriginal History of Tennessee, up to the first settlement therein by the 
white people in the year of 1768," and the other, " The Civil and Polit- 
ical History of the State of Tennessee from its earliest settlement up to 
the year 1796, including the boundaries of the State." In the first is 
given an interesting description of the appearance of the country before 
it was settled and occupied by the white men, its soil, climate, productions, 
natural curiosities, &c. Then follows the account of the aboriginal in- 
habitants, with a learned and labored argument to prove that they were 
descendants from those Israelites who, upon the destruction of Jerusalem, 
were carried captives to Babylon. In his account of the natural curiosi- 
ties of the State, the mind of the author seems to have been particularly 
impressed with the subject of petrefactions, many remarkable specimens 
of which he describes, as well in this work as in his " Christian Advocate." 
We are tempted to give an extract or two, containing these accounts, for 


the benefit of the students of Geology and Mineralogy in the University, 
with the view of stimulating them to greater diligence in the study of 
that interesting department of science : " In Davidson county, in the 
State of Tennessee, on the plantation of Captain Coleman, at the bottom 
of his spring-house, is a rock on which the house is placed, and on the 
surface of this rock, are petrified snakes, partly incorporated with the 
stone." "Dr. Brown, late of Wilson county, saw in the museum of 
Philadelphia, a completely petrified bull. He was found about the 
year 1806, in the neighborhood of Ohio. All his parts are perfect and 
all are petrified. One of his hind legs is bent as in the act oi making an 
effort to get out of the sink hole in which he was found, and into which 
he had been precipitated." "A nest of yellow-jackets with the young ones 
in it, all petrified, w^ taken from the Ohio river, and was seen by Mr. 
Hayes, counsellor at law, in 1807." " When the foundations of Quebec 
were dug up, a petrified savage was found, his quiver and arrows were 
undecayed and unpetrified. Near Tonne in Thuringia, which is about the 
51st degree of north latitude, the petrified skeleton of an elephant was 
dug up, and in the mines of that country the petrified skeleton of a croc- 
odile. In Scanea, several feet below the bottom of a drained marsh, an 
entire petrified cart was found, with the driver and horses also petrified. 
The supposition is, that a lake was formerly there, and in attempting to 
cross over it, on the ice, they perished." 

The other historical work gives a minute and detailed account of the 
progress of the white people in settling and improving the country, their 
wars with the savages, and other matters connected with the civil and 
political affairs of the State; and it contains besides much valuable and 
important information in relation to the boundaries of North Carolina, as 
well as of Tennessee. Tie style however, is inelegant, and it must be 
confessed that the book is rather dull and uninteresting. 

It is not upon these works outside of his profession, but upon the fact 
of his having been one of the most learned and profound lawyers in the 
Union, that the fame of Judge Haywood must mainly rest. That is a 
solid basis from which his renown as a man of great abilities cannot be 
removed. His arguments in the cases of Baker vs. Webb and Bell vs. Hill 

and State vs. , which are to be found reported at length in the first 

volume of his Reports; his observations upon the decision in Armour vs. 
White (annexed as a note to the case of Stanly vs. Turner, 1 Murp. Rep. 
14) which fixed the constructions of the act of 1715 in relation to the 
limitation of actions founded on claims to land, and his great constitution- 
al argument in the University vs. Hoy, 1 Murp. 58, fully justify the dis- 
tinction awarded to him by the general voice of his contemporaries. His 
judgment in the case of Ingram vs. Hall 1 Hay. Rep. 192 is one of the 


ablest treatises which can any where he found upon the subject of deed's-' 
It is said to have received the compliment of having been the first Amer- 
ican case upon any question of the common law, ever referred to by an,- 
English author. 

Judge Haywood, married in early life a lady whose name was Martha 
Edwards, and from that union have sprung numerous descendants, the 
most, if not all of whom are living in the State of Tenessee, and Ala- 
bama. His residence during the latter years of his stay in North Caro- 
lina, was upon a farm which he owned about six miles north of Louis- 
burg, in the County of Franklin. A house of worship belonging to the 
Baptist denomination standing about a mile from the place where he 
dwelt, still bears the surname of him, who, whatever may have been his 
deficiences as a theologian and historian, was witUfcut doubt one of the 
most learned, able and profound lawyers, who ever appeared at the bar, 
or sat an the bench, of his native, or of his- adopted State. 

— <$ — *-*--a3»- -'->— 


[The first number of " The Star" newspaper was published in Kaleigh on 
Thursday 3d of November, 1808, by Jones & Henderson. It was the third 
hebdomidal which appeared in our political metropolis. " The Raleigh Reg- 
ister," established by Joseph Gales, and " The Raleigh Minerva," by William; 
Boylan, preceded The Star by about ten years. Mr. Boylan is the only sur- 
vivor of these useful and estimable men. The Register was the organ of the 
Republican, and the Minerva of the Federal, party. The Star, though not 
professedly neutral, was less partizan in its character than either of its con- 
temporaries. The first six volumes were edited by Calvin Jones, an eminent 
member of the medical profession, but more widely known by his military 
rank. There was too much reason to apprehend a rupture at that time with 
France or Great Britain, and military science was much more the object of 
attention than at the present time. He Was Adjutant-General of the State 
during the war with England, and gave great celebrity to the office. He was 
a public spirited, liberal and useful man, in every pursuit in which he engag- 
ed, and though successively a physician of well-established reputation, a scien- 
tific and successful agriculturalist, the most valuable service he rendered to 
the public was as newspaper editor. "We have the first and second volumes 
now before us, and regret that we have it not in our power to enrich our col- 
lection with the four subsequent volumes edited by Doctor Jones. Each vol- 
ume was accompanied by an appropriate title-page and copious index, and in 
this way had a claim to preservation which no similar publication in North 


Carolina, he-fore or since, has exhibited. Abstaining to a considerable extent 
from acrimonious political discussion, it afforded more than ordinary space for 
literary and scientific disquisitions, and moral and religious essays. 

Our object, however, in directing attention to this publication is not merely 
to call to remembrance some of the characteristics of a man whose usefulness 
entitled him to respect and gratitude, but to introduce to the notice of the reader 
an entcrprize well begun a half century ago, and which we think might well 
be resumed at the present time. The following Circular was addressed to 
some of the mast intelligent gentlemen in the several counties in the State : 

"Raleigh, March 30, 1810, 
Sin : — Between the Eastern and Western parts of this State there is as great 
dissimilarity in the face of the country, productions, and means of subsistence 
as usually exists between different and widely separated nations. One gov- 
ernment embracing the whole, it is of infinite importance, in order to inculcate 
liberal sentiments ami promote enlightened legislation, that the inhabitants 
of each should have a correct knowledge of the other. Cut this is far from 
being the case : Indeed the little communication between the two parts of the 
State, and there having never been published any account of the local parts 
of it, the inhabitants have hitherto had no means of obtaining that knowledge. 
We believe an accurate description of the several Counties in the State would 
be generally interesting and useful. Under the influence of this belief, con- 
firmed by the opinions of those whom we have consulted, we have proposed to 
solicit information from gentlemen who by their habits and situation are quali- 
fied to give it, and to communicate it to the public through the medium of our 

" It would be false delicacy in us to conceal that in the establishment of the 
Star we were influenced by the hope that it would be a source of profit: for 
that consideration neither our present situation or future prospects would per- 
mit us to forego : But a desire of equal force was to render useful services to 
our country ; ■ to diffuse knowledge, to encourage literature and the arts, and 
to elevate the character of cur Siate to that rank in the Union to which the 
improvement of her resources and the cultivation of her talents would entitle 
her. Our feeble exertions have, with undeviating aim, been directed to thi3 
end. Other avocations and the difficulties inseparable from an infant estab- 
lishment, under the peculiar circumstances in which we were compelled to 
give esiste.133 tj this, hava prevented our bestowing that attention to its lead- 
ing objects which we desired, and have also gr?atly lessened the force of exer. 
tions which can scarcely be excited before they are necessarily remitted. 
These impedimenfs we hope ere long will be lessened. While our inclina- 
tions are riveted # to the objects of this establishment, the patronage which the 
public is bestowing upon it has increased its connection with our interests. 
We hope soon to acid to its local value, and at no very remote period to make 
it approach more nearly to that standard of utility which we have in our own 
minds set up for it. la our renewed exertions we have ventured to solicit the 
cooperation of our fellow-citizens, and the object of this letter is to request of 

you a descriptive account of the county of — , and any other county with 

which you may be acquainted, 



"We have subjoined some particular enquiries, to which we wish to invite 
your attention. This is the only application made for information in the 
county named above, and having before apprized you of the importance we 
attached to it, we now acquaint you with the full extent of your dependence. 
Should, however, unfavourable circumstances put it out of your power to 
comply with our wishes, we have to request of you the favour to engage some 
gentleman to perform the task who will execute it with fidelity. Should 
even that be out of your power, you will please take the earliest opportunity 
to apprize us of it. 


"1. Face of the country ; quality of the soil, timber, growth, vegetable 
productions, water, value of land in different situations. 

"2. When the county was settled ; circumstances of settlement ; object of 
the first settlers. Remarkable occurrences in the histoid of the county, par- 
ticularly during the war of Revolution. 

" 3. Rivers, lakes, bays, harbours, canals, mountains, eataracts, islands, 
swamps, roads, bridges, mines, minerals, medicinal springs, and curosities. 

"4. Quantity and kind of produce and staple commodities; markets. 

" 5. General and individual wealth. 

" 6. Towns — an account of their origin, growth and present state. Re- 
markable edifices ; general style of building. 

" 7. State and progress of Agriculture. Improvements. Breeds of use- 
ful domestic animals. 

" 8. Manufactories, breweries, distilleries, &c, &c, their state and value. 
Labor-saving machines. 

"9. Commerce, value of trade, how carried on ; quantity and size of ship- 
ping boats, &c. 

" 10. Fisheries, game. 

" 11. State of society and progress of civilization. 

" 12. Schools and Academies ; account of their rise, progress and present 
state ; funds, libraries, number of Students, &c, &c. Teachers, their qualifi- 
cations, where educated, and whether any and what collegiate degrees they 
have received. Men of talents residents in the county, now and heretofore ; 
distinguishing natives from foreigners. 

" 13. Learned professional men. 

" 14. What proportion of the citizens cannot read and write, and what is 
the comparative difference, in this respect, between the present time and 
twenty-five years ago. 

" 15. Societies for intellectual improvement, libraries, &c. 

" 16. Societies for encouraging the Arts and Agriculture, and for purposes 
of humanity. 

"17. Religion: number of churches, societies and communicants. 

" 18. Destruction by fire and storms. 

"19. Diseases and remedies. 

" 20. Amusements, Sporting Clubs, <fcc, <fce, 

"21. Everything interesting not comprised in the foregoing. 


"These are the leading particulars to which we would invite your attention, 
but you will notice every thing you may deem interesting, and give the infor- 
mation in any form you may prefer. 

" We are aware that a very few paragraphs will suffice for the description 
of some counties, while several columns of a Newspaper may be necessary to 
complete the view of others. You will be limited by no other restrictions 
than the bounds of your subject. 

" We presume it would be worse than superfluous to offer any apology for the 
trouble this request imposes. It would seem to imply a doubt that you did 
not feel sufficient interest in the spread of information, while we were led to 
the application solely by the perfect conviction that you would embrace with 
ardour any opportunity which might be offered of contributing to its diffusion. 

" Our very extensive correspondence compared with the slender profits of 
the establishment requires that we avoid every possible expense of postage ; 
we have to request, therefore, that your communication may be forwarded by 
private conveyance. 

"We are very respectfully, your obedient servants, 


About twenty replies, embracing much valuable information in relation to 
the history and statistics of the counties to which they relate, were returned. 
We select for publication at present a communication from the pen of the late 
Bartlett Yancy. His name is all that is necessary to secure attention to the 
subject, and propitiate public favor in its behalf. — Eds. Mag.] 


In Caswell, the face of the country is generally hilly; there is, 
however, some valuable low-land upon the water courses, that lies well. 
Some valuable level land, likewise, is to be found, not immediately on 
any water course. The Country-line land, so called, from a creek of that 
name, which empties into the Dan River, near where the counties of Cas- 
well and Person join the Virginia line, is generally esteemed of the 
first quality in the county. Its greatest objection is, that the land, ad- 
jacent to the creek, is so hilly, that without great care in the cultivator, 
most of it is worn out and washed away in the course of ten or twelve 
years cultivation. The Dan river low-grounds are very fertile, and 
amply repay the farmer annually for his toil; but the adjacent ridges are 
hilly, are still more apt to wear than the land on Country-line. Next in 
point of value and fertility is considered the land on Hico. A water 
course called Moore's creek, has some valuable low-land on it, but is 
objectionable on account of being marshy. 

The growth on the Country-line land, is pine, all kinds of oaks, hick- 
ory, dog-wood, sour-wood, black-gum, black-walnut, white-walnut, ash, 
beech, birch, sassafras, and a variety of other vegetable prod actions. 
Nearly the same growth on other water courses, except not so muoh pine. 


The water in Caswell is as good, perhaps, as any ether county im,the 

As to the value cf land, as much depends on the situation of it as 
the fertility ; land in the neighborhood of the court-house, and indeed 
most of the handsome situations on the main road, sells for as much, as 
a tract on the Dan river. r ihe value of land theiefort; defends much ou 
the neighborhood in which it is situated • the general price of good 
land, is from five to ten dollars per acre. Agreeable situations and toler- 
ably good land may be had, from three to five dollars an acre. 

This county was first settled about the year 1750; from that, time, until 
1754-5, there were about eight or ten families in that part of the coun- 
try, now known by the name of Caswell. A family by the name of Rey- 
nolds, and two others, by the name of Dolittle and Baikston, were among 
the first settlers; not one of the family is now in the county, and it is 
believed not one of their descendants. The Lea's, Graves', Petersons' 
and Kinbro's came to this county about 1753— '-i-'5. They came from 
Orange and Culpepper in Virginia; several hundreds of their descendants 
are now living in the county. 

The object of the first settlers, was to possess themselves of fertile land 
rnd good pastures. I am told by the first settlers, that cane was so plen- 
ty, at that time, that their cattle were fat all the winter without feeding. 

No extraordinary occurrence took place in this county during the Rev- 
olution. No regular fought battle; there were some skirmishes with the 
tories, a number of whom were killed. Cornwallis passed through this 
county, in his pursuit of Gen. Green, some little time before the Guilford 
battle, but little injury was done to the inhabitants, when compared with 
the general destruction they suffered in other parts of the United States. 

Dan river runs through a small part of Caswell, and about twelve or 
fifteen families, live on the north side of the river in the county. We 
have no lakes, bays, harbors, canals, mountains, cataracts, islands, nor 
swamps. The reads in Caswell are very good, for the back-country, 
they have been much improved lately. Scarcely a county in the State 
perhaps, has batter bridges, or more of them, than the little county of 
Caswell. On every water course, of any size, there is a bridge, and over 
some two or three. 

As to mines, there is not as much noise about the " silver mine," as 
was about two years ago. At that time a rascal by the name of Charles 
Stewart, induced a citizen of the county to believe he possessed an im- 
mensely valuable silver mine. Experiments were made by Stewart, in tl e 
presence of men of respectability and intelligence, and they were induced 
to believe there was metal in the ore; fifty dollars was then advanced to 
Stewart for the purpose of procuring materials to extract the metal, lie 


pretended to go in search of the materials, but instead of procuring them, 
he was shortly after confined in jail for his crimes. Experiments have 
since been made of this ore, at Richmond, Washington City and Philadel- 
phia, and I am informed it is said to contain a little iron, but not worth 
the attention of the owner. 

There is but one mineral spring, that I know of, in the county. This 
is on a farm belonging to Capt. Thomas Graves, about five miles from 
the Court house. I have tried this water, and think, with care, it would 
be as good as any I ever saw. 

Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, cotton, tobacco, and flax, are raised in 
great abundance. Our staple commodities are tobacco, cotton, and of 
late, flour. We generally send our produce to Petersburg and llich- 
mond. ^ 

I he inhabitants of the county are, generally, in easy circumstances. 
There is a greater equality of property than in most counties ; about ten 
or twelve gentlemen, however, have a very considerable property, and of 
that number, there are ouJy two, whose immense wealth and possessions 
work an injury to their neighbors. 

The county has two towns, Leasburg, formerly the court house, when 
Casweil and Person formed one county. It has one store, a saddler's shop, 
and a cabinet maker shop, with ten or twelve houses. Milton is situated 
in the fork of the Country-line on Dan river, it has two stores, a saddler's 
shop, a hatter's shop, a tavern, with about fifteen or twenty houses. 
Caswell Court House is not an incorporated town, the whole of the pos- 
sessions there belong to Capt. John Craves and his sons. It has two 
taverns, a store, a hatter's shop, with about fifteen houses. 

It is supposed that at least nine-tenths of the inhabitants are agricultur- 
alists. Great improvements have been made in agriculture within ten 
years past. Of useful domestic animals, it may be observed, that few 
counties have more useful, elegant horses; they are from the stock of 
Dioinede, True Blue, Dion, Magic, and Eryan-Oiyn ; tliere are valuable 
horses from old Celer and Nonpareil. Almost every farmer has a yoke 
of oxen. 

Ihe inhabitants of Caswell, are following the example of the west- 
ern counties in erecting distilleries. Ihere are I suppose upwards of fifty, 
the great part of which have been erected within a few years. Some of 
them are useful to the owner and to the country, but most of them are 
nuisances to society, being the resort of idle, dissipated men, who by 
their visits to such places, bring ru:u to themselves and their families. 
I know of nothing which has so great a tendency to demoralize society, 
except it be the late practice of electioneering by drenching the people with 
. grog and falsehood. 


Our fisheries are mostly on Dan River; the fish are generally shad and 
round fish, but they are not more than half as valuable as they were fifteen 
years ago. Of game we have but little; the greater part of the deer hav- 
ing been killed in an immensely large snow that feH about eight or nine 
years ago. We have, however, a few deer and some turkies. 

The progress of society and civilization depends upon the education and 
virtue of the people ; great improvements, therefore, have been made 
since the first settlement of the county. From 1750 to twenty-five years 
after, it is computed that not more than one-third of the inhabitants could 
read, and scarcely half that number could write a legible hand; from 1775 
to 1800 what was then called a common English education, viz : " to read, 
write and cypher as far as the rule of three," was given to a little more 
than half the inhabitants, but from 1800 up to the present time the pro- 
gress of civilization and literature has been greater than for perhaps fifty 
years antecedent to that time. " The great revival of religion about that 
period seems to have contributed much to the dissemination of morality, 
sound principles and good order in society; but as naturalists have ob- 
served every calm is succeeded by a storm, and accordingly many of the 
inferior class of society appear now more depraved than ever. 

For the progress of literature in the inferior branches of an education, 
such as reading, writing and arithmetic since 1800, the people of this 
county are much indebted to Mr. Robert H. Childers. Greater improve- 
ment in writing could not have been expected from any man ; at least 
one-half of the youth of the county who write well, were taught, either 
directly or indirectly, by this excellent pensman. 

Situated within a quarter of a mile of the Court House is Caswell 
Academy. The plan of Caswell Academy was first concieved and brought 
to public view in the winter of 1801. Early in the succeeding year be- 
tween five and six hundred dollars were subscribed, and during the year 
1803 it was completed for the reception of students. The Rev. Hugh 
Shaw and Bartlett Yancy were the teachers for the first two years ; the 
number of students was from fifty-five to sixty-five each year. From that 
period the institution was not in a very flourishing state until 1808, since 
which time it has prospered much under the direction of Mr. John W. 
Caldwell — a gentleman educated in Guilford by his father the Rev. Dr. 
David Caldwell, well known in the State for his services in disseminating 
literature, morality and religion among his fellow citizens. The funds of 
the Academy at present are low; it is now, and always has been, depend- 
ent on the liberality of the trustees of the institution, and a few other 
public spirited gentlemen of the county for a support; no library of con- 
sequence is yet established — a plan has, however, been suggested and is 
now going into operation by which it is hoped a good library will be pro- 


cared in a few years The number of student, at present is thirty-efcht 
H Co Academy situated near the Bed House in Caswell, was erected 
ft i believed, m 1804, by a number of public-spirited gent emeu in thai 
part of the county. Mr. Shaw, after he left Caswell Academy bc m 
the teacher at flu. Academy for two or three years, during which tin e i 
* behoved, ,t bad between thirty and forty students. It ha, sine ft 
time been on a decline, and about the middle of last month it was on 
sumed by fire. There bad been a school taught in it this yea, b„ no 
fire had been used in it for several months previous to it, be /j bu „t 
ft . general.y believed that some vile incendiary put Are to it, for Th^ 

nuiid it ot brick upon a more extended plan. 

Since the establishment of these insfli,,H™„ u.„ „ . 

of science i„ .„„ „ . T lnstlt »"ons the progress of virtue and 

ot science „ the county has exceeded the most flattering hopes of the 
friends of literature. The education that has been acquired there by „ 
youth seems to have benefitted, not only its votaries, but to have imparted 
te b lesssings to all around them. The inhabitants generally a „ Ire „ 
ghtencd-men who thirty and forty years ago were considered th best 
informed and most learned among u, are uow scarcely equal in point of 
informatmu to a school-boy of fifteen years. The venUle ZZll 
however, almost to a man (those that are able) the supporters of seniina' 
■e, of learning; they seem to loot forward with pbealg auti ,> To t " 
!;:?' C0Un, 7 Wm deri ' efr ° m '-ultivati„-f theLinds f 

ep" clot 1?-* wb T 6r ' S T deSiS °''° g dMa ^-, "wolves in 
sneep, clohmg, who, because they can read a chapter in the Bible 

manner) thnk they have learning enough, wish to excite prejudice, 
against the institution, and their student*-" but Wac/t sne „ a r e .„ b 
found in almost every flock." * 

Since the commencement of the vear 18fU m* t ! 

education (except one,) was laid at these institutions, vft: Saunders 
Donoho, Barflett Taney, Edward D. Jones, Jame, W. Brown, Eom u us 
M. Saunders, David Hart, and John W. Graves ; beside, them h"fo low 
rug students rece.ved the rudiment, of their education at Caswe 1 A T 
my : Dr. Horace B . Satterwhite, now of Salisbury, Willi™ WWfflat 
of Hal, ax, Virginia Archibald Haralson, of Person, Elijah G ave tf 
Granville and James Miller, of Person. "raves, ot 

fl^nT'W",' d!st ! ngUishcd f ° r men of tek ° ts - We have no men of 
the first rate talent,, but a great number entitled to the rank of meuCrftv 
and ,ome above it. These are all native,, for we have no ,pr eTn ST 
men, revolut.on.zing Frenchmen, or speculating Scotchmen Long „ 8 


In this county there are five practicing physicians: Dr. John McAden, 
Dr. William S. Webb, Dr. Samuel Dabney, Dr. James Smith and Dr. 
Edward Foulks. Of the profession of the law, now residing in the coun- 
ty, are the following gentlemen: Bartlett Taney, Edward D. Jones and 
Solomon Graves. Jr. " The order in which each professional character is 
named denotes the priority of time in which they commenced the prac- 
tice of their profession. 

There are two societies in the county constituted for intellectual im- 
provement. One at Caswell Academy and another at the tavf rn of Jethro 
Brown, Esq. Their excises are mostly polemical. We have no public 
library in the county. 

About two years ago several gentlemen of Caswell and Person had 
formed themselves into a society for the encouragement of the arts and 
agriculture; but that spirit of emulation and national prick which then 
characterized all seems now to be possessed by a few only. Little has 
been done for the progress and promotion of this society as yet. 

The religion of the inhabitants may be best estimated by the number 
of churches' and communicants: there are four Baptist churches and about 
300 communicants; four Presbyterian congregations and about 200 or 
250 communicants; three or four Methodist societies, and about 250 or 
300 communicants. 

Caswell is a very healthy part of the country. The common diseases 
of the inhabitants are nervous and billions fevers. The remedy for the 
most part is stimulants and purgatives, the composition of which is best 
known to the physicians. 

The amusements of the polite part of society consist in halls, tea parties 
and visiting parties. Those of an inferior class consist of Saturday-night 
frojies now become almost obsolete; shooting matches and hors.-racing 
afford amusement to the better sort of men, and now and then may be 
seen a party with an old rusty pack of cards amumxj themselves for whis- 
key. The only Sporting Club in the county is the "Jocky Club" of 

the Caswell Turf. 


August 11th, 1810. 

I860.] FRIENDSHIP. 225 




True Friendship's cause deserves applause 

From every virtuous heart ; 
The joys are sure, the hopes secure^ 

Which friendly words impart. 
When storm-clouds low'r in sorrow's hour, 

The friend is ever nigh, 
Our grief to share, to soothe our care 

And heal our heaving sigh. 
Should anger plow upon our brow 

The deep'y furrowed frown, 
The soft command and friendly hand 

Will keep our passions down. 
Yet when we fight with all our might 

Against a foreign foe, 
Friendship will stand to nerve our hand 

To give the final blow, 
Or raise his arm to shield from harm — 

Unless the foe relents — 
And in the strife expose his life, 

And die in our defence. 

When ghastly death has chilled his breath and laid beneath 

The sod the friend we love, 
We feel that grief which is not brief, nor can relief 

Be sent us from above ; 
We then sustain that heavy pain which earthly gain 

Nor honors can remove. 
Bleak sorrow's wave rolls o'er the brave when in the grave 

A loved one sinks to rest ; 
The bitter cries which none despise and few disguise, 

Make friendship manifest. 
Alas ! all know the bitter woe we undergo, 

When friends are from us torn— 
Our heads are bowed, our cries are loud, when the white shroud 

Envelops him we mourn — 
Nought can restore the smile we wore and loved before ; 

We're friendless and forlorn. 


The hero of my song, a noble youth, 
Whose humble home was in our sunny South, 
Had strongest passions, yet a gen'rous mind, 
That made him worship God and love mankind. 
Though he could boast no honored ancestry, 
His heart was noble and his aim was high. 
; Tis true he cherished youth's ambitious dream, 
And Sought the world's applause and high esteem; 
Yet his kind heart knew not that low desire 
Fame, wealth and earthly honors to accpiire ; 
Not that blind love of fame which warriors feel 
And nerves their hearts to free the glittering steel ; 
Not that ignobll lust for power to make 
The proudest kingdom to its centre shake ; 
Not that dark passion Avhich the tyrant owns, 
Who hears Fame's loudest trump in nations' groans ; 
Whose heart exults in Liberty's defeat, 
Content when worlds are humbled at his feet. 
Such vicious passions had his heart e'er known, 
Despised and scorned, they had forever flown. 
But his ambition was to help the poor — 
And oft for them God's blessing did implore ; 
To clothe the orphan, heal the hearts that bleed, 
Make sinful souls repeat and mercy plead ; 
T' illume the darkness of benighted souls, 
And make them love the Being who controls ; — 
To make himself to all the world a friend — 
Such was his highest hope and noblest end. 
A doting father blest his happy home, 
And made it brighter than a Icing's bright dome ; 
A gentle sister's smiles and mother's prayer 
Brought hope and love and sweet contentment there. 
But their sweet joys were far too sweet to last — * 
Misfortune's cloud soon all their hopes o'ercast. 
The aged father died, and left them there 
Without a friend their toil and grief to share. 
His death, alas ! ere many months had flown, 
Revealed a secret which they ne'er had known. 
He died a bankrupt, leaving to his wife 

And children nought save only hope and life. 

The noble youth, at duty's stern command, 

Now sought subsistence in a foreign land — 

Determined that for those he left behind 

A comfortable home he soon would find. 

" Give me," he said* at parting, " Mother, give 

One boon that will sweet thoughts of home revive. 

Let Peru follow me where'er I go, 

I860.] FRIENDSHIP. 227 

No greater present could you well bestow ; 
The friend who shared my sports in happy times — 
He, too, will share my toils in foreign climes ; 
And Peru, when in distant lands I roam, 
Will oft recall sweet memories of home. 
.The dog befriended by a master's hand, 
Is prompt to act, submissive to command ; 
His honest heart than man's by far more true, 
His friendship firmer and more lasting too. 
Though meanly lashed, and what is even worse, 
Insulted by his master's haughty curse, 
He pleads for mercy with a bitter wail — 
Seeks no revenge, but simply wags his tail ; 
Faithful in life, affectionate in death, 
For him he loves' he breathes his ev'ry breath. 
Ah, yes ! kind friend, together we will dwell — 
And now my mother — sister dear farewell." 
And thus in grief he left his humble cot, 
In hopes to gain for them a worthier lot. 
, Happy that toil imposed by ardent zeal 

T' increase a sister's joy, secure a mother's weal. 
Though forced to ply his hand from morn till night, 
The work is pleasant and the burden light. 
Sweet words of love oft cheer that drooping heart, 
Whom poverty from home has torn apart ; 
Love gives him energy which ne'er will tire, 
While roused to action by that holy fire ; 
Necessity has made his sinews strong 
To latest hours his labors to prolong. 
But when sleep com^s, 'tis sweet — he dreams of home, 
From which need makes his weary footsteps roam. 
Till death's cold wave has closed o'er his dear head, 
His mother ne'er shall beg her daily bread ; 
His sweetest sister ne'er shall know the pain 
Which follows close the poor man's hapless train. 
Deceitful hope ! Ere many months had passed, 
News came that those he loved had breathed their last. 
Disease, like prowling wolves, who hunt for prey 
And spread through sheep-folds terror and dismay, 
Was stalking through the land, with murd'rous pride, 
And spreading dread contagion far and wide. 
No sex, nor age, nor station did death spare : 
Hope, withering, fell beneath his savage glare ; 
And even the modern quacks' best arts defied, 
No pleading prayer could turn his blow aside. 
That once proud healthful city of the plain, 
Now filled with corpses which disease has slain. 


Dead piled on dead, or strewn along the ground, 
And piteous waiiings rend the air around. 
Few have survived the pestilential breath, 
And they ere long will all succumb to death. 
Henry, we know, has heard the doleful news, 
And see the course which his kind heart pursues. 
For comfort in distress he breathes a prayer, 
And asks of God his soul for death prepare. 
Then with a firm resolve and hopeful heart, 
He braves e'en death and makes his homeward start; 
Resolved to give to mourning hearts the balm 
Of comfort, and their sorrow's storm becalm. 
And ! sweet words Hope whispers in his ear, 
Relieves his heart and dries his starting tear ; 
Report may lie — and death sometimes relents — 
Perhaps the loved ones live — Oh ! dread suspense ! — 
Auspicious hope his drooping heart revives — 
And he ere long at that sad place arrives ; 
Heart-sickening sights here greet his tearful eyes, 
And mournful waiiings pierce the gloomy skies. 
Through weeping friends he goes in anxious haste, 
And seeks the spot where all his hopes are placed ; 
Alas ! Report was true ! — his sister's voice 
No more will sing to make his heart rejoice ; 
From that dread fate no brother's prayer could save, 
Nor snatch the loved one from her early grave. 
The mother's pallid cheek and sunken eye 
Tell him that hope is gone and death is nigh. 
He gained her side, before her spirit fell, 
But only heard her last, long, fond farewell ! 
His ear bent low to catch her parting breath — 
He clasped her form, but found it cold in death ! 
Oh ! who can paint the anguish of that hour 
When death unmoved asserts his gloomy power ? 
When loving hearts are rent by bitter throes? 
When loved ones sink into their last repose ? 
The grief of anguished spirits who can toll, 
When oft is heard the doleful fun'ral knell ? 
He shed no tears — his grief was far too deep — 
For when all hope is flown, we cannot weep. 

But still is death insatiate ; his rage 
Impossible to conquer or assuagS. 
Thus spake our hero when disease and death 
Seemed at each moment to cut short his breath : 
" No friend can e'er my drooping soul revive, 
And this dread pest I cannot long survive. 

I860.] FRIENDSHIP. 229 

And must I d e ? Must all my fond hopes fade? 

Must my cold form in the dark grave be laid ? 

Must foul worms prey up m this healthful frame? 

Must I resign the joys I once could claim? 

Yes! Death who aims his murd'rous shafts at all, 

Ere long will shroud me in the fun'ral pall. 

And when death comes no prayer will strive to save, 

No mourning friends surround my early grave. 

No sister's voice will soothe my anguished heart, 

Or comfort in that dreadful hour impart; 

No mother's tears will cool my fevered brow, 

All will be dark' and desolate as now. 

Oh, Death! thy sting is terrible, and yet 

My heart would meet thee now without regret — 

Oh ! I would fain resign this weary life, 

And quit this scene of sorrow, care and strife. 

All hope is flown, ambition's dream is vain, 

And friends departed, ne'er will come again. 

All whom J loved and cherished now are gone, 

And left this mourning heart to mourn alone. 

Oh, Death ! thy visit will be welcome — come 

And from this world of sorrow take me home !" 

In vain his prayer! Though his the orphan's grief, 

Death still refused to give his woe relief. 

He turned away, but ere he reached the gate, 

In accents wild he thus laments his fate; 

"Death has laid his cold hand on my father's fair brow; 
How cold and unfeeling I find the world now ! 
/ Ere proofs of his greatness my father had shown, 
Death claimed him a victim and left me alone. 

"My best friend, my mother, is laid in the grave — 
From death none could shield her, no power could save, — 
Ah ! A motherless child in sorrow must live, 
Because there's no mother kind lessons to give. 

"I weep; for my sister lies low with the dead, 
And with her the joys of my youth are all fled; 
Death has snatched her away, and now that fair form 
Is food for the loathsome and pitiless worm. 

"Like the sweet rose of morning when Summer is green, 
But a few days ago she in beauty was seen ; 
But the Angel of Death breathed a blight oi its bloom, 
And now the fair flower lies low in the tomb. 


" I weep ; for sad tears are fit tributes to pay 
To beauty and greatness and truth passed away ; 
Yet I weep not as those who must sorrow in vain, 
For soon I shall meet them in Heaven again. 

" Unprotected, linear ed for I ever must roam, 
Deprived of the comforts and pleasures of home ; 
No friend, no relation will Aveep when I die, 
Or point to the spot where my body shall lie. 

" In vain have I sought in this cold world a friend, 
One in grief to console and in danger defend ; 
All but one have deceived me, who proves to be true, 
The' the others have vanished like morning's fresh dew- 
That frknl is my dog, ever faithful Peru." 

Poor Henry now bereft of friends, of hope and love and home, 
Is forced to toil in grief and care, and through the world to roam. 
Scarce fifteen weary mouths have pass'd ere he in wretched plight, 
Is gladly summoned by the call to strike for freedom's right. 

And hark ! what harsh sounds break upon the ear, 

Presaging that a foreign foe is near ! 

The din of preparation sounds afar, 

And booming guns announce approaching war. 

Heard ye that threat'ning voice from Mexico, 

That faithless friend and our inveterate foe ? 

Know ye that borne on ev'ry Southern gale, 

There comes of Texas' wrongs some mournful tale ? 

Heard ye the piteous cries of those distressed ? 

The groans of those by Mexico oppressed ? — 

Then seize thy arms and seek a just revenge, 

And on her foe thy country's wrongs avenge ! 

Henry obedient to his country's call, 

Resolves to serve her well, whate'er befall — 

His manly spirit lives for her alone, 

And will not rest till foes are overthrown ; 

With sword in hand and Peru at his side, 

Resolved to conquer, he to battle hied. 

And now the hostile hosts are on the plain, 

Each gazing on his foe in proud disdain ; 

" To die or conquer" rang along the shore, 

And then — 0, God ! the cannon's op'uing roar. 

Swords flash, and flaunting banners proudly wave — 

And cowards tremble — but unmoved the brave. 

The serried ranks now join in dreadful fray — 

Each foe resolved to die or win the day. 

I860.] FRIENDSHIP. 231 

The dreadful grape-shot sent in anger wild 

Rush through the ranks and dead on dead are piled ; 

Here some brave spirit grapples with his foe ; 

Here writhes in pain some noble heart laid low ; — 

There some unyielding falchion drenched in blood 

Is deeply plunged and draws the goiy flood. 

But where is Henry in this bloody strife ? 

Escaped unhurt, or dearly sold his life ? 

Yes'! his brave heart has done its duty well — 

He bravely fought, and fighting bravely fell ! 

And now the bloody work is done ; the night 

Throws her dark mantle o'er the gloomy sight. 

And from the field the weary hosts withdraw, 

And seek refreshment on their beds of straw. 

Our hero wounded, left upon the plain, 

Must spend the night among the ghastly slain. 

Oh ! bitter thought that makes his brave heart moan — 

He's doomed to die upon the field alone. 

No friend is there to heal his deadly wound — 

And comes not death, though hourly importuned. 

Hark ! whence that sound? It is the wolf's deep growl, 

Or else the savage cougar's hungry howl ! — 

" Welcome I" cried Henry, " Come! Consume this flesh, 

My bones are tender and my body fresh. 

Come ! free this anguished soul from all its pain, 

Appease your hunger ! Let not life remain." 

But see ! no wolfish glare is in that eye ; — 

And list I no hungry howl breaks from that cry, 

! 'tis his dog, that ever faithful friend, 

Faithful through life and faithful to the end. 

" Peru," he cried, ""my friend, how cam'st thou here ? 

0, was there ever friend half so sincere ? 

I'm sure that I before the battle's eve 

B;>und thee with fetters which thou couldst not cleave. 

0, thou hast broke for friendship's sake thy chain, 

And found me here in agony and pain. 

Well mayst thou mourn ; well mayst thou weep and sigh ; 

My only friend, thy master soon must die." 

The dog wept loud, and by his howlings round, 

Drew many soldiers to the battle ground. 

The wounded hero to his tent conveyed, 

Ere long the summons which death bore, obeyed ; 

And when his spirit reached cold Jordan's wave, 

They laid him softly in a soldier's grave. 

The dog not long survived bereavement's smart, 

But pined away, and died with broken heart ! 



About the first of June 1859 a company of thirteen- boys, of which 
I was one, started on a pleasure trip for vacation. Our Commencement 
had just ended. Our eyes had been dazzled and minds bewildered by 
Nature's beauties decorated by art; we now desired to see it in its sim- 
plicity and grandeur, unalloyed; the mountains, therefore, were our des- 

I ei haps an inticductkn to cur ccmrary wculd not he amiss; for "they 
Were the unseparable companions of all my toils." Our Captain is a ro- 
bust, square-built Dutchman, about five feet six inches high, pretty good 
looking, and 

"As brave a lad as e'er cofnmission bore." 

His Ifdge cf off ce wrs a red aid blue stripe down ihe breeches leg, 
the others haying the red only, and his word was law (when we were so 
t i posed.) 11 e Treasurer is cf a lather diminutive size, has a coin-field 
Walk and sn in mente cud of tobacco always in his mouth gives him 
what appears to be a swollen jaw. Further description is unnecessary; 
for everybody knows Jesse. Our journalist — is rather a nondescript 
character. As the othere are privates it will not do to take too much 
notice of them lest they become mutinous. However on the whole they 
are fine looking fellows and seem like they would walk well. Out wag- 
oner could drive slower, iialloo louder, want more waiting on, and eat 
more than anybody I ever heard of and the cook invariably had us out 
of all patience before furrer was ready. We had a wagen and two hor- 
ses, tent cloth, bedding, cooking utensils, guns and so forth (which means 
you know pipes umljuij). 

The morning was clear and pleasant when we, in our uniform of 
checked shirts, striped tow-pants, and broad-brimmed hats took up the line 
of march, followed by the wagon containing all the paraphernalia of the 
camp. None but a student, who has been caged in his study for five 
months, can appreciate our feelings when once more out of sight of the 
" 4ill" and beyond the summon of the old bell. Childe Harrold felt no 
wilder delight when 

"Once more upon the waters." 

though perhaps his lasted longer; for when night come, all to him was 
imagined beauties, whilst to us it brought sterner realties. 

I860.] A VACATION TRIP. 233 

Our intention was to visit the Pilot also which was but little off the 
direct route to the Black : our road was through Graham, Greensboro' 
and Salem. 

The first named place is small and badly arranged, like the most of the 
villages I have seen in North Carolina. The most prominent building in 
it, at least, which excited more attention, was the " Temperance Hall." 
This shows the inclination of the people and their consequent neglect of 
the place. The country between it and Greensboro' is broken and hilly; 
the farms were in a bad state of cultivation, nevertheless, the corn and 
wheat looked fine. Greensboro' is a much larger place than the former 
and is, historically, of greater importance ; for near here were exhibited 
in '81 the diversified tactics to which brave men will resort when closely 
pressed. Apart from this, it is a beautiful place, and has every appear- 
ance of industry and enterprise. Two large female colleges add much to 
its appearance, and, I doubt not, to its business. Our stay was very short 
so we did not have time to visit them. 

Another day's walk and we were at Salem. 

Its celebrated Institution, extensive manufactories, and general indus- 
try make it an interesting place ; and the intelligence and hospitality of 
its citizens make it a pleasant place. We stayed here two days, so that 
we had time to examine the iormer and to partake of the latter. The 
visit to the Institute was among the most agreeable incidents of our trip. 
We found Mr. DeSchweinitz, (Pres.) a very nice, agreeable gentleman, who 
showed us the high honor of conducting us through his large and splendid 
establishment. He conducted us into all the various departments, and 
told their use, &c, but in nearly every one we found something more at 
tractive than his explanations, and I am sorry I cannot repeat them. Our 
brave Captain was captivated, you could not, therefore, blame the others; 
for afterwards when misfortune and starvation assailed us, 

The fair girls of Salem seemed to appear 
And bid us, with smiles, to be of good cheer. 

Mr. Wheeler invited us to dine with him that day, which of course we 
accepted ; and whatever good opinions we may have formed of the people 
these were heightened ten-fold in him their worthy representative. . 

The dinner was rich and sumptuous, and we had been on the road long 
enough to do it justice. It would require mueh time to tell of all the 
interesting things we saw; but we found the homely old proverb, that 
" every sweet has its bitter," too painfully true in our case. I will there- 
fore leave these " bitter things " to cancel the other pleasures and pass 

Here we determined not to visit the Pilot; for we feared that we would 
become too easily satisfied with "mountain scenery" estimating our feel- 



ings by the other companies that had visited them. We therefore took 
the most direct route for the Black. About dark we arrived at Mr. 
Williams' who had invited us to call by and spend a day in " the valley 
of the Yadkin." I had often heard of this valley — of its surpassing 
beauty — great fertility — and above all, of the hospitality of its inhabitants. 
These we found combined in his fertile farm in a high state of cultivation 
— his beautiful residence situated in almost a " Paradise below/' — and his 
hospitality unequalled. We spent the day pleasantly. " Young Nick " 
joined us here; and the next morning, when about to start, Mr. Williams 
made us a most handsome present, which made his name a household- 
word in camp for a long time. 

The country now began to grow mountainous. Now and then we could 
catch glimpses of the Blue Ridge as it loomed up in the far distant 
West. To our right the Pilot raised its pyramidal form whilst various 
others could be seen on every side. While standing on the ridge over- 
looking the Yadkin valley, a scene, the most picturesque I ever beheld, 
was presented. The "happy valley" with its extensive farms, neat resi- 
dences, and rich harvest lay below; around and above the lofty peaks look 
down in solemn grandeur upon the lovely scene ; below the beauties of 
nature spread their charms, glowing in the freshness of spring and bask- 
ing beneath a congenial sun. The bare and craggy peaks present the 
gloom and desolation of winter. Here at one sight were presented all 
that could inspire us with love to God for his kind blessings and comforts, 
and fear and veneration for his awful power and unbounded wisdom. 

We traveled along the banks of the river all day and arrived at Mr. 
Jones' about dark; and again were warmly greeted with western hospi- 
tality. One or two of our company being sick we were compelled to stay 
a day or two. We met several students here and spent a most pleasant 
day in fishing, hunting and other amusements. The sick got no better 
and we had to leave them. 

Lenoir is a handsome little village on the road leading through Swan- 
nanoa gap. It has a large female academy and many other improve- 
ments which make it a very interesting little place. The Hi-Briten is 
about four miles to the east of it and I have been told by those who have 
visited our most noted mountains that it presents the most lovely and in- 
teresting scenery of any. The surrounding country is well suited to 
give it this prominence; for 

"Partial nature with a lavish hand 

Has spread her jewels o'er the favored land." 

On one side the Yadkin meanders through fields of grain now ready 
for the reaper looking in the distance like " silvery thread o'er fields of 
burnished, gold." On the other, the village nestles among the lofty hills; 

I860.] A VACATION TRIP. 235 

the whole western horizon is begirt with a blue line extending as far as 
the eye can reach now and then broken by some jutting crag lifting its 
head far above the others, reminding you of the oriental description of 
the domes and spires of ruined cities. Over the wide panorama are 
spread farms, towns, cities, dense forests, deep ravines, watered by gentle 
brooks and perfumed by myriads of flowers that line their banks. The 
whole surrounding country presents a rich field for the Geologist. It 
contains many specimens of rocks, some of which seemed to be rich in 
iron and other ores. The extensive quarries valueless where they are, 
would be worth fortunes could they be moved where they are needed. 
Rail-Roads and other means of conveyance are needed to fully develop 
the almost boundless resources of this "fairest portion of our happy 
land." Gold has been found this side of the Rio Grande and our prog- 
ress west will soon be limited by the Pacific; then the true economist 
will return to the seemingly worn-out hills of the older States and new 
charms and virtues will arise that have never yet been dreamed of. 

Our next mountain was the Blue-Ridge. Our anticipations were high; 
for if the small hills we had passed were so interesting what would the 
mountain itself present? When we had reached the top we were disap- 
pointed; for the ascent was so slight we hardly noticed it and the top 
gave but a poor view. There are residences all along the asscent and 
one on the top, but they look badly and the people seem to be staying 
there because they cannot get elsewhere; the case, I fear, of a good 
many that don't live in the mountains. 

We are now in "old Buncombe." I almost feel like I am at home; 
for ever since I could recollect it has been a household word. What a 
crowd of recollections rush through the mind at its mention ! Childhood's 
innocent sports aud enjoyments; youth's visions of glory and ambition; 
middle age's half hope, half fear, half regret ; and then second childhood 
when all is lived again. It makes us in fancy, 

"To return to the spot where our infancy gamboled ; 

To linger once more in the haunts of our youth ; 
To retreat where young passion first stealthily gamboled, 

When Avhispers are heard full of nature and truth 
Saying, don't you remember 1" 

Beside these it has other special claims on us. It contains the highest 
mountains east of the Mississippi — it contains vast quantities of ores as 
yet unnoticed — presents every variety of scenery that could charm the 
eye of the poet or painter — and has the happiest people, neatest residences 
and best farms within the bounds of the "old North State." 

And of her honored who'll complain ; 
Since she's produced a D. L. Swain ? 

We reached the foot of the Black Mountain. June the 21st, strong and 


healthy, and ready for any sport the wild mountains could afford. "We 
employed Mr. Stepp, who lived near the foot, as a guide, and of course 
placed ourselves under his directions. We left the wagon, each taking an 
overcoat and blanket while our horses brought provisions for a night and 
day. Thus packed, two or three ahead with their guns, the others with 
their long sticks, following, we set out for the top nine miles distant. 
The ascent was gentle for a mile or two; after this it became more diffi- 
cult and in many places dangerous. On our right the Catawba weni; 
" tumbling, rolling, roaring " over the cliffs forming many Niagara's though 
on a smaller scale. Halfway up we come to the "Mountain House" 
which was built by a Mr. Patton, several years since, who I am told owned 
the entire mountain at that time. Above the house a short distance it 
breaks off into a sudden precipice of several hundred feet. On the brink 
of this there is a small tomb-stone with the simple inscription '■'■Elizabeth." 
It was placed there by the same gentleman to the memory of his daughter, 
who visited the mountain with him and sat upon this rock and looked out 
upon the wide variegated landscape lying far below. Here commenced 
the Balsam Fir which covers the whole top, and in many places so thickly 
that it would be impossible to get through it. Our guide told us that a 
snake had never been seen in it. The temperature of the atmosphere is 
too cold for them, which suits the growth of the Balsam. Some, howev- 
er, attribute their abscence to some virtue in the growth. I think the 
former, however, a sufficient reason. The whole mountain affords a fine 
range for stock which become perfectly fat in the spring and summer. 
There is some game too, but it is hunted so much that it is very difficult 
to find it. 

It commenced raining on us shortly after we had left the " Mountain 
House," and of all the muddy, slippery, lonesome, dreary looking places 
this took the lead. I had often heard of the little fellow stepping one 
step forward and slipping two backwards but this was the first time I ever 
thought his excuse could be true. We reached the top late in the even- 
ing and the muddiest set you ever saw I reckon. We were in no tune to 
admire the beauties of nature, but could have appreciated much more 
highly some of its comforts. It had stopped raiuing but a dense fog 
shut out all view, so that we had to content ourselves with hearing our 
guide relate the many beauties that the mountain discloses. 

So much has been written lately about the Black Mountain that it is 
unnecessary to say more about it. I have no doubt that it is a very 
pleasant place when the weather is fair, but there are but few attractions 
about it when it is raining. We spent the night in a little hut near the 
top, and it was one of the nights. It rained nearly the whole time, the 
wind blew cold and made the most dreary, mournful sound among the old 

I860.] A VACATION TRIP. 237 

firs that I ever heard ; the little cabin was so small that we could not 
even move after we had been packed in, and the fleas and other vermin 
were so thick you could almost stir them with a stick; the house leaked 
and smoked, and the wind whistled through the cracks as cold as Decem- 
ber. For the first time since we started all were up before breakfast, and 
several were making preparation to return, completely satisfied with 
"Mountain Scenery." Seven or eight of us determined to go to "Mitch- 
ell's Falls," about three miles north of the Peak. "We started early and 
reached the falls in about three hours. From the accounts I had heard, 
and also from the lithograph taken of it, I expected to see a much 
larger and more dangerous place. The creek, or rather branch, is quite 
small, and the height of the falls is some ten or twelve feet. The water 
runs over a large rock, and in falling has worn a large basin in it about 
thirteen feet deep and ten wide. It would hardly attract attention on 
the mountains where there are many places much more dangerous. 

We returned to the hut and after eating a little lunch set out for Mr. 
Stepps'. We had not gone very far before it commenced laining on us 
again. We soon found that it was useless to try to walk; for we could 
bardly stand unless we held to a tree. The thunder seemed like It 
would rend the very skies, the rain poured down in torrents and the wind 
blew almost freezing cold. We soon came to the conclusion that it 
would never do to stand still so we buudled up the best ws could and 
just rolled down. I got a little ahead once and stopped to look back; 
some had hold of the bushes trying to stand up — others were coming 
over and over, somerset fashion — some were sliding feet foremost and 
others with feet upwards — in short it just beat any sight I ever wit- 
nessed. When we got to the bottom "our hides were not worth shucks" 
sure enough. We were tired of Black Mountain, and after hunting and 
^fishing a day or two we started for Asheville about eighteen miles east of 
the Blue Ridge. We passed through a beautiful vallev and the increased 
neatness of the farms and residences indicated wealth and industry. In 
•comparing this with the Yadkin valley it is difficult to decide which is 
the most attractive. The Yadkin excels in grandeur and sublimity, this 
in mildness and loveliness; the Yadkin is situated among high hills steep 
■cliff's, rugged mountains, and deep ravines; this, is a beautiful plain where 
gentle slopes break the monotony of the scene, and clear rippling brooks 
delight with their distant murmurings. 

Those who love to gaze on nature's works, admire them in their awful 
granduer and can realize the true delight of this feeling will find a home 
in the Yadkin valley : While those who delight in the umbelishments of 
art, increased in interest by nature's mildness will find this Eden in the 
beautiful valley of the Swannanoa. Our stay at Asheville was short, and 
we had no time either for enjoyment or observation. From this place 
we started for home, where we arrived July 5th, strong and heathly. 
On the whole we were well pleased with the trip, but have no desire to 
repeat it. 





0, who would die in autumn, who so weary of their life 

That fain would leave this fair, bright earth with summer joys so rife ; 

Who is it that would die 'mid the falling of the leaves, 

The fading of the flowers, and the gathering of the sheaves? 


'Twas a youthful voice that murmured, " in the autumn let me die," 
With the withered flowers around me, and the summer's parting sigh ; 
I would depart ere ushered in the Avinter's frosty king, 
While in mine ear the winds I hear, sweet summer's requiem sing. 


With all around me fading, I am weary, sick of earth, 

I would soar away to Heaven above where spring hath ever birth ; 

Where the sky is never clouded and joy forever reigns, 

And the verdure never changes, on the bright celestial plains. 


plead not thou for death ! but that thou here mayst dwell, 

Till thou hast tuned thy sweet-toned lyre the Saviour's love to tell, 

And with the talents Jive which He to thee hath given, 

Bring ten to lay before His throne when thou art called to Heaven ! 


1 know, loved friend, that there thy joys can never, never end — 
Yet ask not in the dawn of life, to see thy sun descend— 

I know thou hast a mother there, whom thy young heart pines to see — 
Yet pray not that in autumn, thy closing days may be ! 


I love the tints which autumn spreads among the forest trees, 
I love, at times, the saddening sound of the autumnal breeze — 
I love to see " the harvest moon," and its cold silvery rays — 
Yet still in autumn's mournful time, I would not close my days. 

I860.] autumn. 239 


I hear them talk of death, and the bright cheek doth not pale, 

As tho' it were a trifling thing to enter death's dark vale ; 

But, that vale is very dark, and it makes my spirit shiver, . 

To think of the arrow Death will hurl from his unfailing quiver ! 


'Twould be very sad for me to part from the friends I dearly love, 
E'en though I knew a happier home were waiting me above. 
I know that some would weep for me, though waywardness in youth, 
Hath turned away full many a heart I loved in very truth. 


But when I die, as die I must, let it be in summer's prime, 

And the play of zephyrs among the trees, be my funereal chime. 

I know that the transit would easier be, from earth to heaven above, 

With the birds, and flowers, which cluster around, the things I fondly love. 


I would not die in autumn with its clouded threatning sky. 
The chill, shrill whistle of its winds would make my spirit sigh. 
But I would have above my head, warm summer's glorious blue, 
That to the heaven beyond, by faith, my spirit might look through. 


I would have the air so still and calm as they lay me down to rest, 

That the mournful sob might be clearly heard as it passed from a loved one's 

That the voice of the surpliced priest might come to the mourner's heart and ear, 
As he tells of the trust in the Saviour's love which robs e'en death of fear.- 





Some years ago while residing in a small country town of the "Old 
North State," I became acquainted with a young man named William 
Carter. He was a very industrious and worthy mechanic, had just 
reached that age when a young man begins to think seriously of commit- 
ting matrimony, and placed implicit confidence in whatever was told him 
by his friends. He had been raised in the county of B., and m residence 
of three years in town had not cured him of "greenness" and as a con- 
sequence was made the subject of many a joke by the youngsters of the 
place whom he had chosen for associates. He had been in town only a 
short time when, complaining of sore eyes, he was very gravely informed 
by one of his friends that Mr. Peters had an article in his store which 
would cure his eyes in a very short time. 

"What is the name of the article?" inquired Carter. 

" Pigeon milk," was the reply of his friend who looked as grave as 
though he were prescribing for a case of Asiatic cholera. 

"Pigeon milk?" Whoever heard of pigeon milk before? Why, our 
pigeons at home never gave any milk." 

"Perhaps they didn't; the milk-pigeon cannot live in our climate, it 
is too cold; but in South America a large number are raised, and a 
great many of the natives are pigeon-raisers." 

"Well, I'll try it certain. lam heartily tired of sore-eyes. Did you 
ever try it?" 

"Certainly, and it effected a cure in a remarkably short time." 

His ornithological friend soon found an excuse to leave and went di- 
rectly to Mr. Peters' and told his clerk that Carter would soon be over 
for some "pigeon milk." He then instructed the clerk to open a draw- 
er or two, look among his bottles, and tell Carter that he " regretted he 
was out — would have some more in a few days," &c. 

Carter soon called for the "milk," and was sent to every store in the 
place for it — his friend preceding him and giving directions to the clerks 
what to say to him. At the last place he was supplied with a small bot- 
tle of red-pepper water, properly labelled, which he was directed to apply 
every hour; this he did, and though his name is unknown to fame, he 
positively assured me afterwards that he saw more that day than any 
other astronomer ever saw — seven times "seven stars" at noon-day. 
That was all I could get from him concerning the matter, but judging 

I860.] ADVENTURES. 241 

from what he said, I concluded that the "niilk" not only cured his eyes 
but would be a good article for astronomers to use when making observa- 
tions. After this he was called " Pigeon." 

Some time after this he saw on the street a young lady of preposessing 
appearance, and enquired her name. He was informed that her name 
was Jennie Walton — that her father, Thomas. Walton, was a retired 
merchant, very- wealthy and proud, but Jennie was a very sweet girl, 
kind to all with whom she met, heartily despised many of the customs of 
high life, and would, if it were left to her choice, as soon receive the ad- 
dresses and even marry a poor young man as a prince, provided he was 
found worthy. 

Being quite romantic in his notions, and being stuck by the beauty of 
Miss Jennie, she was as a matter of course, the subject of several conver- 
sations between him and his "friends," as he called those who sought his 
company only to tease him, and he did not hesitate to declare to them the 
true state of his feelings. 

Not long after he received through the post-office the following note 
traced in delicate characters: 

At Home, Oct 15, 185— 

Mr. Carter: — Having learned that my humble self has been the sub- 
ject of some enquiries by you and that you had expressed a wish to have 
an interview with me, I have taken the liberty of addressing you a few 
lines. I trust you will not think me too bold in so doing when I inform 
you that I too should be delighted if we could meet face to face and con- 
verse as we desire. But Pa would be furious at the thought even of my 
speaking to one who has not more money than brains, so we n:us; forego 
the pleasure of such an interview for the present. We can write to each 
other, however, and I hope to hear from you soon and often. Put your 
letters under the stone inside of our front yard and there you may ex- 
pect an answer from Jennie. 

Without stopping to enquire into the improbability of a wealthy and 
accomplished young lady writing such a note to a poor mechanic with 
whom she was not acquainted never entered Carter's mind. He wrote a 
reply — a very loving reply — but as it contained nothing out of the usual 
style it is not thought necessary to insert it. This reply he placed under 
the stone, according to instructions, and he was so anxious for Miss Jen- 
nie to receive it early that he could barely wait for night to arrive to cov- 
er him from the rude gaze of the world, in so doing. 

A long correspondence followed. In each letter Carter besought his 
love to grant him an interview, or to elope with him and she declaring 
her unchangeable love for him and her detemination to marry him or 
nobody. After considerable teasing, on Carter's part and many doubts 
and fears on the part of Miss Jennie, she finally agreed to elope with him. 

The hour of midnight was chosen, place, at the back gate of her fath- 



er's yard, Jennie stipulating that she should get the license and minister 
herself as she was afraid Pa would hear of it if he made any arrange- 

It is almost unnecessary to state that all these letters were written by 
the "friends" of Carter, and Miss Jennie's mind had never been trou- 
bled with fear that Pa would find out that she had been keeping up a se- 
cret correspondence with Garter as she had never penned him a line. 

The night arrived for the wedding. Three or four of his friends had 
hired a negro girl to act as the bride on the occasion, while one of them 
was to officiate as clergyman. They secreted themselves until the hour, 
a very cold night in December, and when the bride made her appearance 
the clergyman insisted on the bridegroom saluting her with a kiss before 
he proceeded with the ceremony. Carter accordingly saluted his bride 
as he thought , and the clergyman proceeded to make them one. Just as 
Carter made his response, a man rushed toward them, and the girl ex- 
claimed " There's Pa — fly for your life." The sight of a pistol in the 
hands of "Pa" frightened poor Carter nearly to death, and he darted, 
with "Pa" after him exploding caps which sounded like cannons to Carter. 
Carter reached his room, nearly exhausted, and barred the door, fearing 
the man with the pistol would break in and kill him. The next day 
he received a note from his friends signed "Jennie" stating that she 
much regretted the disappointment of the previous night — that she re- 
gained her room unperceivecl, and that Pa was speaking at the breakfast 
table of dispersing a number of negroes the night before — so she added 
"Our secret is safe, but I think it best to postpone the elopement a week 
or two longer. Of course we'll keep up a correspondence as heretefore." 

The correspondence was kept up, at least Carter replied to the above, 
but it was raining when he went to deposit the reply beneath the stone, 
and fearing it would get wet, he waited a few minutes when a servant of 
Mr. Walton passed, and he gave the letter to the servant and directed 
that it be handed to Miss Jennie. 

The reader may judge of Miss Jennie's surprise when she read Carter's 
letter. - Mr. Walton called on Carter the next morning and demanded to 
know by what authority he addressed his daughter as "My Dearest Jen- 
nie." Carter told the whole tale, and exhibited the letters signed "Jen- 
nie," whereupon Mr. Walton forgave him, finding that he had been made 
the dupe of others, and instituted strict enquiry as to who were the real 
writers — but like Junius the writer remains unknown, save to a few. 

Carter, fully impressed that "the course of true love never did run 
smooth," soon left the place, and whether he ever found another Jennie 
must remain for another chapter. 

I860.] OLD LETTERS. 243 



Old letters, how I cherish them! they are precious in their age, 
I love, though it is sad to see, each well remembered page, 
They tell of days, of happy hours, in years long, long gone by, 
Ere I had lived to see hope's flowers, in their faded fragrance, die 
They picture many a bright, bright scene, in sunny days of yore, 
Old letters you are dear to me, you are a priceless store ! 

And here is one the hand of youth, its free and careless grace, 

0, this was from a being loved while in a distant place, 

So cherished then, still dearer now, so " noble, gen'rous, true," 

Though thy other name I better love, as they call, so I call thee, Sue ! 

Another ! know I not that hand ? and yet I dare not think, [link, 

Of my heart's young dreams that are scattered now — a bright tho' broken 
! it would be but mockery, so wanting false and vain, 
Of my earlier loves I'd rather dream for I dare not call thy name! 




In Oliver Goldsmith were combined the historian, the poet and 
man. Born of humble though pious parents, he had to work his own 
way to the high degree of eminence which he attained. His father though 
poor was a zealous patron of letters, and gave young Goldsmith a colle- 
giate education. 

In early life he evinced a fondness for rhyming — sang songs for the 
merry warbles of his native hills, and the sluggish streams that washed 
the play-grounds of his boyhood. And oft reclining like Tityrus 

"Mid sylvan groves of spreading trees," 

would he pour forth songs to Ireland's brave heroes and hardy yeomanry. 
Thus frequently absenting himself from society, and indulging in gloomy 
thoughts, no doubt his heart became shrivelled by misanthropy, and he im- 
agined that his friends had forsaken him and determined to leave them. 

He wandered far from home and friends, in a strange land among a 
strange people, with no passport save an amiable disposition, a tender 
heart, a brilliant intellect, and the music of his harp at twilight as it 
floated softly upon the air charming the peasants ear, and winning for him 
a welcome reception to the " cotters' home." 

After being tossed for many years, upon the ruthless waves of life's 
"incessant, stormy sea," the dormant fires of love and remembrance for 
the "dear ones" he had left behind, commenced to burn in his bosom 
With a longing and 1 opeful gaze he set out to seek his native land. 
Triumphing over innumerable prescriptions his bark was at last blown 
into the long-sought-for haven of home, to seek 

" The hearts that loved him, 
The eyes that beamed in gladness but to lighten his, 
Where fond thoughts, like holiest ir.cense rise, 
Where cherished memory reared her altar's shrine," 

but what must have been the anguish of his soul, to find, like the man 
who slept upon the mountain top until his locks had grown gray, his be- 

d village, where his vouthful days had been spent and this happiest 

past, fallen and decayed. His early associates had been scattered 

over ihe face of the earth by the winds of heaven. Well might he ex- 

.1 "I returned to my native village and said: Friends of my youth, 
w sfe are they! and echo answered where are they." They remained 
not, to welcome the weary "traveller of the world" home, to extend to him 


the hand of affection, and to sympathize with him as he told of the many 
shoals and quicksands he had past and the dreadful maelstroms he had es- 
caped. The desolation around seemed to say to him: "They were, but 
are not!" But all this did not crush his manly heart. He set to work 
with his pen, opened his intellectual and moial fountains from which 
gushed forth streams to enlighten and purify the world. As a historian, 
his works occupy aa enviable place in the libraries of the learned, and 
will be read with delight as long as literature is admired. He was a correct 
chronicler of events, and a true delineator of human nature and human life. 

"He was a deep observer, and he looked 
Quite through the thoughts of men." 

As a biographer, his judgement was generally accurate, his sarcasm 
mild, his criticism just. His pgetical works are claimed by some to be 
the best ever written, I, however, dissent from this opinion; but they are 
meritoriously entitled to much praise. His thoughts are not so profound 
as seme, but as to softness and malody of expression he was unsurpassed. 

Despite our aversion to novel reading generally, we must confess that 
there is a peculiar charm in his Vicar of Wakefield. It is a simple tale 
of every day life, a true picture of " man's inhumanity to man." Le- 
sides there is a moral full of wisdom underlying it, unusual in works of 
fiction. The author did not intend it merely to amuse an idle hour, to 
please the fancy or delight the imagination of some day-dreamer, but to 
impart instruction, by which mankind might become happier, wiser and 

His style is clear and simple, unadorned with the flowers of rhetoric, 
but breath forth the inspirations of a noble soul and exalted intellect. 
As a man, Goldsmith was generous, humorous and benevolent. In him 
were combined all the elements that constitute the true man. As frailty 
and imperfection are a part of our nature, it would be hard to say he had 
no faults. But a wise man has said : " Let the good men do live after 
them, let their faults be buried with them." He was a cheerful com- 
panion, a generous neighbor and a faithful friend. Possessed of fine sen- 
sibilities, his heart was often wounded by the shafts of malice and decep- 
tion of his fellow-men. He learned from bitter experience that life is an 
empty di earn, a fleeting vapor, that all earthly hopes are vain, all earth- 
ly friends are fleeting, that the strongest cords of affection are frail, and 
that the object of our existence is to give glory, honor and praise to Him 
of whose glory the heavens speak. 

But Goldsmith is now in a land of souls. His wandering steps have 
found a home, where the rude epithets and harsh denunciations of the 
world will never fall ujson his ear. Yes ! the Irish bard is now silent. 


His harp-strings are broken, and their thrilling melody have died away. 
He sleeps entombed among the great and honored of earth. 

The Irishman laments the loss of his true friend, while travellers from 
distant lands pay homage at the shrine of genius and talent, shed tears 
of grateful remembrance upon his grave, and mourn for the " historian, 
naturalist and poet." 



I love thee; oh ! how fruitless and how vain 
Are sounds which fall so coldly on thine ear; 

What anguish deep, what throbs of ceaseless pain 
Those simple words, at memry's calling, bear. 

I love thee — oh ! how cruel, how unkind 
Thy words responsive, paralyzing life ! 

Yet, whilst those words my breast with sorrow bind, 
May sorrow ne'er your bosom thrill with strife ! 

Must love thee still? How bitter is that fate, 
Which dooms to love and love for e'er unloved! 

How dark and sa/1 must be that lovers's state, 
Who loves his maid e'en far from him removed. 

Must love thee still ? Let Time, with trembling hand, 
Now trace the answer on thy guileless heart ; 

Forget this not , whilst earth and heaven stand, 
I'll fondly love, in anguish tho' toe part ! 

I860.] editors' table. 247 


Our November Number. — We have the pleasure, this month, to present to 
our readers a portrait of the Hon. William Gaston, together with a memoir 
of that great and good man by the Hon. Mathias E. Manly. We foel sure 
that it will prove interesting to every American, for whom he ever labored ar- 
duously, and especially to every North Carolinian, to whom we more partic- 
ularly consecrated his labors and his life, to recognize, in these true pictures 
of his face and character, the eminent lawyer and statesman now enshrined 
in the hearts of his countrymen. The name of the author of this brief sketch 
of a long and useful life is a satisfactory certificate of its merit. But, aside 
from this, Ave think it is exceedingly well executed, and will reflect the highest 
honor upon our Magazine. 

The memoir of Judge Haywood and his early contemporaries at the bar by 
the Hon. Wm. H. Battle is from a pen no less able and distinguished. Every 
line, every word, is replete with eloquent justice and beautiful truth. We only, 
who are most deeply interested in the prosperity of our University Organ, can 
appreciate such favors. 

We are indebted to our fair friend Nina for "Autumn" and "Old 
Letters." They are beautifully written, and we hope to hear from the young 
lady again. 

The other articles are well selected so that we think that we can congratulate 
ourselves that we send out an interesting and attractive number for No- 

"There is no such word as Fail." — The happy success of our Magazine is 
a demonstration of this truism. We do not wish to appear self-conceited or 
vaunting in setting forth the triumphs of our periodical over predicted " obliv- 
ion," but we beg your pardon, kind reader, while we contrast its infant strug- 
lings, with its present imperfect, but increasing, strength. Nine years have 
passed away since' it first had an existence. During its earlier days, ere the 
experience and influence of age had prepared it for the battle strife, the darts 
of envious and bigoted criticism were hurled against it by the ungenerous. 
Lost to every sympathetic feeling, totally forgetting the interest of North Car- 
olina, and especially of her Pride — the University — a few disloyal Editors 
portrayed in bellowing tones its "death." And 'tis true it did not give, in- 
youth, "any evidence of that precocity, which sometimes distinguishes uncom- 
mon genius;" it did not, Minerva-like, leap full-grown and perfect into life. 


But were disparaging words and portentous prophesying,? most likely to ren- 
der that encouragement which was and is ever essential for the development 
of- its powers? Is not kind advice as regards both mental and moral instruc- 
tions more efficient than severe punishment? But, blessed be, Jupiter! 
Th >se "bad old times of yore" have passed away. That age of criticism 
and poetry has given place to the more practical. Those smart men with 
their sharp sayings have gone unwept "over the hills." The public is begin- 
ing to appreciate our motives, and to realize the practical benefit of our ener- 
gies to the State, to the University and to themselves. Our leading men, the 
ladies, God bless them ! and our fellow-students are lending their writings, 
smiles and patronage to aid in establishing more firmly the reputation and 
merit of our University Exponent. 

We give with each number a Mezzotint steel engraving of some noble son 
of Carolina, together with one or more articles from the ablest pens in the 
Union. As regards the size of our Magazine, we present sixteen pages more 
than any other Cdlege organ in America. Indeed we have assurances from 
new papers of N rth Carolina and other States, from College Magazines, from 
conversations, and from letters that we sen-d forth " the largest, neatest, cheap- 
est, and most valuable College monthly in America, and having no equal 
even in European Colleges." 

We would not however cla'in all the honor attending our success, depen- 
dent though it be to a great extent upon our individual energies. The last 
co ! -ps of E litors evidently wrought many and great improvements in our 
Magazine. They handed down to us the "Editorial robe" bedizened with the 
w tli the brightest jewels, rendering it still more weighty. We put on that 
robe in August last with ma sumed doubts and fears. We were fully 
consc'ous of the responsibility which with much diffidence we assumed. 
Exulted anx*ety far the success of our efforts raised nightly, visions of 
ljiyrial critics preying upon our issues. Fancy heard the anathemas 
tf our friends, should we fail to guard well the trust committed to our 
hands, and to merit the coniicence reposed in us. Imagination saw the frowns 
(purely imaginary) of the ladies, who now smile so kindly upon us. But 
amid these misgivings and suspicions' "hope enchanted smiled," and emula- 
tion and pride, the greatest incentives to continued effort, shone conspicuous, 
Wi Wire dihiermihed not to fail. 

Gratitude perhaps can never repay the services rendered by our exchanges 
in the way of compliments and encouragements, which were probably the 
offerings of a ge&erotts sprit. Wo thank Carolina's great men, among them 
especially our President, Ex-Governor D. L. Swain, for the interest, they have 
manifested in our welfare. We thauk our fellow-students for the lenity and 
allowance with which they have received our efforts. We thank the ladies 
for their constancy (?) towards us, shown in various forms of approval. We 
thank our printers for their able and willing efforts to promote our cause. We 
thank our subscribers for their liberality and punctuality (?) We thank even 
(for we are in a grateful mood) our readers, who do not subscribe, for their 
"passing glances." Let such magna-nimity greet us in future and we will 
demonstrate more beautifully and completely that " there is no such word as 

I860.] editors' table. 249 

The State Fair. — We stated in our last that it would afford us great pleas- 
iire to respond to the kind invitation of the S:ate Agricultural Society by at- 
tending the Fair en corps. It was entirely out of our power to do so. We 
felt that a sense of justice, due alike to the public and to ourselves, forbade it. 
But right here there arose a grave question. Whom should we send? I/ke the 
rest of the world now-a-days we wished to show to the best advantage ; indeed 
this was the prime reason why we so much desired to attend en corps. After 
much consultation we selected Mr. Simmons as our delegate, and deputed him 
to observe and enjoy everything, at the same time giving him the strict in- 
junction that he mustn't court nary gal. We, who could not go, tried to con- 
sole ourselves that our delegate would represent us comme it faut. He has 
returned perfectly delighted, and declares he saw so much of the fair that he 
could not see the Fair. He is still very anxious to see a little more of the 
fair. lie hands in the following report : 

I most fortunately found the hotels at Raleigh crowded to overflowing — 
most fortunately indeed, for on this account my kind friend, whose blushing 
propensity forbids me to mention his name, procured for me a large and com- 
fortable room in a private house. I would reveal the name of my most pleas- 
ant and interesting hostess, but I fear she would be troubled in future by my 
fellow-students who are very importunate, especially when they know that 
"good living" is to be gained by their perseverance. Surely, if there be re- 
wards for the obliging and generous, and I hope there are, her life will be 
one of unequalled success. 

On the evening of my arrival I attended a party given at the hou^e of Mr. 
W. D. II. It was decidedly exquisite — not very large, but so select, so agree- 
able, so pleasant. Mr. and Mrs. II. and daughters have no superiors any- 
where: They possess that remarkable and indescribable power of making 
everybody enjoy themselves. I think I can candidly say I never enjoyed my- 
self better at a party in my life. Several of my brother Chapel IIIllian3 were 
there in all their glory. We retired about one o'clock, sorry that such pleas- 
ure could not last always. 

I spent the next day at the Fair Grounds, where, according to deputation, 
I saw everything. Tae Fair, I think,- was a decided success. I was informed 
by several gentlemen of observation that the attendance was much larger than 
it was last year; surely it was better looking, The numerous articles of inter- 
est exhibited reflected the highest credit upon the wealth, ingenuity and in- 
dustry of our good old North State. Emulation between the various counties 
is arousing "old Rip" from his quondojn lethargy. North Carolina begins to 
realize her agricultural advantages. May her able sons and fair daughters 
improve those advantages till they shall raise agriculture to that high estate 
which it occupied among the aucient Greeks and Rom ins, where it was con- 
sidered the most just, most natural, and most honorable employment. Space 
forbids m.3 mention everything worthy of note, and to attempt a discrimina- 
tion would be invidious. I may be allowed however to agree with the dele- 
gates of the last corps in saying that Floral Hall was to me, beyond all com- 
parison, the most attractive department, because it had been fitted up and su- 
perintended by the ladie3 of Carolina. Col. Tew and the Hillsboro' Cadets 



were present. Their evolutions were somewhat peculiar, and very well execu- 
ted — I suppose. 

I attended the soiree at St. Mary's, and found Dr. Smeades and lady very 
agreeable, the music sweet, and the ladies more beautiful, if possible, than 
imagination had pictured them. ' Twas there that a charming young lady 
said that, judging from their represeutative, she thought the corps wished to 
appear talented, dignified, and handsome at the Fair. An astounding com- 
pliment to a novice in the art of flattery, for which I was totally unprepared. 
Indeed I was not, then, guite sure as to what rule guided my editorial breth- 
ren in their selectior. I take the present'opportunity, therefore, of informing 
her and all others, who may be laboring under the same very natural impres- 
sion, that I was chosen for no such criminal intentions. Who ever heard of 
an editor, or a corps of editors trying to humbug anybody ? My brethren 
"following a characteristic rule, bent their wills to suit convenience." 

I saw no Chapel Hillian on a razee while at Raleigh. No not one ! A pan- 
egyric indeed upon their dignity and self-control upon such an important 
and exciting occasion. It shows what we can do when we try. 

I met many pleasant acquaintances, and came up on the train with sever- 
al old graduates of our University. They are whole-souled boys and seem to 
float at ease upon the high sea of life, whither many of us must launch next 

Upon the whole, I must say, I was much pleased with the fair and every 
one, and everything connected with it. It has "gone without a word," but 
leaving recollections that will ever linger in sweet remembrance around my 

"Putting a Freshman Through." — We clip from that extremely well-con- 
ducted paper, the Boston Semi- Weekly Courier, the following extract which 
n2eds no comment at our hands : 

"The account which we publish below of what is called "putting a Fresh- 
man through," in the College of Hanover, ought to attract the attention of 
the public to the abuses which have long existed in our highest places of ed- 
ucation. • We refer, of course, to the rough treatment of new comers, by the 
older, or one of the older classes. This usage originated many years apo, in 
the desire to play off practical jokes upon the Freshmen, who were not sup- 
posed to be familiar with the place, and the wiles of its inhabitants. There 
was no great objection to this, so lcng as the actors in the scene abstained 
from all injury to person or properly. It is true there never was much wit in 
the jests they enacted: but what vas wanting in wit was made up in laugh- 
ter, and the result was unobjectionable. 

"But in all such things there is an unavoidable tendency to abuse. Amuse- 
ment, especially of the coarser kinds, by the very law of its nature, runs into 
violence and brutality, unless held ; n the severest check. This is peculiarly 
the case with young men assembled in any considerable numbers, in schools 
and Colleges. The experience they have had of life is not sufficient to awak- 
en the real tenderness of their nature. For the most part, they have not had 
the sorrows of bereavement, or any great affliction. They are frank, in some 

I860.] editors' table. 251 

things generous, ready to stand by a companion in open fight, or to share with 
him their pocket money ; but they are wanting in in considerateness for the 
shrinking natuLe of a stranger, awkward, it may be, and timid in the midst 
of unaccustomel scenes. They have little sympathy for persons of delicate 
organizations, and no sort of mercy for the perplexities and embarrassments 
of a country youth, leaving for the first time the protection of the family cir- 
cle, and entering upon an untried condition of life. Dr. Arnold was more 
and more struck with the hard-heartedness of boys. He was mistaken in his 
judgment ; the boys were not hard-hearted, but the sad experiences that check- 
er every prolonged human life have not yet developed the heart. They had 
the physical organ — the blood propeller — but they had not yet the mor al 
sentiment, for which that organ becomes the symbol. 

" There is a class of books, of which Tom Brown is the type, the influence 
of which is to prolong the reign of the brute in boys. Ttiey are taught to 
glory in fisticuffs. The hero of the school is the boy whose brawny arms, 
and insolent overbearing strength are the terror of all the smaller fry. We 
remember still the dread which certain persons of this stamp, appropriately 
called "Old Boys," used to impress upon their less muscular associates, in our 
school days. 

" One would suppose that the refining studies of the College would be 
enough of themselves to put an end to the brutal and cowardly practices, of 
which the affair at Hanover is only a specimen. But it is not so. There are 
so many encouragements to ruffianism in the constitution of modern society, 
that we are far from realizing the old heathen saying : 

. didisse Jideliier artes 

Emolit mores nee simit esse feros. 

The practices tolerated in some of our colleges would disgrace a convocation 
of Yahoos. Breaking windows, forcibly entering rooms, destroying furniture, 
committing outrages on persons — all these repeated night after night, in vio- 
lation of the laws of the land, and of every principle of gentlemanlike conduct 
to say nothing of Christian duty — are the acts by which young men, or some 
of them, have been in the habit of signalizing their progress from one class 
to a higher. 

"We are glad to know that these disgraceful orgies of brute force have 
nearly if not wholly ceased at Cambridge.* It is to the honcr of the students 
in that University, that they have risen above them. Parents S3nding their 
sons to College will feel the safer; and the friends of liberal education wd! 
find one more obstacle removed. We trust the Faculty at Hanover will stand 
firmly on the ground of law. and order; and that the outrage which has dis- 
graced the institution will be so dealt with by the tribunals of justice, that 
it shall never again be repeated. 

Trouble at Dartmouth — "Patting through" a Freshman. — A correspon- 
dent of the Manchester Mirror writes from Hanover, N. II., on the 22d inst., 
that on Tuesday evening of last week " the younger son of Judge Fowler — for 
he has two in College — was enticed into Dartmouth Hall, where some of the 
students undertook to give him an insight into the 'ways and means' of Col- 
lege life, by way of a Freshman initiation. After 'putting him through' as 
is the College phrase, he was left on the steps of one of the^College building-3, 
where he was found by three other students. They took compassion on him 
and conveyed him to his room. Wednesday, his elder brother iniormed the 
Faculty, and also wrote to his father. Thursday, some of the students were 
invited to call upon the President, and Judge Fowler arrived in town. Fri- 
day, five students were arrested, and gave bonds to appear at the February 

*The same is true of the University of North Carolina, and we hope of every 
othe-F Gollege ia the Union. 


term of the Court. This Saturday morning the Judge hangs in effigy from 
the deck of the mast on the C immon, and it appears that about one 0V0 k 
last night, the Mes-rs. F >wiers' room was visited by a bot le of asafoeti la and 
a shower (if stones, when a pistol was fired from the window at the crowd, 
but no one was injured. Great excitement prevails." 

"Hurrah for the Chapel Hillians !" — These words, among other fine 
things, came to us a few days ago in a neat little letter from a most beautiful 
young lady. We reiterate emphat'cally " Hurrah for the Chapel Ilill'ans!" 
Bat here, fellow-students, think a moment. The eyes of the South, espec'ally 
of North Carolina are upon us. Some look with anxious care and conscious 
pride to our advancement and improvement, OJiers, we are sorry to say, 
omit no opportunity to set afloat any report of our thoughtless actions, which 
may tend to injure us and the University. These reporisgrow with every telling: 

" Fuma malum, quo non aliud velocius ullum; 
, Habilitate viget, viresque adqiiirit eundo ; 

Parva rnelu prima ; max atlolUt in auras, 
Ingreditur solo, et caput inter nubila condit." 

How particular, therefore, should we be that we give not the opportunity, 
no not even the chance of suspicion, for such exagerating reports. They give 
pain to those who have centered all their hopes in us, injure the institution 
and set upon our names a stigma which we do n<«t deserve. 

We have here all the splendid opportunities of gaining an education. 
Whether we improve them or not the world will hold us none the less account- 
able. When we shall step forth upon the arena of life something worthy of 
our advantages will be required of us. Fellow-students let us prepare to an- 
swer that requisition. 

" Enjoy the present ; nor with needless cares 
Of what may spring from blind Misfortune's womb, 
Appal the surest hour that lile bestows. 
Seiene, and master of yourself, prepare 
For what may come ; and leave the rest to Heaven." 

Lithographs of the University. — We return our thanks to Mr. D. J. Ez- 
z-oll, for a fiae aud neatly framed picture of the College Campus and Buil- 
dings, which he has sent up to our "Sanctuu." It is decidedly well execu- 
ted and is about twen'y two by twenty eight inches in size. We think every 
student of the University ought to have one. It will awaken fond reflec- 
tions of Coliege-Jays in after years. Tney may be procured for a low price at 
the Portrait Galley, opposite the Union Hotel, on Franklin Street. 

Steel Engraving 07 the Hon. Wm. Gaston. — We take the present opportu- 
nity to announce that Mezzotint Steel Engravings of the Hon. Win. Gaston, 
neatly framed, may bo procured at the University Bookstore of Mallett & Co. 

I860.] editors' table. 253 

Ths Gaelic Elembmt in Noam Carolina. — The following extract from a 
letter written by a gentleman* in this State to a friend in Scotland, published 
in the Inverness Courier, has found its way into our newspapers. We hope 
the reverend gentleman, who is so well qualified for the task, may be induced 
to extend his remarks into the history of tbe Scotch settlements upon the Cape 
Fear, and make our Magasine the medium of communication with the public. 
We are certain his sketches would be very favorably received by our readers. 

The English language, like the English people, is of the composite order, and 
our population exhibits one of its widest developments. The Palatines upon 
the Neuse, the Irish in Duplin, the Quakers, of various races, on the Perqu m- 
ans aud in Guilford, the Dutch, Lutherans and Calviulsts 3 in Cabarru , the Mo- 
ravians in Stokes, the Scotch-Irish in the valleys of the Catawba and Yadkin, 
and the Yankee everywhere will, we hope, before a great while find competent 
historiographers among our contributors: 

■ '" It may be interesting to some of your readers to learn that the Scotch 
II giilanders were among the first settlers of the State of North Carolina. 
Toe great majority of them were from the Hebrides, from Isiay, Jura, Mull, 
Coll and Skye, and not a few from the mainland of Argyll. Tne precise date 
of the landing of the first Scottish em grants in the Ca.rjli.iaj cannot be well 
ascertained. It appears that Scotch lam lies were settled on tne Cape Fear 
R.ver previous to the division of the province into North and South Carolina 
in 1729. Some time between 1744 and 174b' a Highlander, named Neil Mac- 
Neil, from Argyllshire, visited North Carolina. He returned to Scotland in 
1748 and in the following year lauded in Wilmington, N irth Carolina, with his 
fain ly and about 30J emigrants (some say GOJj from the district of Kintyre, 
Argyllshire. It is said that upon the arrival ot so unusual an importation at 
Wilmington the authorities, struck with the dress and language of the new 
■comers, required MacNeil to enter into a bond ior their peaceiul and good be- 
havior. Perhaps the warlike spirit of the Celtc race struck tne W Lningto- 
nians with such terror as led to the demand of the bmd. Oar intrepid coun- 
tryman managed to evade the demand, and ascended the Cape Fear with this 
band of his countrymen. From this period the emigration was yearly on the 
increase. Mr. MacDonald of Kingsburgh and his lady, the far-famed Flora 
MacDonald, famous for her adherence to the unfortunate Pretender, Prince 
Charles, in his forlorn condition after his defeat at Culloden, em grated 
a number of others from the Isle of Skye ; so that every year added to the 
number of the Scotch Highland emigrants until they soon mrmed the major- 
ity of the population and controlled the civil and ecclesiastical interests of no 
less than seven counties, viz: Cumberland, Biaden, Robeson, Richmond, 
Montgomery, Moore and Harnett. 

" The Gaelic language is apok&a in its purity by mxny in these counties, and 
in both my ehurches I preach in it every Sabbatu. ■ O.i last Sabbath I assist- 
ed at the dispensation of the L ird's Supper in a congregation forty miles dis- 
tant from^ny home, and preached and served a table at which upwards of one r 
hundred and fifty had taken their seals, who had not heard a sermon in the 
language of their childhood for the last ten years. Many a tear was shed dur- 
ing the service, many a warm shake of the hand, such as a Highlander can 
give, was given, and many a blessing was bestowed upon your correspondent 
at parting with the warm-hearted people. The Rev. Colin Maclver, a native 
■ of Stornoway, Lews, was the last preacher who could preach in Gaelic till I 
came to the State two years ago. He died in this town in 1850, much respct- 
<ed and regreted by his countrymen in North Carolina. I will state an instance 
of the preponderance of the Scotch Highlanders in this State. The North 

*Rev. John C. Sinclair. 


Carolina Presbyterian, a religious paper and the organ of our Synod, publish- 
ed in tiie town of Fayetteville, has upwards of eight hundred Macs on its list 
of subscribers, besides those who claim the honor of pertaining as much to 
the Celtic race as those who bear that ancient patronymic. 

" The Presbytery of Fayettville, of which I and one of my sons are mem- 
bers, has thirteen Macs among its clerical members, and seven others who 
will not yield the palm to their brethren of Mac families in tracing their Cel- 
tic origin ; and hence our Presbytery has the cognomen of the Scotch Presby- 
tery given to us by our brethren of the Synod of North Carolina." 

Ambitiox. — The following piece of poetry we received from a beautiful 
young lady, who permits us to insert it in the Editors' Table. The sentiment 
is beautifully expressed. It may perhaps clash with the opinions of some of 
our ambitious brother-students, who believe " ambition is the germ from which 
all growth of nobleness proceeds:" 

The cup is wreathed with laurels, 

And brightly flows the wine, 
The path is decked with flowers 

'lhat leads to Ambition's shrine. 
And lovely to us it seemeth, 

As we see it from afar ; 
And bright the soft light gleam eth, 

It is life's guiding star. 
We strive to reach its aliar, \ 

And lay our offerings there, 
But our trembling footsteps ialter, 

As we pine for scenes so fair.- 
At last the work is ended, 

We stand before the shrine ; 
The wearv way is wended, 

We grasp the cup divine. 
But where the laurel garlands 

For Avhich our peace we sold ? 
Where now the sparkling liquid 

That flowed in the cup of oid ? 
The laurel hath changed to ashes, 

The flowers have died away, 
The cup hath lost its brightness, 

The star its brilliant ray. 
The dream of hope is over, 

And life its joys hath lost, 
Oh ! they who Ambition worship, 

Do it at fearful cost: 
They tread on the hearts that love them, 

They crush the flowers that bloom, 
To gam but a faded garland, 

To grace a lonely tomb. 

IIavn't we won 'em? We bet a pair of boots that we would issue this 
number before the first day of November. It appears on the 27th of October. 
The question now arises, who must wear them — Editor or Printer. 

* 86 ?.] editors' table. 255 

HrMENEAL—The following, which with much pleasure we insert, was for- 
warded to us by a friend : 

Married this morning, October 4th. at seven o'clock, by the R^ Rev R IT 
Cobbs atthe residence of the bride's father, Mr. Ver/on IIenry viurn v 

Mr Vaughan graduated last June at our University and was an figjftrtf 
our Magazine. Gewhilikms! Bro. Eds. just think of that ! One year fence 
and who wdl it be? 

The bride, we understand, is "lovely, beautiful and accomplished." 
"His house she enters, there to be a light 
b.iinmg within, when all without is night; 
A guardian angel over his life presiding, 
Doubling his pleasure and his cares dividing" 
May they ever enjoy 

" Domestic happines-, the only bliss 
Of Paradise that survived the fall." 
R. B. This is a Uving demonstration to all of our friends, to tlie miim 
ladies especially, that the Editors of our Mag. sometimes marry. 

John A. Broadus, D. D._We are pleased to announce that the Senior Class 
have obtained a promise from the distinguished Divine whose name heads this 
article to deliver the Baccalaureate Sermon next June. We give the corres- 
pondence between the Committee and Dr. Broadus: 

University of Rorth Carolina ) 
Chapel Hill, Oct. 10, 1860. ' f 
Rev John. A Broadus, D. D.-Dear Sir -.-At a recent meeting of the 
Senior Class of the University of Rorth Carolina you were unanimously chosen 
to deliver the "Baccalaureate Sermon " before our class on the Monday night 
proceeding the first Thursday in June. 1861. * S 

We have the honor to inform you of the choice, and sincerely hope that you 
wdl accept and favor us with your presence on that occasion. 
We have the honor to be- yours most respectfully, 

R. S. CLARK, ) 

C. M. STEDMAR, I Com. 


Southern Baptist Theological Seminary ) 
„ m Greenrille, S. C, Oct. 18, 1S60. J 

(rmtlemm :— I have received your letter of 10th inst., inviting me to deliver 
the Baccalaureate Sermon before the Senior Class of the University of Rorth 
Carolina, on Monday night before the first Thursday of June, 1861 S > far as 
lean foresee, it will be in my power to do this, and I take pleasure In accent- 
ing your invitation. [ 
I am, gentlemen, with great respect, yours, 

Messrs.. Clark, Stedman and Wright. J0IIN A ' BR0ADU S. 



Philanthropic Hall, Sept. 28, 1860. 

Whereas it hath leased Ahnghty G A in his all-wise providence to remove 
from time to eternity oar late fellow-member, VINE A. ALLEN, and thus to 
cut off in the morning of life one, who when with us enjoyed the confidence 
and esteem of all, therefore "in this our hour of affluction" it 

Resolved, That, while we bow in humble submission to the will ot 11m* 
who hath the power to give and to take away, we cannot but lament our sad 

bereavement. , . . , 

Resolved That we offer our warmest sympathy to the family and mends 
of the deceased, and while freely mingling our tears with theirs on a common 
altar of grief, we would point them to that Eternal Source from which alone 
the crushed heart can derive consolation. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the famdy of the de- 
ceased, and also to the'Nonh Carolina Standard, and University Magazine 
with a request for publicatiou. MOORE 

W. j! WHITE,' ]■ Com. 
L. R. BELL, 

Philanthropic Hall, Oct. C, 18G0. 
Whereas the Philanthropic Society has received inteligence of the death of 
R. F. WILLIAMS of Pitt County who left us a few years since a worthy 
member and a good citizen, therefore 

Resolved, that while we bow in humble resignation to the will of the Most 
High and would not murmer, for » He doeth all things Well we are deeply 
pained at the untimely end of our late friend and fellow memoer. 

Resolved, that we offer to the family of the deceased our heart-felt sympathy, 
and trust that they will find consolation in the religion of their Redeemer 

Resolved, that a copy of these resolutions be transmitted^ the family of 
the deceased, also to the Raleigh Register, Wilson Leger and University Mag- 
azine with request for publication. . 

N. E. JrrllLiJJj, - J 


Cash Orders, or Orders from Punctual Customers Solicited, 





Sheet Dfeic, BrtW 1 fflqitikte, 2\ck\H JWhlGSi &c, 


B.AIj£:iGrIZ 7 3KT. O- 

ALWAYS on hand a supply of TEXT BOOKS— also Theological, Law, 
Medical and Miscellaneous BOOKS ; Grift Books, Albums, Auto- 
graph Books, Bibles, Prayer Books, Hymn Books, for all denominations. 
He also invites attention to his stock of Superior Stationery, compris- 
ing a great variety of the finest English, French and American Letter and 
Note PAPER ; Envelopes, Visiting Cards, Blank Books, Patent Adhesive 
Letter Files, &c, &c. Mathematical Instruments, Writing Desks, Port 
Folios, Strings for the Yiolin and Guitar, of the best quality ; Engrav- 
ings, Lithographs, &c. 

figg" Visiting Cards engraved to order. NEW BOOKS received and 
for sale as soon as published. 

5®°" A full supply of Oil and Water Colors always on hand. 

Recently received — Reminiscensesof Rufus Choate, by Hon. Ed. G. 
Parker; BurrilFs Law Dictionary, new, revised and enlarged edition; 
Foot-Falls on the Boundary of Another World, by Robert Dale Owen ; 
Saxe's New Poem — the Money King; The Rivals, by Hon. Jere Clemens. 

Mutual Life Insurance and Trust Company. 

THIS Company offers inducements to the public which few possess. It 
is economical in its management, and prompt in the payment of its 

The insured for life are its members, and they participate in its profits, 
not only upon the premiums" paid in, but also on a large and increasing 
deposit capital kept in active operation. 

A dividend of 95 per cent, at the last annual meeting of the Company, 
was declared, and carried to the credit of the Life Members of the Com- 

Those desiring an insurance upon their own lives, or on the lives of 
their slaves, will please address D. P. WEIR, Treasurer, 

Jan. I860.— tf. Greensboro', N. C 

Edge worth Female Seminary, 


THE nineteenth annual session of this Institution commenced on the 
3rd of August, 1859. 
The course of study is thorough and systematic, embracing everything 
necessary to a complete, solid and ornamental education. The Build- 
ings are so arranged as to combine the comforts of a HOME with the 
advantages of a SCHOOL. Instructors of the highest qualifications are 
employed in each of the Departments. 

Board, including washing, lights, and fuel, per session of'five months, $60 00 

Tuition in the regular classes, 20 00 

Catalogues containing all necessary information respecting the course oi 
Instruction, Terms, &c- , will be forwarded on application to 

October, 1859. — tf. Principal, Greensboro', N. O. 





258, 259 and 260 Broadway, 

WE desire to call the attention of gentlemen of the University to this 
the most extensive Clothing House in the Union. Facilities un- 
equalled by any other firm in the trade render our establishment the 
fountain head for garments of taste and elegance. 

All commands entrusted to us will meet with prompt attention, and 
will be executed in our well-known superior style. 

Our agent, Mr. R. C. Ogden, will visit Chapel Hill early in February 
to receive orders. 


New York, February 1st, 1860. •. 


Neatness, Cheapness, and Despatch." 



HAVING: purchased the interest of Mr. Josiah Jones in the BOOK 
and JOB PRINTING OFFICE recently established in this place, 
would respectfully announce that the business will hereafter be conducted 
by him at the old stand, over the store lately occupied by J. W. Carr. 

Having aurple experience, force and facilities for conducting the busi- 
ness, he hopes by promptness, energy and untiring efforts to please all who 
entrust orders to him, to. merit a continuanse of the patronage so liberally 
bestowed on the late firm of Neathery & Jones, 

His type, &c, having been selected with a view of doing the printing 
for the University, he is perhaps better prepared than any other similar 
establishment in the State for executing all kinds of School work, and it 
will be his aim by neatness, cheapness and despatch, to put an end to the 
sending of this kind of work out of the State. All he asks is a trial to 
make good his promises. 

Court and Sheriff's Blanks, of every description, kept constantly on 
hand, or supplied at short notice, in quantities to suit purchasers, at 75 
cents per quire, cash. A liberal deduction to those who take 10 quires 

Book-Binder & Blank-Book Manufacturer, 

Executes, with neatness and despatch, all work entrusted to his care 
such as the binding of pamphlets, magazines, periodicals &c, &c. 

&S = ' Orders can be sent through the hands of J. B. Neathery, Chapel 
Hill, who makes no charge, above freight, for forwarding. 


w^ PI 



W. L. POMEROY, Raleigh, N. C. 

~ \ .. ... " r " - ,"_>.'. _^_LL__1__ " i 





Vv k v c\ v?v tt. v. hu\jl>i 




William H. Battle, 257 


3. WITHERED LEAVES, By "Ninon," (Poetry,) 272 


5. TO THEE, (Poetry.) 275 







12. THE MOTHER'S LAMENT, (Poetry,) 297 




15. EDITORS' TABLE— The Late Denison Olmsted; The 

Model Student; The Old Year; Death op a Grad- 
uate; Castle Building; Religious Literature; Va- 
cation; Exchanges; The Union; Fear and Creduli- 
ty; Apology; Special Notice; &c, 309 — 313 



We acknowledge the following receipts since our last issue: Sandford, $2; 
John Harris, $2; Henry Sessions, $2; It. II. Graves, $4; Chas. Ilaigh, $2; 
J. S. Foscuc, $2; R. B. Miller, $2; G. W. Mordecai, $2; Col. Guthrie, $2; 
R. H. Gray, $2 ; J. P. Battle, $2 ; E. D. Scales, $2 ; J. II. Lee, $2 ; W. B. 
Whitfield, $2 ; Geo. W. Goza, $2 ; John W. Ballard, $2. 


As we receive a good many letters asking the price, &c, of the Magazine, 
to save time and trouble we publish below all necessary information. 

The Magazine is issued regularly at the beginning of each month (except- 
ing January and July.) TERMS: For single copies $2 per annum invariably 
in advance ; six copies $10; and for clubs of more than ten a reasonable de- 
duction will Lc made. 



ipagc $2 $5 $8 $15 

ipage 3 7 12 25 

ipage 4 9 15 30 

1 page 5 12 20 40 

t£jg~ All letters should be addressed to the "Editors of the North Carolina 
University Magazine." 

c?d/&*t^s<f£) {pT^^^^S 








Vol. X. DECEMBER, 1860. No. 5. 



The patrons of the University Magazine owe a debt of graitude to 
Judge Manly for his brief but very interesting sketch of the life and 
character of the late Judge Gaston. His near connection "with the sub- 
ject of his memoir, has enabled him to bring to light some of those fine 
and endearing traits of domestic character, which show that his distin- 
guished relative was as much to be beloved for his good, as we all know 
that he was admired for his great, qualities. Judge Gaston was, at the 
time of his death, one of the most popular men in North Carolina. His 
popularity, was, too, of that substantial character which (as Lord Mans- 
field eloquently said) " follows, not that which is run after. It was that 
popularity which sooner or later, never fails to do justice to the pursuit 
of noble ends by noble means/' The seventeen years which have elapsed 
since his death, have not effaced from our minds the recollection of how 
sincerely he was mourned, and how many tributes of affection and re- 
spect were paid to his memory, both by the public authorities and the 
private citizens of the State which he had loved so well, and had served 
so long and so faithfully. After this lapse of time it is with feelings, 
less of sorrow, but none the less of admiration, that we recognize in the 
sketch before us a brief remembrancer of his many virtues, and of his 
well-earned fame. It is not our purpose to attempt the difficult task of 
re-touching the picture thus presented to us, but we trust that neither the 
author of the sketch, nor the general reader, will object to the humbler 
task which we have assumed of supplementing it, by bringing together 
and grouping for the instruction of both young and old a few of those 
many lessons of wisdom and of patriotism which are to be found in his 
public addresses, speeches and legislative reports. 


Judge Gaston, quite as much as, if not more than any other of our 
great lawyers, devoted his leisure moments to classical studies, and to the 
cultivation of style. He may not have re3eived from nature- that literary 
taste and that aptitude for writing which were possessed hy the elder 
William Hooper and Chief Justice Taylor, but we think that by diligent 
and laborious attention to the art of composition, he acquired a style in 
speaking and writing not inferior to that of any professional man our 
State has produced. In confirmation of this remark, we can refer to 
what we heard said by Mr. Green, one of the most learned lawyers of the 
bar of Richmond in Virginia, that he thought Judge Gaston's judicial 
opinions were equal in every respect to those of any other Judge in any 
State of the Union. It is not, however, to his judgments pronounced 
from the bench, to which we wish to call the attention of the readers of 
the Magazine. He snatched a few moments from the laborious duties of 
his professional and official life, and devoted them to the preparation of 
those lessons of wisdom and patriotism to which we have already refeired, 
as being fit for the instruction of the young, and the enlightenment and 
guidance of those of more advanced years. It is from these, and from 
one only of his speeches and of his legislative reports that we make the 
extracts which we now offer to the consideration of the public. 

The first extract is an earnest exhortation to students, designed to im- 
press upon them the importance of endeavouring to avail themselves, to 
the utmost, of their collegiate advantages; and to this end, setting forth 
the true value of college distinctions. He says : 

"Remember, that it is not designed by an academical education, to 
teach you all that it behooves you to learn. Education is not completed 
within those walls. When you shall have quitted this peaceful retreat 
and selected the profession or state of life in which you are to be engag- 
ed, then you should apply all your efforts to the acquisition of that spe- 
cies of knowledge which is more especially needed. Here are inculcated 
those elementary principles of science and literature, which experience 
has shown to be best fitted to form the foundation of the character of the 
scholar and gentleman — those rudiments of instruction, which omitted 
here are rarely indeed acquired afterwards. Here are to be formed those 
habits of vigorous and continuous application — here, the capacities for 
improvement are to be cultivated and strengthened, so that every occa- 
sion and every employment without these walls may become subsidiary to 
farther advancement in knowledge, ability and usefulness. It is a miser- 
able fallacy to mistake the exception for the rule. True it is that those 
who have won the highest honors at college, do not always realize the 
hopes which those glorious beginnings have excited. " The fair bloom of 
fairest fruit" may be blasted by pestilent dews. Folly, vanity and vice, 


low pursuits and vulgar associations, indolence, intemperance and debau- 
chery, but too often debase and destroy tbe generous youtb who entered 
on life's career, rich in academical distinctions, docile, ardent for fame, 
patient of labour, of manly purpose and noblest promise. Mourn 
over those moral wrecks. Lament the instability of all earthly good, the 
frail character of all human excellence. Weep for those who have fallen 
from their high estate, but say not that it was folly in them thus to have 
risen. True it is, also, that it sometimes, though very rarely happens, 
that those who have been idle during their academical course, have, by 
extraordinary exertions, retrieved their early neglect, and in the end out- 
stripped others who started in the race far ahead. These are the excep- 
tions — they furnish cause to humble arrogance, check presumption, ban- 
ish despair, and encourage reformation. But so surely as a virtuous life 
usually precedes a happy death, so surely it will be found, that within the 
College precincts, is laid the groundwork of that preeminence afterward 
acquired in the strife of men; and that College distinctions are not only 
good testimony of the fidelity with which College duties have been per- 
formed, but the best presages and pledges of excellence on a more elevat- 
ed and extensive field of action. In defiance, therefore, of all the lures 
of pleasure, and seductive suggestions of sloth, let active, persevering in- 
dustry, be the habit of your lives. Form this habit here ; and cherish 
and preserve it ever afterwards." 

The following encomium upon the value of integrity — stern, unbend- 
ing integrity — as the true basis of a noble and manly character, closes 
with one of the most beautiful sentences in our language: 

"The first great maxim of human conduct, that which it is all-impor- 
tant to impress on the understandings of young men, and recommend to 
their hearty adoption, is, above all things, in all circumstances, and under 
every emergency, to preserve a clean heart and an honest purpose. In- 
tegrity, firm, determined integrity, is that quality, which of all others, 
raises man to the highest dignity of his nature, and fits him to adorn and 
bless the sphere in which he is appointed to move. Without it, neither 
genius nor learning, neither the gifts of Grod, nor human exertions, ean 
avail aught for the accomplishment of the great objects of human exis- 
tence. Integrity is the crowning virtue — integrity is the pervading prin- 
ciple which ought to regulate, guide, control and vivify every impulse, 
desire and action. Honesty is sometimes spoken of as a vulgar virtue; 
and perhaps that honesty, which barely refrains from outraging the posi- 
tive rules ordained by society for the protection of property, and which 
ordinarily pays its debts and performs its engagements, however useful 
and commendable a quality, is not to be numbered among the highest 
efforts of human virtue. But that integrity which, however tempting 


the opportunity, or however sure against detection, no selfishness nor re- 
sentment, no lust of power, place, favour, profit or pleasure, can cause to 
swerve from the strict rule of right, is the perfection of man's moral 
nature. In this sense, the poet was right, when he pronounced "an hon- 
est man the noblest work of God." It is almost inconceivable what an 
erect and independent spirit this high endowment communicates to the 
man, and what a moral intrepidity and vivifying energy it imparts to his 
character. There is a family alliance between all the virtues, and per- 
fect integrity is always followed by a train of goodly qualities, frankness, 
benevolence, humanity, patriotism, promptness to act, and patience to en- 
dure. In moments of public need, these indicate the man who is wor- 
thy of universal confidence. Erected on such a basis, and built up of 
such materials, fame is enduring. Such is the fame of our Washington, 
of the man " inflexible to ill and obstinately just." While, therefore, 
other monuments, intended to perpetuate human greatness, are daily moul- 
dering into dust, and belie the proud inscriptions which they bear, the 
solid granite pyramid of his glory lasts from age to age, imperishable, seen 
afar off, looming high over the vast desert, a mark, a sign and a wonder, 
for the way-farers through this pilgrimage of life." 

What a fine contrast between a patriot and demagogue is drawn in the 
following lines : 

"'How wretched,' exclaims the Poet of Nature, 'is that poor man who 
hangs on Princes' favours.' Miserable is the condition of every being 
who hangs on the favours of creatures like himself. Deserve, and strive 
by desert, to win the esteem of your fellow-men. Thus acquired, it dec- 
orates him who obtains, and blesses those who bestow it. To them, it is 
returned in faithful service, and to him, it comes in aid of the approba- 
tion of conscience to animate diligence and reward exertion. Those too, 
who engage in public service, are bound to cherish a hearty sympathy 
with the wants, feelings, comforts and wishes of the people whose welfare 
is committed to their charge. It is essential for the preservation of that 
confidence which ought to subsist between the principal and the agent, 
the constituent and the representative, that all haughtiness and reserve 
should be banished from their intercourse. It sometimes happens, that 
he who has lived too constantly among books, manifests a disgust in an 
association with the uneducated and unrefined, which mortifies and repels 
them. This is absurd in him, and unjust to them. It is absurd, for he 
ought to know, and know well, those for whom, and upon whom, he ex- 
pects to act — they constitute, in fact, one of the first and most appropriate 
object of his study; and it is unjust, for not unfrequently, under this 
roughness which shocks the man of books, is to be found a stock of prac- 
tical information, in which he is miserably deficient. Banish, then, a! 


superciliousness, for it is criminal and ridiculous. Honestly seek to serve 
your country, for it is glorious to advance the good of your fellow-men, 
and thus, as far as feeble mortals may, act up to the great example of Him 
to whose image and likeness you are made. Seek also, by all honest arts, 
to win their confidence, but beware how you ever prefer their favour to 
their service. The high road of service is indeed laborious, exposed to 
the rain and sun, the heat and dust; while the by-path of favour has, ap- 
parently, at first, much the same direction, and is bordered with flowers 
and sheltered by trees, " cooled with fountains and murmuring with water- 
falls." No wonder, then that like the son of Abensina, in Johnson's beau- 
tiful Apologue, the young adventurer is tempted to try the happy experi- 
ment of uniting pleasure with business, and gaining the rewards of dili- 
gence without suffering its fatigues. But once entered upon, the path of 
favour, though found to decline more and more from its first direction, is 
pursued through all its deviations, till at length, even the thought of return 
to the road of service is utterly abandoned. To court the fondness of the 
people, is found, or supposed to be, easier than to merit their approbation. 
Meanly ambitions of public trust, without the virtues to deserve it; intent 
on personal distinction, and having forgotton the ends for which alone it 
is worth possessing, the miserable being concentrated all in self, learns to 
pander to' every vulgar prejudice, to advocate every popular error, to 
chime in with every dominant party, to fawn, flatter and deceive, and 
becomes a demagogue. How wretched is that poor being who hangs on 
the people's favour! All manliness of principle has been lost in this 
long course of meanness; he dare not use his temporary popularity for 
any purposes of public good, in which there may be a hazard of forfeit- 
ing it; and the very eminence to which he is exalted, renders but more 
conspicuous his servility and degradation. However clear the convictions 
of his judgment, however strong the admonitions of his, as yet not thor- 
oughly stifled conscience, not these, not the law of God, nor the rule of 
right, nor the public good — but the caprice of his constituents, must be 
his only guide. Having risen by artifice, and conscious of no worth to 
support him, he is in hourly dread of being supplanted in the favour of 
the multitude by some more cunning deceiver. And such, sooner or later, 
is sure to be his fate. At some unlucky moment, when he bears his 
blushing honours thick upon him, (and well may such honours blush!) 
he is j irked from his elevation by some more dexterous demagogue, and 
falh unpitied, never to rise again." 

"Where can be found a nobler eulogy upon the majesty of Law, and a 
finer plea for its claims upon the obedience of every citizen, than is ex- 
hibited in our next extract : 

"There is another subject to which, on this occasion, your attention may 


properly be invited. The spirit of freedom is a powerful principle, 
prompting to boldness of thought and action, connected with an excitable 
temperament, and seeking for sympathy and cooperation from kindred 
minds. If it wanted these properties, it would be inadequate to the per- 
formance of the great duties which it is required to discharge, and unfit 
to meet the the hardy trials which it is doomed to encounter. But like 
that unseen agent which is daily operating such marvels amongst us, 
which drives the mighty steamer through the waters, and sends the fiery 
car careering over the land, it must be effectually secured and skilfully 
regulated, or its explosions will spread havoc around. To retain it safe, 
yet active; to impose upon it all needful, but no unnecessary restraint; 
to direct it wisely, virtuously and happily, has been among the highest 
objects of human study, and in all ages has given employment to the 
most capacious intellect and the most experienced sagacity. Next to 
that truth which cometh down from heaven, does it most concern the 
welfare of man to be right upon this subject. It is a trite observation, 
but not on that account less correct, that the greatest of blessings become 
the worst of curses when they are perverted and abused. Without free- 
dom, man is a poor, miserable, abject thing, the sport and victim of his 
fellow man's rage, caprice and cruelty, having neither vigour of thought, 
motive for exertion, nor rational hope to gratify. But there can be no 
freedom without law. Unrestrained liberty is anarchy; dominion in the 
strong; slavery in the weak; outrage and plunder in the combined op- 
pressors; helpless misery in the oppressed; insecurity, suspicion, distrust, 
and fear to all. Law is the guardian of freedom. To borrow the thoughts, 
and, as far as possible, the words of the orator of Athens, "Law seeks 
for that which is just, good and useful, and when it is found, proclaims 
it as an ordinance equal and alike to all. To law all should submit, for 
it of divine institution, the enactment of wise men, the corrective of 
wrongs, and the common compact of the state, according to which every 
citizen is bound to live." There is high sublimity in the conception of 
moral and intelligent beings acknowledging no superior upon earth, yet 
conscious of their own infirmities, follies and distracing passions; resolved 
to submit to no wrong, and anxious to do wrong to none; embodying 
themselves into a state, and yielding allegiance to that state's collected 
will; obeying no man as man, but yielding prompt and loyal obedience to 
every ordinance that may be decreed according to those prescribed forms 
which ensure the happiness of all, and which are equal, uniform and uni- 
versal in their application to all. Such is the glorious spectacle exhibited 
in our land, and long may it be presented to the hope and wonder of an 
admiring world! May He who watches over nations, and who is mind- 
ful of the sons of men, preserve to us and to our children, and to our 


children's children, these blessed institutions! But we must not content 
ourselves with idle wishes. Blessings are not granted simply for man's 
enjoyment, or even for man's gratitude; they are bestowed also and prin- 
cipally, as motives to virtuous exertions, objects of his care, and pledges 
for his vigilance, courage, prudence and activity. History is full of in- 
stances — alas ! it records but little else — of free states built up by wisdom. 
and virtue, undermined and overturned by folly and vice. Deprecating 
from the bottom of my soul this fate for my country, I would fain warn 
my countrymen with an earnest tone against the evil auguries which 
seem to threaten ber free existence. It may be, that as oven the ordinary 
voice of the surf awakens, in those unused to its deep and solemn roar, 
terrors at which the hardy seaman smiles; it may be that he who, remote 
from public bustle, hears in his retirement the distant report of the out- 
burstings of popular violence, may distress himself with imaginary and 
unfounded alarms. But when, from one end to the other of this extend- 
ed confederacy, we behold lawless associations asserting the prerogative 
of vindictive justice, legislating for what they fancy to be crimes; adju- 
dicating on those whom they suppose guilty, and by such rules of evi- 
dence as best suits their rage; and executing sentences of devastation, 
torture and death, with appalling rapidity ; there is, there must be, cause 
of dread that a spirit is rife in the land which must be put down, or our 
fathers have bled and toiled in vain, and all that has been won by their - 
valour or treasured by their wisdom — all is lost." 

The next two extracts are taken from the Judge's celebrated speech on 
Religiotts Liberty, delivered in the Convention of 1835 upon the- 
proposition to abrogate the famous 32nd Article of our State Constitu- 

"If there be- difficulties in ascertaining what the Article in question 
effectually enacts, we are at least able, with some degree of confidence, to 
pronounce what it does not enact. It in no degree abridges the elective, 
franchise. Every citizen, however heretical his religious opinions, has a 
right to vote in the choice of those who make the laws, or who administer- 
to the service of the State. It unquestionaVy has no application to mili- 
tary offices. However dangerous may be supposed the religious princi- 
ples of an individual, he is constitutionally qualified to command the mili- 
tary strength of the State. It is clear, too, and I suppose will be admit- 
ted by every legal gentleman, that the prohibitions in this Article can ex- 
clude no one from seats in the General Assembly. Whenever the Constitu- 
tion meansjto exclude any man from a seat in Legislature, it says so in express 
terms. Thus in the the 25th section, it declares that no Receiver of Pub- 
lic Monies, &c, " Shall have a seat in either House of the General As- 
sembly, or be eligible to any office in this State." A seat in the Legisla- 


ture is above omces or places of trust in the Civil Department, and is not 
■comprehended impliedly within these terms. If there had been any good 
reason to doubt this construction, such a doubt would have been removed 
by the adjudication of the Senate of the United States upon the impeach- 
ment of William Blount, and the decision of our House of Commons, in 
the year 1808, in the case of Mr. Jacob Henry, a Jew, and a representa- 
tive in that body from the county of Carteret. The persons, therefore, 
whom this Article proscribes are not only qualified to choose the law-mak- 
ers and to hold military appointments, but may themselves become the 
law-makers of the land. Let us pause a moment, and consider the wisdom 
of the provision. The only ground upon which a constitutional disquali- 
fication of a portion of the citizens for any public trust, can possibly be 
vindicated, is the public safety. The people, the legitimat fountain of 
power, should not be forbidden from confiding the management of their 
concerns to any whom they may prefer unless it be those who cannoth&ve 
the ability and integrity to serve them faithfully. Now, if the profession 
of certain irreligious notions, or certain heretical religious opinions, ren- 
ders a man necessarily unfit for the public service, he is peculiarly and 
emphatically an unfit repository of the political power and controller 
of the physical strength of the State. Yet this Article permits unbeliev- 
ers to elect those who shall enact laws— and permits them, if the people 
so please, to enact laws themse^es for the government of the whole State, 
and permits them to command the militia, by whom the laws are to be en- 
forced. If it be safe to allow them to wield these powers, on what pre- 
tence can it be alleged, that it is utterly unsafe to permit their fellow- 
citizens to appoint one of them to a subordinate civil employment, what- 
ever knowledge they may have of his fitness for its duties, and whatever 
confidence a long and intimate acquaintance may warrant them in repos. 
ing in his tried virtue ? He may elect rulers, or may himself be a ruler. 
There is no danger in his being a member of the Senate or House of Com- 
mons — there is no danger in having a command over the armed force of 
the State — but, the country's safety forbids, however exemplary his con- 
duct or excellent his character, that he should be a Judge, or a Sheriff, 
or a Clerk of a Court, or a Constable ! Wonderful sagacity ! Admira- 
ble prudence ! A congeniality of sentiment sometimes betrays men into 
a misplaced confidence; but it seldom happens that an individual, whose 
opinions on any subject of deep concern, are quite different from those of 
his neighbors, commands their respect and affection, unless his life be 
such as to keep down and overrule the prejudice so naturally arising from 
this dissimilarity. Bad men, belonging to obnoxious sects, stand no 
chance of obtaining appointments; and, therefore, our Constitution takes 
care that good ones shall not be elected. Profound Wisdom ! This pro- 


vision has been called a badge of ancient prejudice, and no doubt it is in 
part the result of prejudice. But it does not spring from prejudice only, 
from a mere dull, sullen, unreasoning antipathy. It manifests, also, the 
agency of another temperament or passion of a more calculating charac- 
ter — a passion not unfrequently seen on occasions where one would least 
expect it; which may be discerned through disguisees most carefully put 
on to hide it from observation. When the renowned John Gilpin was 
about to enter on his gallant expedition to Edmondton, he was delighted 
to perceive that his money-loving spouse, in all her preparations for the 
celebration of the happy day, still exhibited her characteristic disposition 
to take care of the main chance — 

"That though on pleasure she was bent 
She had a frugal mind." 

While this restraint on the freedom of choice professes an affectionate 
solicitude, lest the good people or their ageuts may ruin the country by 
employing as public servants, men whose faith is unsound, that solicitude 
is satisfied by an exclusion from offices or places of profit. It apprehends 
. no danger, provided the emoluments of office can be kept sacred. Al- 
though bent on the preservation of religion, it has a selfish mind — it is of 
the same spirit which prompted mutitudes to follow after the Redeemer of 
man-kind, under the pretence of witnessing his marvellous dseds and list- 
ening to his holy doctrines, but, in truth, because he had multiplied the 
loaves and fishes in the wilderness. It is of the same spirit which would 
find a belief in the Bible or in the Koran, the rite of Baptism or Circum- 
cision, a reasonable and useful constitutional requirement, if it but insured 
a monopoly of the public service money. It is the same spirit which ac- 
tuates the sutlers and followers of a camp, the retainers and slaves of suc- 
cessful power, who discover in the hopes of victory an inducement for 
fidelity, and in its plunder, a reward for baseness. It is the spirit of cu- 
pidity, cloaked but not concealed beneath the mantle of religious zeal, 
offering bribes for conformity — courting prejudice and bigotry on the one 
side, and wooing dissimulation and human infirmity on the other — it is a 
spirit which should find no abiding place in the Constitution of a free 

* jfc- . . . * 3fc i|S jfc # t ■% * . . .#. . * 

"It is not without hesitation, Mr. Chairman, that I can bring myself to 
advert to some observations which have been thrown out in the course of 
the debate, in relation to the tenets, or supposed tenets of Roman Cathol- 
ics. The great battle of Religious freedom should not be fought on such 
narrow ground, as the exclusion of any one sect from, or its admission to, 
a participation of political power. Whether the charges brought be true 
or false, the decision on this question should still be the same. Some of 



these charges are so absurd, that it seems like yielding them too much 
honor to notice them at all ; but to pass them by in silence, might be con- 
sidered as a tacit aoquiescence in their truth. Besides, much allowance 
ought to be made for honest ignorance. The Catholics in this State are 
very few, and those who have had no opportunity of knowing them 
personally, and have learned their tenets only through the medium of 
their enemies, cannot be much blamed for crediting the most ridiculous 
falsehoods. It has been asked, whether the allegiance of Catholics to the 
Pope be spiritual only, and the learned gentleman from Halifax has un- 
questionably shewn that they do not owe him civil allegiance. — Sir, I ob- 
ject in toto to the term allegiance, as characterising the connection be- 
tween the Catholic and the Chief Bishop of his Church. I owe no alle- 
giance to any man or set of men on earth, save only to the State of North- 
Carolina, and, so- far as she has parted with her sovereignty, to the United 
States of America. — The charge that Catholics owe allegiance to the 
Pope, is ivholly false. Spread over the- whole earth — speaking different 
tongues — subjects or citizens of different governments — beings of differ- 
ent races and compactions — they are connected by a spiritual tie, the tie 
of one and the same faith, which constitutes them one Spiritual family or 
Church. For the regulation of this wide spread Church, an Ecclesiastical 
or Spiritual Government is indispensable. This is mainly confided to the 
Bishops of the several Dioceses, and of these, the first in rank and jurisdic- 
tion is the Bishop of Borne. To him, subject to well defined laws and 
well ascertained usage, is committed the chief administration. To him — 
and to them — and to every spiritual or ecclesiastical teacher, acting with- 
in his proper sjihere, respeet and obedience are due. But no man owes to 
him, or them, or any of them, the duty implied by the term allegiance', 
the obligation of personal fidelity, the obligation of defence, as an equiva- 
lent for the benefit of protection. Should the Chief Bishop, in the pre- 
tended exercise of his ecclesiastical powers, (for in the Church he is 
known only as an Ecclesiastical superior) attempt to encroach upon the 
jurisdiction of the other Pastors of the Church, who claim their power 
from the same source from which his is derived, though not to the same ex- 
tent ; the principles of Catholics teach that such usurpation should be 
firmly and zealously resisted. Such usupations have been attempted, and 
the History of Christendom shews that upon no point has there been a 
more jealous vigilance upon the part, not only of the Catholic Prelates, 
bnt of the Catholic people, to prevent and repel them. His authority — 
their authority, is spiritual only — has no connection with civil duties — and 
is enforced only by spiritual censures. He has not, and they have not any 
more right to interfere with a man's obligation to his country or his fel- 
low men, than civil rulers have to interfere with a man's spiritual con- 


corns. Catholics peremptorily deny that the Church has any temporal 
power, or any right to interpose in the regulations of Government, and 
hold themselves bound to resist unto death, as tyrannical usurpation, all 
attempts at such interference. As a proof that this their doctrine was 
well known, even at the moment when for political purposes they have 
been most tyrannically treated by their Eulers, let me mention one extra- 
ordinary occurrence recorded in History. When Elizabeth of England 
had quarelled with the Pope, and but recently put out of Catholic com- 
munion; when she was the avowed champion of Protestanism, and en- 
gaged in a tremendous war with the Catholic Monarch, Philip of Spain, 
the husband of her deceased sister — in the very moment of utmost peril, 
she committed the chief command of that small and gallant fleet which 
was opposed to the invincible Armada, into the hands of a known and 
exemplary Catholic, lord Howard, of Effingham. And nobly was that 
confidence requited. She knew, and his conduct shewed, that he recog- 
nized no Sovereign but the Sovereign of his Country, and that his relig- 
ious principles rendered him but the more resolved to discharge faithfully 
his duties as a subject." 

We give, last, the Report which he made as Chairman of a joint select 
committee of both Houses of our General Assembly upon a prposition to 
employ an artist by the name of Ball Hughes, to repair the statue of 
Yv r ashington, which had been much mutilated in the destruction by fire of 
the State Capitol in the year 183 1. It includes a noble tribute to the 
character of the father of his country; and every American not dead to 
the sacred impulses of patriotism, must feel his heart beat high, as he 
reads it, with the proud recollection that he is the countryman of Wash- 
ington. The resolution, which was designed to carry out the recommen- 
dation of the report, was adopted, but the artist subsequently proved faith- 
less to the trust confided to him, in consequence of which the civilized 
world, as well as our own State, has lost " the last and greatest work of 
the first sculptor of the age" in which he lived. 

"Among the regrets occasioned by the late destruction of the State 
House, it is believed by the committee that none have been more deeply 
or generally felt by the citizens of North Carolina than those which were 
excited by the mutilation of the monument, which the gratitude of the 
State had caused to be erected to the memory of the Father of his coun- 
try. True it is that while a heart beats amongst us to which liberty is 
dear, or which can swell with admiration for patriotism, the name of 
Washington must live, embalmed in the affections and consecrated by the 
reverence of his countrymen. No storied urn nor animated bust is 
needed to perpetuate the glory of his achievements, or to rescue from 
oblivion the recollection of his services. But the people of this State 


had a right to be proud of the evidence they had exhibited of the inten- 
sity with which they delighted to cherish his memory. Limited in their 
means, plain in their habits and economical in their expenditures, on this 
one subject they had indulged a generous munificence. At their bid- 
ding the genius of Canova had given to the marble of Carrura the im- 
press of his noble figure, and this last and greatest work of the first sculp- 
tor of the age was to be seen in the Capitol of our unpretending State, 
gratifying the curiosity of our own citizens, attracting the attention of 
strangers, and fixing the admiration of the lovers of the arts. A full 
heart had thus spoken, and was relieved by this expression of its feelings. 

The erection of this statue by the people and their representatives was 
the result of a generous impulse of their nature. But the act was not 
the less recommendable by a sound and sagacious policy. A monument 
like this was a book which all could read, and which bade the most 
thoughtless and inattentive to enquire and reflect. To the Legislator, as 
he passed by to the Council Hall of the State, as well as to the ardent 
and young of every condition, it taught a lesson the most salutary, and 
not the less impressive because it was commuuicated without the formal- 
ities of instruction. While it refuted the calumny which stigmatises Re- 
publics as ungrateful, it taught that true glory is the meed of virtue, and 
that though temporary popularity may be gained by courting public favor, 
permanent renown, the renown which triumphs over the grave, is award- 
ed to him alone who seeks the public good with pure and devoted disin- 
terestedness. Besides, few sentiments are found to be more congenial with 
patriotism, or more favorable to public and private virtue, than a rational 
State pride. As no one can love that of which he is ashamed, so it is 
impossible not to regard with affection the community of which we are 
proud to be members. The duty of advancing the prosperity, defending 
the rights, and cherishing, improving and perpetuating the institutions 
of our country, is performed with ardor when that country stands high 
in our own estimation, and is known to be respected by others. To serve 
it becomes a pleasure and ceases to be a task, when we feel that it is wor- 
thy of our service; and every, even the humblest, citizen of a free State 
appropriates to himself a portion of the reputation which belongs to the 
State itself. As that reputation is raised, his self-respect is increased; and 
if self-respect be not itself a virtue, it is assuredly one of the best safe- 
guards' against the degradation of vice. 

***** In their opinion, the abandonment of this once mag- 
nificient monument to the fate with which it is threatened, would subject 
North Carolina to the just reproach of the other States of the confeder- 
acy, of all who venerate the memory of Washington, and of the admirers 
of genius and art throughout the civilized world. In their opinion 


though the people of North Carolina may be poor, they are ready to en- 
counter any expenditure which is demanded by a just respect for them- 
selves, and your committee believe that the Legislature would little con- 
sult either the character or the wishes of those whom it represents, if it 
refuses to embrace this opportunity of re-erecting the statue of him who, 
living was always first in the hearts of our fathers, and whose name is now 
enshrined with the same precedence in the affections of their sons. 


In attempting to write upon a theme that presents to the mind such 
an illimitable field of reflection, we feel at a loss where to begin or whither 
to direct our course. It is a theme that, running down through the isles 
of time has gathered upon its boundless canvass the history of man — 
the fortunes of his power, and the vicissitudes of his natural destiny. 
Upon this variegated picture, the scholar may find food for every reflec- 
tion; he may love and hate — admire and despise — weep and rejoice over 
victor and vanquished in the great struggle of human destiny. Rome, 
in its power and influence upon the human race, has been a world of 
itself, or at least a chief actor in the world's drama. As from her seven 
hills, she looks down upon old Tiber, which alone unchanged beneath the 
desolating march of time, flows on as in the days of Romulus, in obedi- 
ence to its immutable destiny, she teaches the sublimest lesson. Through 
her temples and palaces, like the vine clad oak, entwined with the marks 
of modern civilization, she proclaims the mutability of wealth and power; 
and the frail tenury of all human hopes. But Rome is dead, the spirit 
of the Roman no longer animates the breast of those that bear her name. 
Her temples that once were decked with the spoils of the triumphant 
Caesars, now look down upon a servile degraded race, trampled beneath 
the foot of a foreign oppression. Yet she lives upon the pages of her 
literature, the great fountain of the world's wisdom, and, through it, will 
proclaim, to the most distant time, the great truth that genius at last, 
triumphs over power, and thought over action. 

But it is not our object in a brief article, to usurp the province of the 
historian, and stumbling over the ruins of antiquity, to follow iEneas 


from burning Troy through shipwreck and disaster, until reposing in the 
embrace of the Carthagenian Queen. Nor would we follow him from 
thence in his heartless desertion, until arrived at the shores of Lavinium 
and from thence onward through his destiny-marked course, until his de- 
scendants had laid the foundation of the eternal city. Nor would we 
follow that little colony from the dark boundary of mith and fiction, 
through all the vicissitudes of its power, under its subjection to kings, con- 
suls and dictators, until it was the acknowledged mistress of the world. 
Nor would we descend with it from the lofty summits of its imperial 
greatness, down through the darkness and chaos of medireval night, until 
the Goth and the Vandal, with a sacrilegious hand, had desecrated her shrines 
and sanctuaries. Nor, stillfurther down in the scale of her degradation, until 
the Roman was a slave and the Austrian his master. For such a province 
requires a historic research for which our time and ability are inadequate. 
But, glancing at Rome as she was and as she is, we would search for the 
causes and influences that have contributed to degrade Rome and her 
provinces, and enslave the blood of the Ccesars. Rome, in all the eleva- 
tions of her power, was poor in all those elements that constitute a per- 
manent national wealth. Her wealth was the prizes of conquest and the 
spoils of war. Commerce, agriculture and industry were no part of that 
policy which Rome impressed upon her sons as expedient for the perpetuity 
of wealth and power, but in the sacked cities and jdundered grannaries 
of the Barbarian, she taught her husbandmen were more ample harvests 
than an honest industry could reap from their genial soil, tier wide- 
spread provinces, which extended from the glens of Scotland to the shores 
of the Caspian, were not the result of a national development or annexations 
that a political expedience demanded, but the fruits of a rapacious spirit 
of conquest. And while there remained new fields of conquest Rome 
flourished, but when she had subjected and impoverished all the surround- 
ing provinces, and that great source of her revenue had failed, then began 
her decline, then the light of civilization paled beneath the gathering 
cloud of ignorance, which for ages after, enveloped the world in medie- 
val night. Then her religion, whose basis was ignorance, and her priest- 
hood, whose desire was to promulgate it, acquired new strength for to ex- 
tinguish all the light that could be reflected through her literature, they 
consigned that embodiment of Roman wisdom to the cloisters of her monks. 
Then the spirit and liberty of Rome decayed in the grasp of a 
usurping hierarchy. But the Roman jurisprudence alone survived the 
wreck and ruin of that age, of superstition and ignorance. Although 
obscured in the dust of a decaying empire, yet when the light of a brighter 
day dawned, it shone forth in all the beauty of its proportions, adapting 
itself to the wants and wishes of the human race. The military glory 


of Rome passed away, yet those great principles of justice which, with 
the protection of her laws, she extended as a boon to the vanquished? 
have withstood the shock of the Northern invader, "which Rome could 
withstand; they have survived the night of feudal ignorance, which deep- 
ened at Rome's decline, and addressing themselves in their wisdom ta 
the untaught Barbarian, they gained his adoption, and insinuating them- 
selves through the' whole social system, they became the chief element 
in the governments of the civilized world. And now while administering 
to the wants of the world, they proclaim the great object of Rome's mis- 
sion. As the military glory of Rome declined her ecclesiastic power 
waxed more strong; under the gathering shade of ignorance it found an 
element, congenial to its growth and expansion ; in that element, it achieved 
its mission, and perfected all its machinery for human degradation. In 
quest of the Heretic it sent forth the Inquisition raising its hideous head 
and accomplishing its dark designs with the torture and rack. Among the 
spawns of its pointed elements, the Jesuit came forth upon his secret 
mission, plotting all the dark deeds of infamy and treason to strengthening 
his church and encouraging crimes of the deepest dye ; by "ad-ministering 
the anodine to. wounded consciences. " 

Such were the machinations of evil and corruption under which the 
spirit and liberty of the Roman people gave way. Such were- the blight- 
ing influences that beggared the nation and robbed it of its vitality, and 
inclination to resist oppression; influences which, to destroy the freedom 
of thought would chain the press, destroy the book and the pamphlet, stifle 
the whisper and the murmer, and say to man "eat but think not." In con- 
grmation of this we have but to look to Italy, where Catholicism for centuries 
has set enthroned with a free exercise of all its influences, there in a land 
upon which nature has lavished her choicest gifts, the land of the world's 
noblest poets, heroes and orators, there in a land abounding in so many 
glorious reminiscences of its departed greatness, behold the awful picture 
of moral degeneracy and national decay. There see the Italian groping 
his way through the darkness of ignorance and superstition without hope, 
without energy, in a condition worse than that of the slave under his task- 
master. Then say where is that Roman spirit that led the Caesars from 
conquest to conquest, and unsheathed the sword of Brutus in vindication 
of the rights of Rome. Yv'here that national pride and proverbial patri- 
otism that knew no prouder boast than "I am a Roman citizen?" Her 
aqueducts her falling columns, her broken arches, the fading relics of her 
glory and pride echo where? Papacy rising in triumph above the 
desolation of its reign proclaims in itself the sources of Rome's degeneracy. 

M. B. S., Miss. 




I see them all around me 

And tokens dear are they,. 
Of the summer that hath faded 

And the days now passed away. 

And many a dream they bringeth 

Of happy by gone hours, 
And round my heart they flingeth 

A chain of dreamland flowers. 

A chain of flowers now broken 

In the dying leaflets' fall, 
They're like the vows once spoken 

They share the fate of all. 

They tell us how we are dying, 

Er'e summer days are o'er, 
They tell us how joys are flying 

And with their scanty store. 

They tell us not to cherish 
The dreams of happier days — 

They say those dreams must perish 
As fades the sunlight's rays. 

So I watch them as they're falling 

From off the parent tree, 
And I hear them as they're calling 

Thou too must follow me. 

For we were young and lonely 
In the early spring- tide's time — 

Now we're sad and lonely 

And pine 'neath winter's clime. 

And the tree whereon we nestled 
'Neath the summer's moonlight sky 

We must leave alone to wrestle 
With the winds that pass us by. 

Thus must it be with mortals 
Their lives like leafless trees, 

For their joys fall off the branches 
And die like withered leaves. 



The truth of our propositior, that the thanklessness of a nation is the 
sure index of its growing shame, has been fearfully proven in the history 
of the past; and to him who loves his conutry's good, and his country's 
honor, these are questions of the most vital interest: whether as a nation 
we, " knowing good deeds shall approve and reward them," or bear the 
curse which avenges ingratitude, whether we shall share the plaudits of 
other nations that may read our history, or writhe continually under 
their withering maledictions : whether posterity shall point to our sages 
and " call them blessed/'' or mention their names to the nation's 

That man who knows no gratitude, and whose sterile brain has never 
conceived sympathy or regard for his benefactor deserves not the appella- 
tion of a "man." but is " a mindless, heartless, throbless lump of acci- 
dental and misnamed humanity." 

He who professes patriotism and its attendant virtues, who openly seeks 
the good of friends and country, with a smile of envy and a countenance 
that betrays the secret enmity of his bosom, who accepts with the grasp- 
ing selfishness of his sordid and thankless heart thegratuites of the liberal 
and the good, is becoming all that is mean, worthless, infamous — the very 
synonym of depravity. And so is it with a nation. The republic, which 
ostensibly abandons its high rank and in the eyes of the world stoops to 
the sacrifice of the valiant leaders, who have boldly encountered its foes 
(even) against known odds and directed it successfully in its march of 
glory through the cess-pools of political strife and sectional prejudice, 
which knows no superior in the ignominy that the long tale of its ingrat- 
itude has bequeathed to it, is becoming the mock-word of dynasties and 
the scoffing misanthrope. The red man of the forest, rude and unculti- 
vated as he is, whose mind has never been polished with the multifarious 
pencilings of science, or the delicate abstractions of classic lore, as he 
roams untaught through his sequestered wilds invokes the choicest gifts of 
the "Great Spirit" upon his benefactor, thus evincing what untutored 
nature would do, if freed from the thraldom of jealousy, the premonitory 
type of the growing rancor of party, or sect, or clime. Ye friends of 
learning, that love to hang upon the attenuated thread of political destiny, 
and sit under the impassioned tones of eloquence as they gurgle from 
the forum of party conflict, learn a lesson from the persecuted sons of 
the forest. 



The heathen, whose enslaved mind has never been visited with the 
light of truth, acting from the inspirations of instinct would bless the 
hand that proffered him assistance. The trembling serf, that knows no 
freedom but that of despotic will and no kindness, save that dictated by 
the avarice and political cupidity of his lord, as he " receives the crumbs 
that fall from his master's table " " in the spontaneous- ebulitions of his 
grateful heart thanks and adores him. 

In the dark days that succeeded the ruin of the Roman Republic — 
when virtue sat weeping upon a sterile rock and pity dropped a tear un- 
seen — when humanity could scarce claim an advocate, and honor was an 
empty name — when the cries of freedom and vassalage fell upon the dull 
ears of her enslaved sons as unmeaning monitories; still they were not en- 
tirely dead to all the finer feelings of grateful hearts and fell willing vo- 
taries at the shrine of their protectors. And are we, the exemplars of 
imprisoned hope, to be blind to merit more than the heathen, the serf, 
or the unfortunate sons of ignorance and barbarity? Let the disciples of 
the Henrys of our own loved land, who spurn with righteous indignation 1 
the dogmas and ipse dixits of despots, proclaim an eternal negative to the 
false notion. There was a time in the history of our country when he, 
who braved the storms of sectional jealousy, as they raged fiercest in our 
midst, who stood forth and confronted with bold defiance the elements of 
civil discord and cried "peace, be still!" and it was done, might bid with 
confidence for the highest office in the gift of the American people, but 
alas, how changed ! What marks of infamy have a few years blended 
with our political page! With what jealous eyes have the crowned heads 
of Europe for a time watched our progress, but at length as if oblivious 
of the hard earned renown of our revolutionary fathers, pointed their 
bitter mockery and writheing rebuke at the home of patriots and the 
birth place of freedom, and stigmatized us as a people, who to carry out 
the wicked aims of party, scruple not to sacrifice our greatest men as 
immolations upon the altars of availability, and consign them to a place 
with the political dead — the victims of the remorseless rancor of politcal 
beggars and obsequious flatterers. Such in a word, is becoming the his- 
tory of our government, that he who would grapple for chosen honors, 
and sit enshrined 'mid the charms of political aggrandizement, ^eeks not 
to accomplish aims by proposing and carrying out great measures of com- 
mon good, but in sweet retirement awaits the hour, when he is to be sum- 
moned forth, like noble Cincinatus, to gratify the conflicting prejudices 
of party. 

"The immortal trio" have lived and died! 'Twas theirs to speak 
when the demons of faction fanaticism and disunion waged intestine wars. 
'Twas theirs to advise and trembling senators stooped to catch their 

I860.] to THfiE. 275 

thoughts, but alas for human fidelity! When they might ask for political 
preferment, ingratitude, that plague-spot of great minds was awaked in 
the bosoms of a free people and the mortification of defeat, left to them 
as the reward of their mighty deeds. Is there no Lethe for our nation's 
infamy ^ and may not charity cast a veil of oblivion over the dark lines 
that may be traced in her character? 


BY J. B. G. 

The summer's sun had left the lurid sky, 
And evening's shadows fast surrounded me; 

One silver star, in beauty hung on high, 
Its radiant glory made me think — of thee! 

Anon I looked, and scattered here and there, 
Slow floating through the deep and airy sea, 

"Were other worlds, but none so brightly fair, 
As that pure one that made me think — of thee ! 

I looked again, and spheres unnumbered shone, 
And poured their bright effulgence down on me, 

I turned from all, to view that one alone, 

Whose heavenly radiance made me think — of thee! 

Once more I looked and scanned the heavenly host, 
That I again that glorious orb might see ; 

'Twas sunk! 'Twas gone; my beaming star was lost! 
No more could I see it and think — of thee! 

Oh cruel fate ! And must it be my part ; 

To bow in silence to thy stern decree ! 
In vain ! Though hushed the voices of my heart, 

'Twill ever cause delight to think — of thee ! 



BY A. 

Autnmn winds were whistling around an ocean isle, against whose 
barren and rock-bound shore in tumultuous and deafening roars the mad 
wave broke. High cliffs rose here and there, and as far as the eye could 
reach, spread out the blue expanse of ocean, now rising in mighty billows 
heavenward, and again resting in calm repose. Like a speck appeared 
that dreary isle — a mere atom in that illimitable waste of waters, yet it 
was destined to confine the earthly casket of an unconquerable soul, and 
be the prison, aye, the tomb of a hero. 

On a cheerless day, a noble ship might have been seen, slowly sailing 
towards this cliff-girt isle, bearing thither — not a burden of gold and 
gems from India, nor pearls and corals from the Oriental deep — but a 
warrior overpowered, whose heart throbbed as proudly as ever though the 
cress of St. George floated over him — 'twas Europe's, nay the world's con- 
queror, Napoleon Bonaparte. 

The dull, deep murmur of the rolling surge and the shriek of- the sea- 
bird alone feel upon his ear as he neared those wild and rocky haunts — 
his future home. He landed, but no roar of cannon nor shout of enthu- 
siasm welcomed him there. And this was the great Napoleon ! Fame 
and glory, position and power, friends and home had he left far behind 
him, to be buried as it were in a living grave. No more were 
armies to be marshalled at his command ; no more should the French peo- 
ple raise the heartfelt cry of " Vive l'Empereur;" no longer could he gaze 
on the eagle of France, his own loved banner. He was led forth for sac- 
rifice and the gates of public life were closed upon him foreeer. A com- 
pulsory exile, he entered his prison whose walls were piled up by Nature 
and whose moat was the heaving Atlantic 

A mournful, melancholy sound was in the air which breathed upon his 
kingly brow, a dirge-like voice came up from the tossing waters whose 
restlessness and broken might imaged the soul of the' exile. 

Years, weary years of suffering, both bodily and mental, he passed in 
his lonely habitation. Hope had well nigh faded from his heart and de- 
spair taken its place. Where now was that look and lofty pride, that 
mein and gesture of command which in former times had roused nations 
to arms, and swayed the hearts of myriads ? The proud spirit was curbed 
but broken, never ! Confinement partially dimmed the fire of his heart 


but extinguish it, it could not ! Disease, however, gradually accomplish- 
ed its work, and death at last opened the doors of that prison to which, 
Hope could furnish no other key. * * * * 

The storm-king rode abroad ; whirlwinds in their fearful wrath swept 
by; clouds gathered; lightnings gleamed; and loudly the thunders' roar 
resounded through the air; the very elements themselves seemed con- 
tending for the mastery. No gentle voice of woman was there to cheer 
him amid the gloom, no woman's hand to smooth his dying pillow; men, 
war-worn men alone, were with him in his last hour. Their eyes, which 
had looked proudly and fearlessly on the battle-field, now were dimmed 
with tears — their stern hearts were moved as they looked upon the wreck 
of their beloved commander; for that arm once so powerful was now mo- 
tionless in death, and those eyes which in days gone by had flashed the 
fires of war were now closing forever. But he for whom their tears were 
shed, for whom they sorrowed so deeply, heeded not their grief. His 
soul was free, and he had gone from earth forever. 

Even in the moments of death his imagination hovered around the bat- 
tle-field, and he seemed again to stand as in his days of triumph " a tete 
d'armee," watching the contest of opposing hosts. ; Twas but the raging 
of the sea, and booming of thunder. Again the war-trumpet rang 
on his ear; 'twas but the night-bird's cry as he wildly flapped 
his wings, and the low murmur of the water as it beat upon the 

The storm passed by — its rage was spent, the morning sun shone forth 
as brightly as ever, tinging the peaceful waves with a golden brightness; 
but its rays fell on the marble form of the Emperor. Icy, cold and rigid 
were those limbs but a few short honrs befure convulsed with pain. On 
the wings of the tempest had that spirit fled, disdaining human bounds, 
and nought remained of Napoleon but a lifeless, powerless form. Him- 
self a ten-pest, he had lived a stormy life, and dying — the very elements 
felt conscious perturbation at his spirit's exit; and when he had passed 
away, earth, sea and air were alike at rest. Amid the rocks of Helena the 
exile's body was laid, but long will it be ere his memory shall fade from 
the hearts of his countrymen. 

Again years rolled on. The cherished willow long drooped over his 
solitary yet uuforgotten grave. The children of fathers whom he had 
lead to battle peopled the land once glorious in the meteoric splendor of 
his genius. The admiration and love of the sires were rekindled in their 
sons. Again a vessel wended her way to Helena. The dark rock gave up 
its dead ! and the bark returned bearing to his enthusiastic countrymen 
the dust of their greatest monarch. 

Loud acclamations and swelling bursts of joy greeted the return; but 


insensible to fame and glory lay all that remained of " Imperial Bona- 
parte." It was but dust and ashes. With funeral pomp, the hero was 
borne to his last sepulchre, there to rest 'till called to meet his God, and 
account to Him for hopes blighted, and thousauds slain. 

He sleeps. May his follies, his ambition and his crimes sleep with 
him, nor never be dragged from their posthumous ebscurity to be reenacted 
with perhaps equal guilt, though less brilliant genius. Let no imitator 
madly squander the same infinite price to purchase the splendor, of so 
vain, abhorrent and bloody achievements. 

■» ♦■ <gfc— »» — ^- 


My earliest recollections can be traced no farther back than to the pe- 
riod when I found myself with several glasses of a similar nature, occu- 
pying a shelf in a celebrated glass and China warehouse situated in the 
most fashionable part of New York City. I soon discovered from the 
briUiant illumination of the gas lights, the rich dresses of our customers, 
the conversation of those around me, the splendid equipages that daily 
thronged our doors, and the amount of money frequently exhibited, that 
my lot was cast among the aristocracy of the land. I also inferred from 
remarks made in my presence, that whenever I was called to leave this 
abode of ease and elegance, I shonld not be destined to serve in any me- 
nial capacity. 

I was therefore gratified rather than alarmed when I learned that my- 
self and friends were included in an extensive invoice to be shipped im- 
mediately to the Capital of North Carolina, a State which I had heard ex- 
tolled that very day by one of the loveliest girls I ever beheld, whose 
brother, a fine, dark-eyed, sunburnt Naval Officer, catching the enthusiasm 
which beamed from his sister's glowing check and glistening eyes, invok- 
ed " blessings on the Old North State forever." 

Although my anticipations were certainly of a pleasurable nature, yet 
it may be supposed that I could not without regret bid a final adieu to a 
city of which, as an American, I am justly proud, and to a home where 
my first years had spent so happily. A deep impression was made upon 
my mind by a conversation which I overheard between two of our work- 


men respecting the proverbial cai'elessness of the negroes at the South, 
the roughness of the roads in North Carolina, and the scenes of intemper- 
ance, to which, as driuking glasses, we should be subjected. 

But dread of future evil and hope of good were alike forgotten in ac- 
tual suffei'ing, when we found ourselves jostling over the stones of a street 
leading to the wharf, where our vessel, the Pocahontas, Captain Carver, 
bound for Petersburg, Virginia, lay waiting for her lading anu a favora- 
ble wind. 

The voyage was a dreary one to all on board, but to us especially, for 
though, thanks to the precautions which had been taken at the warehouse, 
we had been defended from material injury, yet our nerves had been so 
much excited by our transportation that we were illy prepared for the dis- 
tressing nausea usually attendant on a sea voyage. 

We were conveyed on Kail cars from Petersburg to Raleigh, where we 
first opened our eyes upon a Southern city, and congratulated ourselves 
and each other that we were once more at rest, and in a state of compara- 
tive safety. 

I must confess that I was grievously disappointed when I examined the 
store upon the shelves of which we were placed. In vain I looked for the 
brilliance of the gas lights. The doors were generally closed at dark, and 
if after that period a customer was admitted, a dim lamp or a single can- 
dle, carried from shelf to counter, and from counter to shelf, scarcely ena- 
bled us to recognize friend or foe. In vain I looked for the row above 
row of cut glass, gilt china, astral lamps, &c, which lined the warehouse 
as far as the dazzled eye could reach. In vain I watched for the splendid 
carriages that I had been accustomed to see at the door. Such did at in- 
tervals visit this store, but it was not a daily occurrence. No longer 
crowds of belles and beaux came to trifle away an hour, or to displa} 7 their 
own finery while professing to examine ours. 

This store contained a little of everything, and though beautiful and 
elegant females whose manner and costume proved them the elite of the 
city, and gentlemen whose noble bearing would have done honor to the 
Senate, came alone or with their families, yet it must be acknowledged 
that the general mass of our customers were of a very different order of 
beings from those to whom I had been accustomed. 

Although habit reconciled me to this medley of persons and things, I 
can even now recall the terror and disgust which shot through my frame 
when one of the lords of the soil, seizing me with a grasp better suited to 
a fence rail, inquired what upon earth I was made for. When informed 
that I was a Champagne Glass, he set me down with a jerk that almost 
threw me off my balance, declaring that his own crab apple cider was 
better than any foreign trash that he had ever seen, and desired the clerk 


to get him a dozen of good solid tumblers, fit to drink anything he chose 
out of. He wanted no such rickety thing as I was on his table. 

I was surprised to observe such men as these who had scarcely ever tast- 
ed Champagne, perhaps not even heard of it, and who did not think me 
worth the trouble of carrying home, lay out large sums of money in ac- 
tual cash, and purchase for their wives or daughters, the richest and most 
expensive articles of apparel. Frequently, have I noticed snch a one, 
upon leaving the store, mount and manage with perfect ease, a horse, that 
would have done no discredit to a General or his Aide on the Fourth of 
July in my dear native city; and shoulder a rifle, which would have been 
a prize to any sharp-shooter in the land. It was in this store, that I first 
heard the epithet of "the bone and and sinew of the State" applied to 
such, and I am fully convinced that a countjy which can boast of a pop- 
ulation like these sons of toil, may laugh to scorn all fear of a foreign in- 

I had not been in Raleigh many months, when I found that I was des- 
tined to a home in the village of Chapel Hill. I had heard of the Uni- 
versity, and was delighted to learn that I was to enter a literary circle, 
for I understood that I now belonged to one of the Professors. In this 
situation, advantages would be mine, which my elegant companions who 
had been purchased for theatres and ballrooms, might justly envy. My 
friends and myself were packed for our journey in a manner which we 
thought very careless, and being conveyed over the intolerable road that 
leads from the Capital to the Hill, our fears and our snfierings can hardly 
be described. Ail that we had endured on cur first expedition, was 
ease, was comfort compared with this. 

At length the driver stopped at the door of the Professor of Rhetoric, 
whom I loved at first sight. I shall never forget the look of indignant 
surprise with which he viewed our wretched condition, or the benevolent 
smile which welcomed us, as one by one we were lifted in safety from our 
hateful prison. 

We were conveyed by a very pleasant colored man to a private apart- 
ment, where we were washed with great care and placed upon the side- 
board in a plain, but very neat parlor. Here we enjoyed an agreeable 
repose, and being greatly refreshed we soon amused ourselves by remarks 
upon the different members of the family. I soon found that our master 
was a Minister of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and that the -fine 
portrait hanging opposite to the sideboard was one of the late Bishop of 
the Diocese, the lit. Rev. John Start Ravenscroft, of whose masterly elo- 
quence I hid heard so much, and whose memory, I perceived, was cher- 
ished by my master with an affection ltttle less than that of a son. In 
this quiet resting place I became sincerely attached to my master and to 


each member of his amiable family, and shall never forget the happy, 
peaceful life, which I led. under his roof. 

I soon discovered that science, literature, and religion, were the favorite 
topics of conversation among the visitors who frequented this apartment, 
and I congratulated myself and my friends upon the circumstance, that 
we were enabled to hear what was said, as well as to observe all that 
passed. From our post of observation, the sideboard, we were unnoticed 
and unobtrusive spectators of some deeply interesting scenes. Besides 
having been present at the regular morning and evening devotions of the 
family, I have witnessed a smiling infant presented for baptism. I have 
beheld adults kneel before the Bishop to receive the rite of confirmation, 
and assemble around the table of their Lord to partake of His most 
holy feast; and though in my ignorance, I could not fully understand 
their ceremonies, yet I felt in the silence which reigned around, in the 
subdued countenances of the worshippers, in the tearful joy of the pa- 
rents, and the holy hope of the partakers, that water, bread, and wine 
were used to a much more exalted purpose than as ordinary food; and I 
could not but hope that the Almighty Being so earnestly invoked would 
indeed bless and protect his faithful servants. 

How long I remained in this delightful retreat, I cannot now deter- 
mine. I was happy, and to the light heart, time seemed to fly past on 
downy pinions. I knew no griefs, except when some valued friend was 
snatched from our society, either by removal or by the hand of Death; 
but I had seen enough of the world, to know that such trials are the lot 
of all below the skies; and that it is the part of true wisdom, to submit 
with resignation to evils whicn we cannot avert, and to enjoy with grati- 
tude, the many blessings which are so constantly showered around our 

A few years since, a lady, who was an intimate friend of the family, 
and had formerly been one of my master's parisioners, came to pay him 
a visit and being struck with my form as peculiarly suited to her purpose 
requested him to give me to her. To this, he very cheerfully agreed, 
and before I could recover from my surprise, or had time to bid my friends 
farewell, my new mistress was on her way home, and I was hurrying from 
scenes and companions which I should in all probability never more be- 

It is true, I felt regret at this sudden removal, but I am accustomed to 
view every circumstance in its fairest light; and I did not consider myself 
as going among strangers. I had so often heard the family speal^of my 
mistress, that I felt as if known her for years. Besides,*I was to reside 
in Hillsboro, then called " the Athens of North Carolina." And my 
home was to be the Female Academy, over which my master had so long 



presided. I knew that I should there acquire much scientific knowledge 
and form many valuable intimaces. I did not suffer at all during my ride, 
which was only twelve miles, and I had been so carefully protected, that 
I reached my journey's end, with very little, if any fatigue. 

I had the pleasure of meeting with a very polite and kind reception 
from my new friends in the Academy. I entertained them with anec- 
dotes relative to my late master and his family, to which they listened, 
with much interest, as he was a great favorite with them all. In return, 
the} 7 explained to me the duties I would be expected to perform, and gave 
me such information as persons of experience, have it in their power to 
afford the ignorant, thus timely relieving me from many unnecessary 
fears, and assisting me to act with propriety the part allotted to me. 

In my present situation, I have led a ve.iy happy, though at times, a 
very laborious life. My mistress, who sets a high value upon me, never 
allows me to be touched except by herself, or by some pupil in whom she 
places great confidence. I am never used except in the handsomest ex- 
periments. And I have the vanity to fancy, that " Aequo, Coslestis" ac- 
quires a more splendid blue, and " Litmus Water" a richer purple, when 
I am used than they would display in any other article. And it is affirm- 
e.l by the whole school, that the "fountain of fire" is more brilliant 
and beautiful and that the fire bails fly up and down my sides with more 
vigor than when displayed in any other vessel in the house. 

It is true that in many of these exhibitions I am in imminent danger 
from the intense heat. Indeed, I have long been convinced that my death 
come when it may, will be a sudden and violent one; but it is no matter. 
I owe my existence to science, and in her cause I am prepared to die. In 
the meanwhile I am rewarded for my labors by the smiles of delight that 
beam on the bright youug faces around me, and I assist my dear, respect- 
ed mistress in preparing a number of sweet, intelligent girls to act credit- 
ably their part in the great drama of human existence. 

When I contrast my lot with that of many of my youthful compeers, 
their unhappy lives spent amidst scenes of extravagance and dissipation, 
and their untimely deaths in riot and intemperance, how happy do I es- 
teem myself. How delightful i3 the reflection that I have witnessed 
scenes of holy solemnity, but not one of crime. How sweet is the con- 
sciousness that I have labored in many works of usefulness, but not in one 
of sin, that I have aided in the promotion of Science, but not in that of 
vice, and that I have raised the blush of pleasure and of surprise, but have 
never tinged the youthful eheek with the crimson, or with the pallid, hue 
of shame. 

In view of all these undeserved mercies, must it not be acknowledged 
that I have reason to bless my happy lot, and to consider myself a highly 
favored Champagne Glass. 

I860.] SOMETHING TO DO. 283 


It is an established fact that no two tilings in Nature are alike. There 
is not a leaf of the forest — not a sprig of grass that does not differ from 
every other. If Nature thus presents an unending variety in such things, 
how far more striking this fact must be in relation to the human mind ! 
Did ever the tastes, dispositions and desires of two persons fully accord ? 
Stand upon the street of one of our large cities and watch the multitude 
that continually pass before you. Do you see any two faces so much alike 
as not to be able to tell them apart ? Although you may look among the 
nearest of kindred, every one has his own peculiar mark of distinction. 
It has been said, and I think very correctly, that the face is but the out- 
ward picture of the mind. Every marked trait of a man is stamped upon 
his visage, and we need only to understand human nature to see this veri- 
. fied in every-day life. The more the mind is cultivated in proportion will be 
developed its various characteristics; and therefore the greater the number 
of outward marks of distinction. To exemplify this, let us examine un- 
civilized nations, and we will find that the distinguishing features are not 
so numerous by far as among the cultivated communities. Hence it fol- 
lows that the minds of men differ as much from each other as their out- 
ward appearances ; that is, the inclinations, hopes and fears of no two are 
the same. Consider but a moment and you will see how important that 
such should be the case. 

Happiness is the chief end of man; that happiness which consists in the 
consciousness of a well-spent life. Every one should live in such a way 
as would be the most pleasant to himself and at the same time the most 
beneficial to others. For if a man's taste does not agree with his pursuit, 
it is alway a task for him to perform it ; and where such is the case, it 
rarely happens that he is of much benefit to any one. 

As various and numerous as the wants of mankind are, in the same 
proportion should exist the diversity of pursuits as a means of administer- 
in^ to their necessities. In order more effeetually to do this every one 
should follow that occupation which he most prefers; and since there must 
ba so many of them in order to gratify our wishes; hence, there should 
be diversity of genius enough to fill every position in life and at the same 
time make each one as contentented as possible. But there are those 
who seem to think that enjoyment consists in doing nothing, and that 
they can live happier without any occupation at all. Who would prefer 


to drag out a life of listless indolence, and die, without the consciousness 
of having done a single deed for their improvement or the melioration of 
the human race. Such persons are not only undeserving of aid and syni- 
paty, but should be ranked below a faithful beast that has served us all 
its life- For how much better than a brute is that man, who although 
endowed with noble faculties, still refuses to put them to any use ? 

But is it true that a man can enjoy himself without some fixed aim, 
some object of persuit? We are taught in the Bible that it is as much 
our duty to work six days, as it is to rest the seventh. No man therefore, 
who wishes to live according to the precepts therein laid down, can be an 
idler. And are we not taught, and do we not see it exemplified in every- 
day life, that the man, who acts from a strict principle of right, is the 
hapiest and most contented with his lot. If you say otherwise, you must 
at once admit that Religion imposes upon its followers such restraints as 
will deprive them of the means of inocent enjoyment, and the more up- 
right and correct a man's life, the less will be his real happiness ; and in fine, 
the strictly moral person is compelled to drag out a monotonous and mis- 
erable existence. That this is not the case I need only refer you to those 
who have tried it, and they will tell you that it is just the reverse, that 
the nearer you came to performing your duty, the greater will be your re- 
al enjoyment. 

"Know then this truth enough for man to know, 
Virtue alone is happiness below." 

But let us look at it in an other light. It is a mistaken idea, but one 
which is often entertained by the young of the present day and especially 
by those that are wealthy, that pleasure is the chief object of life. So 
eagerly do they pursue this phantom, that they render themselves un- 
happy in the very attainment of it, by making the ordinary and indispen- 
sable duties of life burdensome and disgusting. But is not that, to which 
a person directs all his thoughts and actions, his occupation ? I think it 
would be considered as such. But this kind of employment, a constant 
longing after diversion, differs from labor in this; it wants that change, 
that variety which constitutes the u spice of life." Any one thing, no 
matter how pleasing at first, after numberless repetitions becomes irksome. 
Hence it is that the idler, who has nothing to do, can have no play. All 
rest presupposes labor; then how can ease refresh him who is never wea- 
ried ? It is variety that constitutes enjoyment, and this the devotee of 
pleasure wants. He belongs to that lot of miserable beings who have 
" nothing to do but to find out some new way of doing nothing." He 
presents the pitiful picture of a man who has all the means if rightly 
used of making both himself and others happy, but by his own selfish- 
ness and idleness defeating the very end for which he strives. How for- 

I860.] SOMETHING TO DO. 285 

cibly does Dr. Johnson present this truth in the beautiful history of Ras. 

selas. That prince, although^surrounded with every pleasure that wealth 

could phrckase, was not contented. 

" Nought's had, all's spent 

"Where our desire is got without content." 

Another inducement to labor is, that, it is conducive to health. An 
invalid, a man with a shattered constitution, though he be surrounded 
with every luxury cannot enjoy life. With how much better zest does 
he, who is accustomed to devote certain hours to toil, set down to his sim- 
ple meal of corn-bread and bacon, than the gouty old epicure does to his 
table loaded with the fat of the land and the choicest wines of other 
countries. The one after his day's labor comes home to spend a pleasant 
evening with a happy family; the other keeps late hours, gambling and drink- 
ing; the one retires to rest, sleeps soundly and rises in the morning re- 
freshed and prepared for his daily avocations ; the other is put to bed, has 
horrid dreams and crawls out the next day about dinner-time with a head- 
ache and blood-shot eyes, and in fine, looking very much like a "used up 

So far I have spoken only of those who have the means of thus indulg- 
ing themselves; but what shall I say of that one who although dependent 
upon others for his daily bread is so devoid of shame that he is content- 
ed to live in poverty and indolence? Such a man is wanting in all the 
nobler feelings of his race, and should be kicked out of society and left 
to starve, as he is of no account to himself and a nuisance to the com- 
munity in which he lives. 

Again let us look at the evils that arise from having nothing to do. A 
person who has no fixed occupation, nothing at which he cau employ him- 
self often does that of which he bitterly repents; and gives as the excuse 
for his condnct that he had nothing else to do. So often have I heard 
the expression that it has become perfectly detestable. I have before 
now seen a young man indulging in every species of vice; lavishly spend- 
ing his money for every bauble that he thinks can add one brief moment 
to his wicked pleasures, and give as a reason for his behavior, that he 
wants to kill time and has nothing else to do. At the same time I have 
seen the father of this young man toiling from day to day, laying up 
every dime he could get hold of and depriving himself of almost the 
necessaries of life in order to keep his son at college. Such a boy had 
better be at home in the corn field, where he could find something to 

This is not a fault altogether peculiar to our young men ,and I am sorry to 
say that I have often seen instances of sinful idleness in those fair beings, 
who would have us think them but little below the angds. I have fre- 


quently seen one of these so called individuals set for hours pouring over 
the ■contents of some paper-back novel, which is not fit to make a bonfire 
and perhaps foolishly crying over the fate of some hero as silly as she, and 
ask her why she thus spends her time, and looking up very innocently she 
replies, I have nothing elso to do. Go into the next room and there you will 
find her mother who has been working hard to finish her a dress in order 
that she can go to church on the morrow. What judgment shall I pass upon 
"dhis set ? For fear that my decision would be too severe I will hand 
them over to their own sex to do with them as they see best. But I 
■would like to suggest to all young men who are looking out for "help- 
mates " if they expect to find them among this class they are sadly mis- 
taken. Those that never help themselves are not apt to be of much ben- 
efit to others; and if the man, who is so unfortunate as to be tied to one 
of this description, does not come to poverty it is not her fault. 

Idleness often leads to a state of dependence, and I know of nothing so 
well calculated to degrade a man in his own estimation ; to deprive him of 
that self-esteem which every freeman has, and which is so essential, than the 
consciousness of being indebted to others for that which he cannot repay. 
We may ask favors and receive them without losing our dignity, or becom- 
ing dependent, because we feel that we are able in some way to return 
them ; but whenever we beg a favor as a free gift, we o,re at once degraded 
and enslaved. Y\ 7 e can never meet our creditors with the same boldness 
and independence as formerly. 

I have before allude 1 to the many dlssipited habits into which idleness 
is sure to lead us. How many young men have found a drunkard's grave 
who, had they been brought up to habits of industry instead of seeking 
after frivolous diversions, would have been the pride of their friends and 
an honor to their country. 

Reader, have you ever done anything for your own good or the good of 
mankind ? If not, it is time that you had set to work. Life at best is 
but a span, and it may soon be out of your power to do any thing. Would 
you in your old age look back with pleasure upon your past life as one that 
had not been entirely useless? Would you leave behind you an example 
worthy of imitation ? Then be up and doing. 

But, says one, I believe that everybody should do something; but I 
never could tell what I am fit for. That you were made for some purpose 
none can doubt; for we are assured that nothing was made in vain. A 
person who is willing to work can soon find* employment. Never let an 
opportunity of doing good pass by unheeded. Bo that which first pre- 
sents to you a field of usefulness and stop not to consider whether or not 
you can do something better, for if you do ; the time is past and you have 
forever lost the golden moment. 

I860.] SOMETHING TO DO. 2.87 

This leads us to consider another class of individuals who are always in- 
tending to do great tilings, but do nothing. Such person.': delight to dwell 
upon the imaginative — to build " air castles " which are overthrown by 
the first passing breeze. They will ever be doomed to disappointments- 
Man is seldom satisfied with the present; his ambition urges him on to 
something more, and hope points to the future for the accomplishment of 
his wishes. This disposition is to some extent to be cultivated, but let 
us beware lest we indulge too much in fond anticipations. Hope and am- 
bition are constantly deceiving us with their delusive dreams. He who 
dwells too much on the ideal is destined never to see his expectations real- 
ized. The young are especially addicted to " day dreums." They are 

^ naturally of a sanguine disposition, always looking on the bright side, and 
expecting that their pathway through life will ever be strewed with roses. 
Some imagine for themselves a brilliant career; they see a whole nation 

•bow before their intellect, and hear their name on every lip. Thus they 
go on from time to time, forming new plans as every preceding one is de- 
stroyed, until death overtakes them, when they find out that their lives 
have been but a dream ; and they die without the consciousness of ever 
having done one praiseworthy act. Thus we are taught that our desires 
should be limited to those objects that are rational and attainable. 

Header, I have striven to convince you that you have something to do; 
and that the wants of mankind and your own happiness demand that you* 
do it. Bury not your talents as did the unprofitable servant of old, but 
buckling on your armor, go forth upon the arena of life determined to 
act your part. If you are faithful, fortune will smile upon you and you- 
will then have the consolation of knowing that you have done something. 



I remember it well, and many are the now youthful, loving and hope- 
ful hearts that can look back to that important era in a prep's life, some 
with kindling emotions of delight, and others, I am loth to say it, with 
anything else than pleasureable recellections; and the writer of this arti- 
cle, alas ! must be classed with the latter — in the humiliating catalogue of 
tuose who, on that occasion did not come off with any glory to himself. 
No ! not one pleasant souvenir has he of that ill-starred night. 

Who, among all of us Chapel Hiilians, does not remember one or more 
of those candy pullings, at which he felt so large that he needed his un- 
mentionables insured? Well this chap does, I guess, I am pretty certain. 

I had just compleeted my fifteenth year, and felt a blamed sight larger 
than I have ever felt since; my father had sent me to the prep-school of 
a kind old gentleman in the lovely village of J — e : I was in part put un- 
der his charge to be cooled down, for then I was so mischievous that all 
at home wanted me away. If I felt badly on leaving home I soon forgot 
all about it. In the wild romps of my companions I fear home and its 
enchantments were lost to memory. I entered one of the advanced 
classes there in the fall session, that most delightful period for moonlight 
walks, and boat-rides, &c, on the bosom of the noble stream that roles 
majestically along the foot of the hill on which stood our Academy. 
Cold weather had now set in, in good earnest, and the ennui had for more 
than two weeks had hold of us madcaps. 

So in order to dispel the gloom which overhung us, the subject of a 
candy pulling was mooted. The proposition was too engaging not to have 
its scores of advocates, and so it was agreed upon that Friday night should 
be the time of our numerous party; and that all the girls in the Female 
Academy should have an invitation also. Accordingly tickets were duly 
distributed and from the pleasing looks bestowed upon us minor gentle- 
men, we were sure of the attendance of the fair sex. Friday night came, 
at last, and with thousands of rain and mud knee deep. Bless the ladies! 
they came despite the rain and mud. 

In the meanwhile our landlord and his most noble lady were not idle. 

This was my first party, in which I was to figure as Mr. What-do- 

you-call-hini? This was the first time I was to mix in a crowd without 
older heads to watch my actions. And it requires no stretch of the imag- 
ination to judge the importance I attached to this my first entering into 


society as a — man. I knew perfectly well my behavior woul'd be criticized 
by my fellow-students, and hence my anxiety to acquit myself in the best 
manner possible. 0, it was bewildering to gaze upon the assembled 
throng of beauty's fairest ones ! I confess for once I was a transcenden- 
talism Our host now announced that the sirup was ready for our fun. 
So into the dining-hall we all did go. Here we found a large string of 
tables literally groaning under the weight of plates already served with 
the needful. And then began the exciting race, who should form the 
first piece of candy. I saw all my friends working patiently with the 
knives cooling heated sirup, so that it might be drawn with the hand. 
A pretty little lassie of fourteen summers suggested to me, and even 
urged the propriety of me letting her scrape the contents of my plate into 
my hands, and that by that means I might succeed much better. To this 
I readily consented, as the proposition came from a lady, and [oh ! the 
wild yell, agonizing scream and startling leap I gave ! Such burning of 
fingers and hands, no one ever felt. I was a maniac for a few moments. 
Every thing that came in my way I grasped with the eagerness of a 
panther. The first gleam of consciousness I had after my mad caper3 ; 
was that I had fastened both hands fast to somebody's coat-tail. But 
guess if you can my astonishment and chagrin, when I found out that it was 
my own blue-spike. Zounds ! it sickens me even now to think of my 
debut when a prep ! 






How different was the philosophy of the past from that of the present! 
The priest of nature rather than the votary of science, the ancient merely 
gazed upon the distant beauty of the stars, or speculated upon the most 
glaring truths of existance, and his name was handed down to posterity. 
But now so numerous and so varied are the departments of science, that 
the eager enthusiast has scarce reached the portals of her temple and 
heard the faintest peals of her anthem, ere life is gone. And as knowl- 
edge thus extends its boundaries, and life contracts its limits, the only 
remedy is increased activity. The brain, orginally depends on the body, 
but regular exertion, steadily severs this connection and renders the mind 
dependent on itself alone. This is the true end of greatness in itself. 
However misfortune may lower, whatever calamities may shatter our bod- 
ily frames — calmly resolute — equal to either fortune — we may laugh to 
scorn the wildest blasts of adversity. But to many men, knowledge is 
but as an empty shadow unless they can tickle their vanity with the magic 
incense of its power. 

To these activity is necessary both for acquirement and display. Knowl- 
edge is power, and the history of all greatness tells us that industry is the 
key to knowledge. Past grandeur and present power conclusively demon- 
strate that as activity of the body produces that expansion of muscle and 
the bloom of health, that grows firm and solid as the sinews of the moun- 
tain oak in the blacksmith's brawny arm, and blossoms like the faintest 
blush of morn upon the maiden's ruddy cheek ; so activity of mind en- 
genders that vitality of intellect and eat-like quickness of action that have 
ever baffled all opposition. But we must press on in our course. There 
is no place for hesitation on the inclined plane of existence. There is a 
constant warfare of habits in our constitution. I the dark ages, brutality 
prevailed, intellect awoke and was triumphant. In every human being 
the struggle is renewed. If we neglect progressive education, the physi- 
cal acquires the ascendency, the mind is enslaved, and whenever a crisis 
arrives, and every faculty is needed, they are bound down by many years 
of habit. The timid mice can weave a net whose tiny threads disable the 
slumbering lion's strength — the soft silken bdhds of indolence and pleas- 
ure will in their fatal embrace entangle the most powerful genius. The 
faculties when daily placed in requisition not only strengthen separately 
as faculties, but daily work more smoothly and harmonious as a whole ; and 


by their united force are enabled to perform great achievements, while 
brighter intellects are spending their exertions to conquer and concentrate 
their powerful but rebellious forces. Like the drilled battalions of a vet- 
eran legion, these disciplined functions are invincible ; the strongest enemy 
and the grimmest fortress go down before their steady, resistless valor. 
Sparkling wit and genial human are the brilliant shoots of this vigorous 
plant. These brighter scions spring forth in the day of its prosperity, but 
when the wild winds blow, and the strong trunk groans and shivers to the 
heart, then from its writhing agonies spring that electric spark, which from 
its dazzling vanity only in the darkest danger blinds the eyes of its ene- 
mies and cheer the hearts of its friends. Yes ! Let him whose steady 
eye has quelled the maniac's fury, let the helmsman who has faced the 
grim angel of Death and steered the gallant bark from the howling surge 
of destruction, let the captive who has turned the savage knife and 
quenched the fires that parched his breath, let tbe hero who has stemmed 
the headlong rout and borne his country's flag along tbe crimson tide of 
glory, tell you of presence of mind. 

Activity is a laudable curiosity: it is constantly conversing with the sages 
of antiquity, listens to the honied eloquence or the thundering denunci- 
ation of Cicero or Demosthenes, hand in hand with meditation. Stands 
on the melancholy shore of time, and marks how often national liberty 
has sprung from the cradle to hasten to the tomb, it is constantly diving 
into oceanic libraries for the pearls of knowledge. It is constantly culling 
facts from the intricate fens of humanity and the magnificent realms 
of nature. Rasselas, the Prince of Abysinnia, when he had wandered 
from the happy valley and spent his youth in the vain endeavor to grasp 
the fleeting hope of human happiness, Prince de Leon after his gleaming 
spear-points had struggled through the tangled everglade, wheu he had 
bathed in those limpid lakes fanned by the balmy breezes sighing through 
the magnolia and orange, but found not in that enchanted clime the magic 
fountain of youth, these felt like many gallant souls — that life's golden 
treasure had slipped from their grasp and left them but "the baseless 
fabric of a dream." But unlike these, what a pleasure will not activity 
bestow on old age when it reflects the shelves of its own mind, not stained 
with the mingled wrecks of a mis-spent life, but laden with the shining 
store its own industry has amassed. Activity is the emblem of life, the 
ensign of progress. The innate flow of our own feelings indicates its 
connection with our constitution. How our pulse quickens when we en- 
ter the emporiums of trade, where the wealth of nations flows by in gol- 
den streams and commerce lifts her bustling song to the happy sky ! 
How the eye leaps to the flash of the pioneer's axe, and how the hea^t beats 
to the music of the mountain torrent, modulated in the plash of the factory 


wheels! And again, what melancholy feelings crowd our bosom, when enter- 
ing the homes of departed grandeur we wander with echoing step along her 
silent streets, and pause 'neath her marble palaces slowly crumbling into 
ruin ! When we see the factory idle and the decaying wheel, clogging 
the pebbly stream with the dripping moss. But oh ! Far more mourn- 
ful would be our feelings if we could gaze into the jeweled chambers of 
the mind, and see those faculties granted by omnipotance, to raise struc- 
tures more beautiful than marble and more lasting than brass — stuped in 
degrading indolence : if we could see that beautiful germ instead of blush- 
ing into flower and fruit 'neath the genial air of activity : now drooping 
'neath the tropical breath of pleasure, now bending to the simoon blast of 
passion ! We may embark on the rippling tide of youth, with bright 
winged fancy as our guide — we may float down the college stream, gazing 
on the coral shells that deck its mirrored bosom, languishing in the per- 
fumes that steal from its flowery banks, or drinking in the soft melody that 
floats along its silvery waters ; but when we have drifted into the broad 
ocean of time, the black demon of the storm will breath his transforming 
breath on the beautiful hues of our enchantress. Stern reality as it flaps its 
whelming wings in our struggling faces, will laugh at our surprise and 
mock the fleeting illusion. Let us engrave "activity" on our banners. 

" Let us then be up and doing, 
With a heart for every fate ; 
Still achieving, still pursuing 
Learn to labor and to wait." 




The world of matter which surrounds us is stamped in every feature 
with the seal of an Omnipotent God. Whether we examine the hidden 
treasures of the mineral world — the variegated beauties of the vegetable 
kingdom, or the many and various forms of animal existence, the same 
irresistible evidences are everywhere portrayed. From the smallest flow- 
er of the vale to the giant oak of the forest from the diminutive animal- 
culse to the stately monarch of the desert — from the gentle streamlet of 
the rocks to the unmeasured wastes' of the broad Pacific. Throughout 
the whole extended realm of material nature, there is one grand harmo- 
nious scheme or design, of cause and effect. 

When the grand complement of animal and vegetable life had been 
spoken into existence and the frame work of nature seemed complete; 
when purpose was everywhere adapted to its mission and the complex ma- 
chinery was ready for its destiny; a directing power was necessary to per- 
fect the circle of being — a vital agent was still wanting under the juris- 
diction of which matter might be controlled by a more exalted element 
and the functions of nature be made to subserve the will of an intellec- 
tual superintendent. That vital agent was the climax of creation — it was 
man. Of all existences animate or inanimate he stood alone as the rep- 
resentative of his Maker — the only creature to whom was given the soul's 
immortal faculties. 

What then, we are led to inquire, is the purpose of man's existence ? 
Why was he distinguished from every thing around him — with a heart 
which binds him by the strongest ties of sympathy to his fellows, refines 
and elevates his affections and renders earth a paradise? With a mind 
which is endless in duration and expansion, boundless in its aspirations 
and world-wide in its achievments? With a soul* which unlocking the 
mysteries of revelation, holds communion with God himself — traverses 
the infinitudes of the universe and contemplates the Creator in all the 
majesty of his works? Is it that God might thus better display his Om- 
nipotence? that he might show the extent of his own skill infringing 
into existence so wonderful a price of mechanism? Or is it that these 
immortal attributes should lie uncultivated and dormant while the baser 
impulses exercise an unbridled despotism? That he whose heaven-erec- 

*Considered as distinct from mind only in the functions herein specified. 



ted face bears the signature of the eternal should be the slave of passion — 
that his soul, obscured by the dark veil of moral evil, shoud allow no 
gleam of light to dissipate the gloom of its moral thraldom? Is he not 
rather prompted by every impulse and principle of his nature to concen- 
trate every energy upon his self-emancipation from mental and moral ser- 
vitude, upon the happiness the honor and elevation of his race? 

The life of man is a constant but glorious struggle. His responsibili- 
ties are heavy and constant; his triumpes or even his reverses and defeats 
are glorious. It is a contest against empty folly and the guilty slavery of 
brutal passion — a mastery over self and the unworthy promptings of his 
baser uature. Duty urges him to active unremitting strife — a virtuous 
ambition beckons him with prophetic finger to the goal of his final victory. 

But in viewing the life of man as a stern reality, the considerations 
which constitute his responsibilities must be examined in the phases and 
consequences which they severally assume and carry with them. As he 
steps forth upon the broad arena of life, certain relations and dependen- 
cies arise which have their existance in the organization of society. Man 
is a social being. It is just as natural for him to seek the association of 
his fellow creatures as the gratification of his physical wants. The same 
chord which binds him to the domestic fireside — the same bond of sympa- 
thy which unites him to his friend, his home or his kindred is modified 
and extended but not changed in its character, when it comprehends his 
species. Every holy and virtuous emotion of the heart — every affection- 
ate feeling which is the offspring of that emotion, be the sphere of its 
agency present or distant, is a characteristic demonstration that the ten- 
dencies of humanity are subject to the claims of society. 

Man is formed for the society of his fellows. Solitude may sometimes 
lure from busy care to silent meditation; misfortune and disappointment 
may drive their victim to the hermit's cell; the mistaken zeal of a relig- 
ious enthusiasm may shut the devotee in the monastery— yet the same un- 
changeable truth is stamped upon his nature that the purest of all earthly 
pleasures are found in the communion and fellowship of those around him. 

Nor does his individual happiness alone demand that he should culti- 
vate the social feelings and amenities of life; the constitution of society — 
the relation he sustains to his fellow-creatures, require that he should bear 
his part in the Work in which all have an interest. That work is the so- 
cial well-being of mankind. Every man is a constituent of a common 
brotherhood. In this relation he stands forth as the curse, the benefactor 
or the simple prototype of his race. His power is measured according to 
the sphere of his own energies ; and this power is exerted for good or ill. 
He surveys the social fabric in all its varied phases. A mingled mass of 
sunshine and shadow, of truth and error, of human grandeur and human 


frailty is present to his niertal eye. Does he hesitate as to what course he 
shall pursue ? Is he clad in the bright armour of conscious virtue ? or 
has he " locked up in steel" every milder and gentle impulse? And 
when he has entered the broad field of his labors, to battle with the waves 
of that current which all have to stem, is there a fountain in his affections 
from which flow the gushing waters of a feeling heart for the helpless or 
the unprotected ? ' If not, then his affections are frozen cold by the winds 
of worldly selfishness. He is but the shadow, the outward shape of man 
from which has fled true nobility of human nature. 

But while we consider the relations of man in a social point of view 
there are obligations of a higher nature still. I allude to his responsibil- 
ities in an intellectual capacity. The mind is the brightest conceivable 
testitimony of Infinite Power. It is the great center on which turns the- 
world of matter and the world of spirit. How important then must be' 
the considerations involved in its mission — how grand the results con- 
nected with the investigation of its powers the direction aud control of its 
faculties and the circumstances of its destiny. The intellectual and moral 
elevation of man is the noblest work of which his nature is capable. What 
other, I would ask, is entitled to a higher claim? What can be a more 
exalted labor than the emancipation of his being from intellectual and 
spiritual darkness — the redemption of his purer nature from the shackles- 
of ignorance and bigotry — the dispersion of the clouds of gloom which ob- 
scuue the radiant sunlight of knowledge ? What mission on earth is fraught 
with loftier aspirations than that which prompts a man to rise above him- 
self — to unfold the latent energies of his intellect and arouse within his 
mental being those grand and beautiful conceptions which elevate him to 
the scale of celestial interagencies? What scheme of human action that 
ever man conceived can be more truly magnanimous and praiseworthy 
than the diffusion and dissemination of mental and moral light through- 
out the channels of human society — the refinement and elevation of every 
rank and class and grade of man? What more glorious achievement 
could engage his faculties than the upward direction of his soul to the 
source from which it sprung — the consecration of its glorious attributes 
to the mysterious providences of Him whose "ways are unsearcha- 
ble and past finding out." Yea more the preparation of this im- 
mortal principle for the association of angelic natures, and a participa- 
tion in the glories of that house "not made with hand eternal in the 
heavens V 

And is not this the mission of human nature? Who will say that such 
is not a glorious accountability ? Who will say in the face of this that 
the circle of man's existence is bounded by his own desires ? Who will 
say that — 


Life is naught but idle ore ' 

Lying waste upon the shores of time, 

when the voice of a common humanity, the silent but eloquent moni- 
tions of conscience, the face of universal nature unite in solemn attesta- 
tion of the duty and destiuy of man? 

Go to the records of the storied past; trace upon its mirrored page the 
treasured names which deck the galaxy of earth's heroic great— -names of 
those who will live in the hearts of men and of nations forever — names 
of those who have astonished the world by the moral grandeur of their 
achievements; ask yourself if life is not something more than living? 
Cast your eyes upon the mingled concourse of humanity which throng the 
extent of this habitable globe; behold the countless varieties of human 
suffering, of human waywardness and depravity; see the myriads', of 
earth's denizens fettered by the caprice of despotic insolence, or stagnat- 
ing in the miasma of ignorance and turpitude; look again and see them 
prosperous and happy — gathered around the festal board or the fireside 
home, or working harmoniously for the welfare and glory of the race, and 
think not that life is a " walking shadow " or a fitful dream. 

Turn to the mystic volume of nature. Spread out the map of creation 
and study the granduer of her dominion. Consider the multitude of her 
operations, the vastness of her forces and the changeless stablity of her 
laws. Interrogate the blushing lily in its field of beauty — the pebble be- 
side the babbling brook, or the pearly gem beneath its waters — the dewy 
fields of living green and the teeming myriads of organic life which peo- 
ple air, earth and sea; — turn then to man — probe if you can the mysteri- 
ous relationship of his mind to its physical tegumemt ; conceive of him a 
creature of mortality and yet of immortality — behold him in all the might 
of " creation's lord ' ; and as a worm which is but the slave of his fellow 
worm ; turn yet again to the orbs of light which deck the firmamental 
dome; compare our boasted world with the starry concomitants of her 
trackless course place the immense circumference of our own mighty sys- 
tem beside the boundless infinitudes of creation ; think of worlds on 
worlds that reach beyond the ken of the chiefest archangel in the Court of 
Heaven : go yet from these to a loftier meditation — a moral universe : 
comprehend the destiny of all existence, material and immaterial : stand 
before the Throne and contemplate the majesty of the eternal; and tell 
me, if with these as subjects for our investigation, flowing like gladden- 
ing streams athwart the barren highway of existence inviting us to drink 
of their purity and their essence, — it is all of life to live. 

I860.] the mother's lament. 297 


Farewell alas ! I'm forced to say, 

On earth to meet no more ; 
Bat oh ! we'll meet another day, 

Upon a happier shore. 

'Twas hard to part with thee, my hoy, 

Who wast my sole support ; 
But what's my Master's will is joy, 

And what he does comfort. 

Oh! 'twould have been a precious thing, 

To've had thee by my side, 
When the dread messenger shall bring 

A summons for his bride ; 

To wipe the clammy drops away, 

To soothe the aching head ; 
To cheer the dark and lonely way 

To i-eg-ons of the dead. 

But who had thought — alas ! alas ! 

That thou wert doomed the first 
Across the stormy sea to pass, 

And leave me here to thirst ? 

Yes, my devotion was too strong 

For thee, my idol boy ; 
I knew that I was doing wrong 

To exercise such joy. 

Then him to Thee, ! gracious God, 

I willingly resign ; 
I'll bow me to thy chastening rod 

And mourn but not repine." 


■ , . | '; ' ■ 


Letters illustrate the civilization and refinement of a people, make 
known intelligence and worth and serve as a sure index to character. To 
become acquainted with the traits of a nation, to find out the principles of 
its administration and to observe the fruits of its laws, we are not to enu- 
merate its triumphs, number the years of its existence and eulogise its 
heroes; but we must examine the productions of the mind and see the 
object of our search in the sweetly flowing verse of the poet, in the swell- 
ing periods of the orator, in the calm message of the statesman, in the 
learned dissertation of the philosopher, and in the recording pages of the 

A pure, healthy Literature ever entwines itself around the pillars of a 
state founded on justice and mercy, and brings out in greater relief the 
beauties it half conceals. Like the chapiter of the Corinthian column it 
imparts grace to the proportions of government and veils their defects. 
Coming neither at the bidding of the monarch, nor frequenting the courts 
of tyranny, it submits to no arbitrary commands, owns no master; but de- 
lights to dwell with the free. Loving ever to express itself unreseiwedly 
and frankly it has withered beneath the shades of palaces and flourished 
by the temple of Liberty. Surviving the glory of arms, the treasures of 
commerce and the cunning workmanship of man's skill, it constitutes the 
richest legacy a nation can bequeath to posterity, and the one most highly 
appreciated; for the exchequer may become empty, and the hand of van- 
delism may destroy the works of art; but learning will stand defying the as- 
saults of time and increasing in honors as in age. Egjpt despite her 
present debasement is frequented by the curious traveller, and challenges 
the admiration of all on account of the antiquity of her philosophy and 
her priesthood once the teachers of the wise; and not by reason of her 
early prowess and the former wide extent of her sway. Greece owes not 
fame to warriors and arms; but has been immortalized by the eloquence 
and genius v of her scholars. Marathon's soil may no longer be trodden by 
the tourist, and Themistocles may become a mere myth; yet the classic 
walks of the Academy will still be remembered and the musings of Plato 
linger in the minds of men. 

A kingdom may be powerful in resources, fierce in war and extend its 
conquests far and wide: yet if not emblazoned with intellectual glory and 
embelished with schools of learning it will make no advance in civiliza- 


tion, its vigor will soon decay and victories turn into overwhelming de- 
feats. Potentates have perceived that Literature must be the keystone 
which strengthens the arch of empire, and recognized the necessity of its 
presence and force. A Polycrates softened the asperities of oppre«ion by 
honoring Pythagoras, the sage, and Auacreon, the lyrist, and a Frederick 
proud from his robberies and dripping with the blood of slaughtered 
myriads gathered, around him the stars of science to shed lustre upon his 
throne, though it were as baneful as the scorching rays of Sirius : for in- 
fidelity flourished in his presence and the atheist was enriched with his 
gifts. But, as is well known the author enveloped in the purple and taught 
to fawn and flatter soon loses his wonted attractiveness, and becomes a 
cringing parasite ! while he who is free from all obligations and depend- 
ent on no patron startles the world with the granduer of his conceptions 
and the sublimity of his range. 

Pampered by the wealth' of an autocrat, a Voltaire sent far and wide his 
emissaries of evil, and polluted mankind with his vile ribaldry: while a 
Milton resisting the authority of a despot and struggling for freedom of 
thought issued from his teeming brains messengers of good and stood un- 
veiled in the presence of Deity himself. 

Riches may indeed suuunon for one's pleasure the luscious fruits of the 
South, the rich texture of the Orient and the minerals .of the West, but 
cannot transplant letters into a rugged soil, and enjoy their sweets. As 
the tropical plant buds and blossoms in full perfection beneath the glaring 
sun, and throws out fragrant exhalations on the sultry breezes, so does 
Literature flourish where it finds a people and customs favorable for its 
growth. And it has wandered from clime to clime, forsaken the old ac- 
customed haunts, and sought new homes and new disciples. Cradled on 
the banks of the Nile, nurtured among the orange and citron groves of 
Hellas, strengthened under the benignant care of the noble-hearted Roman, 
honored within the ivy-mantled walls of G-ermany, long entertained as a 
welcome guest in the halls of Albion's lords, Literature, with its constant 
companion Empire, has found a resting place on the shores of a western 
continent. Here it ceases from roving and sheds over the land the bright 
effulgence of its glory, showering down in rich profusion blessings upon 
its followers and clothing them in honor. At its command spring up as 
by magic institutions of learning, and the press ushers into being its un- 
numbered progenies. Books multiply upon books, discussing every sub- 
ject, and of all conceivable sizes from the penny tract to the portly tomes 
of the library. No field of knowledge is neglected and no nook remains 
unexplored. Propelled by that curiosity which is inherent in our natures 
we pry into mysteries, prompted by a desire to acquire literary reputation 
we commit our thoughts to paper and with rare liberality present them 


to the world. In fiction and in history, in poetry and oratory, we are not 
a whit behind the European nations, Sidney Smith to the contrary not- 
withstanding. The American novelist can boast of a Cooper and a Simuis, 
the American historian can point to a Bancroft and a Prescott. The Amer- 
ican harp is struck by the master hands of a Longfellow and a Bryant, and 
the land still rings with the eloquence of a Clay. The scientific Ameri- 
can, hurrying along through the heavens and revealing the arcana of na- 
ture, contests the palm of victory with the savans of the East, and often 
astounds them with his indomitable perseverance and unbridled audacity. 
The Yankee can wield the pen as well as the sword, and gains as many tri- 
umphs by the one as by the other. He hangs on the walls trophies won in eve- 
ry department of wisdom, and regarding them as his dearest treasures he 
transmits them to his posterity as heirlooms of the most precious value. 
He delights to tell of the success of his country's arms, her commerce 
wafted by every breeze, and of the fame of her founders; but his bosom 
swells with a deeper joy, and his eyes sparkle with a nobler pride when 
he speaks of ability of her statesmen, and mentions the overpowering 
reasoning of a Calhoun and the massive thoughts of a Webster. Citing 
the debates between these mighty intellectual giants, he calls upon history 
to furnish a parallel from the forum of Borne, the assemblies of Athens 
and the parliaments of England. 

And who can say, what imagination can estimate to what lofty heights 
American Literature is destined to attain in ages to come, and what shall 
be the limits of its course. No pillars can mark its boundaries, no walls 
can circumscribe its territories. It ought to be restricted to no particular 
section of the country: but like the Constitution should be the property 
of all and every one should partake of its benefits. It should be one of 
the golden links binding together in closer bonds the several independent 
sovereignties of the Republic and along which could pass words of broth- 
erly love and tidings of ever peace. With the church it should buckle on 
its armor, prepare itself for the conflict, withstand the iueipiency of ha- 
tred and roll back the waves of corruption. Standing on the watch- 
tower it should sound the alarm trumpet and herald the approaching dan- 
ger. But alas! it too has been perverted from its good offices, drawn 
away from its duties and now forms a ready instrument of discord for the 
use of the agitator. Strong and prominent lines of demarcation are 
drawn at its will separating the whole into parts, designating the one as 
the abode of science and learning, and the fountain of all wisdom; stig- 
matizing the other as destitute of literary culture, devoid of genius and 
in fine as the abode of barbarians. How often has it been insultingly in- 
sinuated for a reproach that the South has no Literature, that her schools 
are imperfect, that her people are grossly ignorant, that her scholars are 


few and of little erudition and their books unread. Uow many times 
have we been forced to listen to the miserable cant of the conceited Bos- 
tonian boasting of the excellencies of the "Modern Athens," abusing 
our institutions, seolliug at our intelligence and ridiculing our pretensions. 
The would be philanthropist, he who would free the universe from misery, 
and hasten the Millenium before its time, ascribes this barrenness to the 
holding of human flesh as property and declares that slavery paralyzes 
the mental powers and renders man unfit for thought. If we had the 
space we could easily show the fallaciousness of this ranting and its con- 
temptible absurdity. If it were within the scope of our subject we might 
prove that the slave-holder has ever been noted for sublimity of imagina- 
tion, richness of fancy, nobleness of feeting and beauty of expression. 
But the South has a Literature of her own. A Literature exempt from 
moral taint, pure as the tear that glistens on a maiden's cheek, fascinat- 
ing as the smile that lingers around the maiden's lips. Partaking of the 
beauties of the land and the chivalry of the Southerner, it entertains 
while it teaches, and ennobles as it instructs. No immorality tarnishes its 
white pages, and no thread of corruption defiling the. whole runs through 
its web. This Literature can adorn the centre table, fill the library, 
charm the modest and endear itself to the chaste. Here beneath the 
warm suns and amid the ambrosial forest, love warbles its plaintive song, 
and weaves it silken chains; and passion pours along its raging billows. 
The poet contemplating maguificent steamers, pleasing prospects, lovely 
skies and communing with noble youths and elegant daughters, feels a 
flood of golden light streaming through his soul, draws inspiration from 
the varied, enlivening view, fills his mind with expressive imagery and 
plumes himself for a more majestic flight. All conspire in giving strength 
to his conception, radiance to his fantasy and luxuriance to his thoughts. 
Even the breezes floating through the orange groves laden with perfumes 
brings music to his ears, and the quick, rushing, roaring tornado clothes 
his pen with sublimity. And a Hayne has not been silent amid these in- 
fluences, neither has a Welby withheld her hand from the tyre. A Poe, 
all blazing with genius, has thrown around his weird dreams the scintilla- 
tions of poesy, and mournfully sighs for Leonore ; a Hope pictures the 
the happy days of yore, and tells of the gay cavaliers forsaking merry 
England's coast and founding a new State, while a Thompson, leaving the 
turmoil of business, incites us in musical numbers to patriotism, and be- 
witches with his sprightly sonnets. These do not excite the baser desires 
of the heart; but affect the generous principles of man; while many of 
the vaunted bards of the favored North, clothed in "gilt and blue," con- 
ceal beneath the tinsel rottenness and nourish within the seeds of moral 
degradation. When the finger of scorn is pointed at her Literature, let 


the South mention her poets, and as the Gorgon head transformed into 
huge rocks, the sea monster threatening the fair Andromeda, so will this 
simple act still the voice of ridicule and cover the slanderer with confusion. 

Here the romancer finds worthy themes for his imagination, has a wide 
field full of allurements spread before him. and beholds impersonations of 
bravery and virtue. He needs not go and linger amid the decaying tem- 
ples of the voluptuous east to be impressed by their hoary antiquity, and 
to be kindled by the myths still hovering around thdr crumbling arches; 
nor restort to the empty pageantry of royalty to quaff exhiliarating 
draughts; for he has in his own clime all that tend to move and excite. 
A Simms enticed by the glory of the past and the legends- of war lpves to 
mingle with the hardy men of partisan strife, to group together in strik- 
ing contrast the fiery Sumpter and the daring, prudent Marion, the bold 
bordcrman and the wily savage; and a Cooke paints on his canvass scenes 
of colonial days, sketches the portraits of the acute Jefferson, the bold 
defiant Henry, and echoes back the first outburst of liberty's cry. The 
Southern novelist delights to withdraw from these piping times of peace, 
to place himself amid the stirring years when the battle shout and the 
clanking of arms were heard, to tell the deeds of the gaiiant soldier of in- 
dependence, the constancy and affection of the heroine of Seventy Six, 
and thus to inliame our admiration for the illustrious dead. How much 
better is this Literature than that which engenders hatred, lights the 
torch of fanaticism, exasperates brother against brother and stirs up civil 
commotion. How immeasurable superior are the Evans and Harlands of 
the South who instill virtue and love to the Stowes and Childs of the 
North who disgrace the muure of woman and sow broadcast the seeds of 

That chapter of history which describes the blasted hopes of Raleigh, 
the horrors cf the famished souls of Roanoke, the energy of Smith, the 
settling of the Old Dominion and the beautiful episode of Pocahontas, the 
bloody struggles between the white and the Indian, the extension of civil- 
ization over the mountains and the onward march of the pioneer, is as full 
of interest as any other. These notable facts and the memory of the 
fathers who laid the foundation stone of our greatness, the rise of that 
spirit of freedom which overwhelmed a Tryon and expelled a Dunmore, 
the renown of those patriots who made Guilford's name sparkle with glory 
and Yorktown become musical to the emancipated, the upward strides of 
a mighty people to power and happiness are to be perpetuated and enshrin- 
ed by the Southern Chronicler. He indeed has an honorable part to per- 
form and one of the most delicate character, in ages to come his plages 
must set forth the excellencies of our institutions, the soundness of our 
principles and the success of our system : he will have to repell the slan- 


der and abuse of foes, shield the names of the departed from vile asper- 
sion and award to each his due meed of praise. His volumes will have to 
replace those which deny our prowess, blacken our motives, strip us of the 
glories earned in the dark hours of the Revolution and on the plains of 
Mexico, and which even cast a reproach upon the fume of our Washing- 
ton. He will h-ive to show that when the blue lights gleamed ominious- 
ly from the shores of New England, the fires of patriotism glowed bright- 
ly in the heart of the Southerner; and when the flag trailed in dishonor 
amid the snows of the North shouts of exultation and victory rang from 
the lips of heroes of Orleans. The Randolphs, Masons, Tylers and 
Pinckneys demand of him to preserve them from unmerited oblivion and 
to keep their services and sacrifices fresh in the memory of future gener- 
ations. Every state can number those of her sons who impelled by filial 
affection have devoted their time, talents and labor to the preparation of 
her history; who withstanding the allurements of ease, the laurels and 
wealth of other professions have toiled to deserve the gratitude of their 
felllow-citizens, and to be requited by their thanks. And when statues 
are erected in honor of statesmen and generals, let not the recorder of 
their deeds be forgotten, and no sculptured urn mark his last resting 
place. Virginia has her Campbell, Alabama her Pickens, and the old 
North State her Hawks, the orator and the divine, the scholar and the 
ant'.quavian. He dwelling at the metropolis of the nation with the im- 
portant duties of a large church devolving on him turns with fondness to 
his native commonwealth, searches the records, studies the annals and 
presents as a token of esteem an exposition of her colonization with the 
promise of completing the remaining parts of her exciting story; bis vol- 
umes have been received with pleasure and admiration, and the forthcom- 
ing ones are looked for with deep interest and anxious expectation. The 
South needs not blush for her historians; but has reason to be proud of 
their productions; for they are among the choicest gems that glitter in 
the diadem of her glory. 

The journals of Congress, the archives of the departments and the pres- 
ent prosperity of the whole country bear ample testimony to the intellec- 
tual superiority of the Southern legislator. The representatives of the 
South have always maintained the highest position and have shaped in a 
proportionate degree the destinies of the land. Wherever they have been 
placed, whether in the diplomatic or home service, whether on the floor 
or in the committee-room, they have displayed the ability to meet any 
emergency, to weather every storm and have never quailed beneath the 
glance of an opponent. The ablest elucidations of the constitution, the 
profoundest papers issued from the cabinet, the most forcible decisions of 
the judiciary, have all been the work of Southern genius. In the throes 


of the nation's birth she furnished the pen and the tongue as well as the 
sword of the Revolution; and in every succeeding hour of danger the 
statesman of the South has seized the helm of State, and his clarion voice 
has been heard amid the howling of the storm encouraging the weak, cheer- 
ing the despondent and overwhelming the disaffected. Laying hold of 
Declaration the messages of her Jeffersons and Monroes and the orations 
of her Clays and Calhouns the South will never yield her literary fame, 
and defies the world to produce their equals for solidity of argument, lofti- 
ness of eloquence and dignity of expression. 

In theology a Breckenridge stands forth in all his massiveness and a 
Thornwell does honor to himself and to his associates. In philology a 
Harrison has enriched the student with learned dissertations on the an- 
cient languages and the scholar can obtain masterly treatises on the science 
of numbers without resorting to the Northern publisher. 

But why pursue the subject farther. We trust that the most skeptical 
is convinced that the South has a Literature of which she may well be 
proud. The present affords the pleasing indications of still greater pro- 
ficiency, and that the time may soon come when the walls of her institu- 
tions shall be crowded, when the text books used in her Universities shall 
be the fruit of the wisdom of her own professors, when her periodicals 
shall be spread far and wide, when she shall rely on her own resources 
for literary food and furnish from her own abundance a pure stream of 
mental enjoyment to the other nations is the earnest desire of her true 

I860.] HISTORY. 305 



Truth, it lias been justly remarked, is stranger than fiction. The re- 
cords of the past wear but the appearance, and produce only the effect, of 
some mignty drama. Heroes, kings and queens, statesmen and courtiers 
are its willing actors; peace and war, battle-fields, defeats and victories, 
exiles and courtly palaces, its scenes. Kingdoms and crowns, touched by 
the decaying hand of time, crumble away nor leave a vestige of their 
fallen grandeur. Ambition offers the highest honors of a fleeting world 
to those, who kneel ai her shrine; wealth opens her glittering coffers to 
to some intoxicated by fortune's cup ; whilst others, perhaps, who have 
emptied that beaken in the giddy pleasures of life, are forced to abandon 
the temple of the fickle Goddess. Often, learning tempts the thoughtless 
throng with the richest fruits of wisdom; and thousands strive i£> win 
the glittering prize, in the vain hope that it is more enduring than for- 
tune's smile, or ambition's gift. Yet all is but the delusion of a dream; 
■end, as each fond worshipper kneels before his shrine, and views the cov- 
elet prize now nearly in his reach, he vainly strives like fabled Tantalus, 
to grasp it ere it flees. Still Time — 

" flows on 

With a resistless, unremitting stream." 

Man, the sport of passion and creature of an hour, heeds not his rapid 
flight ; till Death, with rude and never eluded grasp, hurries him to 

" Undiscovered country, from whose bourne 
Kb traveller returns." 

Such are the reflections, which arise from studying the moral of his- 
tory. The present may furnish much that is at once useful and instruct- 
ive to calm and thoughtful minds. But the present is not adequate for 
purposes of instruction to every sudden emergency, or unlooked-for con- 
tingency. Experience, severe experience, must train our minds in the 
stern discipline of her school; and the dear-bought lessons of that school 
possess, in an eminent degree, the power of guiding uncertain reason, or 
of suggesting the truths of a correct judgment. Such truths, important 
as they are, are often heeded too late. Reason, intoxicated with deceptive 
success, or fatally regardless of impending evil, may insensibly advance 



to the border of insanity; judgment, misled by fancied appearances, or 
slumbering in imagined security, may sleep even when approaching the 
verge of ruin. But, though oblivious of passing realities for a short time, 
both reason and judgment will at last awake from their lethargic 
repose. Yet, then, the spell will be broken too la'e; and the infuriated 
demons of despair and destruction will seize the souls, whether of individ- 
uals or nations, and hurry them to the abode of eternal oblivion ! 

Turn now to a period of more absorbing interest than many occurring 
in the dark ages of the past, pause upon the soil of once chivalrous, but 
now benighted, Spain. View with me Granada's battlements. There, in 
all the splendor of oriental magnificence, rise the Alhamebra's walls — walls,' 
upon which the fabulous wealth of Golconda's mines had been lavished 
for ages. And now, glittering in the soft silver} 7 rajs of the moon, a 
hundred turrets gleam with redoubled brightness. A hundred fountains 
play within the spacious gardens of that palace; whilst its bright halls, 
illuminated by countless chandeliers, reecho the merry voices of the fes- 
tive throng. Now, gently stealing on the bosom of the perfumed breeze, 
is wafted — 

a chanted, mournful strain 

L'ke some loue spirit's o'er the plain." 
Now, softly and sweetly on the midnight air, it dies away in melting ca- 
dence; or ever and anon, as some passionate outburst of thrilling power 
escapes those ivied battlements, Granada's hills reCcho back the sound. 
" A thousand hearts beut happily " — now some gay cavalier stands enrap- 
tured by the witching music of some maiden's voice; or tired, pevehance, 
of gaiety and mirth, they wander together amid the orange bowers, and, 
there drink deeply the sweeter music of their own souls. But swiftly fly 
the fleeting hours of the night, and, soon, this festive scene is over. 
Gradually the countless lights flicker and fail — and the noise of revelry 
ceases — and, now, naught is heard save the sighing of the breeze, or the 
play of those silvery fountains! 

How enchanting is this vision of happiness — yet how illusive the spell 
thrown around us! For, now, . " a change comes o'er the spirit of our 
dreams." The Alhambra's walls have witnessed the last of those prince- 
ly banquets. Music can never again be invoked to shed its soft strains 
through those orange bowers, nor thrill the joyous hearts of thousands as- 
sembled there. Hark ! hear that wail of sorrow? Hear the knell of Gran- 
ada's departed gh.ry in the rising storms of war ? Within those towering 
battlements a proud and haughty foe pours his fierce warriors. Now, 
where once in the gay t jurn ament a friendly lance was crossed, gleams, in 
dire splendor, the ruthless battle-axe. Now, where often the melody of 
eoiigi so sweetly charmed the attentive ear, 

I860.] HISTORY. SC7 

" the clang of arm?, 

The shriek, of agony, the groan of death, 
In one wild uproar and continued din, 
Shake the still air." 

The heights are won; the scene is changed; and now, the proud banner 

of Castile floats from Granada's towers ! 

Is there no moral to this story. Alas! how sad is its recital — how im- 
pressive the stern truths, taught us by the downfall of the Moorish King- 
dom ! As such truths are applicable to nations, as well as to individuals, 
it is certainly a matter of vital importance to examine the condition of 
our beloved country, and apply, in her ease, the salutary lessons of the 
past. Experience, and the testimony of history teach, iu unmistakable 
language, the universality of decay. Tne body perishes and crumbles, 
forgotten, into dust. Universal matter must pass into oblivion. The 
classic hills and vallies of the old world teem with crumbling rains and 
decaying battlements, at once, the relics of departed glory, and silent 
monitors of an end that must, await all — nations as well as individuals. 
In a word, a single battle-field often marks the destruction of an empire, 
or the fall of a crown; and the desolate ruins of a hundred mighty king- 
doms point but too plainly to the inevitable triumph of decay. 

Only a few years have elapsed since the Puritan planted his little colony 
on the soil of Massachusetts. A handful of adventurers, who then landed 
on our shores, have siuce grown into a large and populous nation. Ihe 
oppression of a tyrant soon drove them into rebellion; the Declarations of 
Independence asserted their natural rights, and the blood of American 
freemen which moistened the soil at Lexington, kindled a vrar which end- 
ed in the establishment of our nation. Since then our prosperity has 
been unexampled in the history of the world. Our national wealth and 
greatness have rapidly increased. The sails of our commerce "have 
whitened every sea," and now, the stars and stripes float proudly to the 
breeze of every country on the globe — a protection to the oppressed, and 
the terror of the oppressor. 

Such a state of national prosperity, nay even of national existence, can- 
not always be. It must be remembered that, as 

" Leaves have their time to fall, 
And flowers to wither at the Xorth wind's breath," 

so nations, as well as individuals, must pass away. The law of inevitable 
decay is fixed. How long, then, will our country exist as a nation ? The 
question does not admit of an easy reply, and it can only be answered in- 
definitely. It is certainly the manifest duty of every American to pro- 
long, as far as possible, the period of his nation's existence. And this is 
done by obeying its laws, and, in this manner, increasing its prosperity 
and the harmony of its citizens. 


Our history, however, at this period, does not exhibit harmony and 
obedience to the laws. Already are the United States torn by civil dis- 
sentions and commotions. Already are our Constitution and laws set at 
defiance by our Northern brethren, and we may well tremble for the in- 
tegrity of the Union. A band of blind, but ruthless, fanatics have, at 
length, succeeded in impelling over our heads a dark and ominous cloud, 
pregnant with destruction. Would to G-od that those devotees of fa- 
naticism had learnt the useful lessons of history ! Would to Heav en that 
that cloud, so dark and lowering — so threatening to national existence — 
could be averted ! But in vain are our prayers. A once glorious, but 
now unequal, Union becomes at last the bond only of tyranny. Its Con- 
stitution, instead of being sacredly observed, is openly violated, and its 
laws are insultingly set at defiance. To patriots this is alarming, as it' 
destroys the last hope of freedom on earth; to Southerners it is tyranni- 
cal, as it destroys their property and imperils their lives. So that, now, 
Southern lives and Southern property and equality, as well as national 
existence, are threatened. Our interest in life, property and equality, is 
superior to that in national existence. Hence the rallying cries, which 
electrified three millions of people on the eve of the Revolution, must 
now electrify us. And, though Webster, in ardent and eloquent lan- 
guage, once hoped that his eyes might never behold the star-spangled 
banner waving over "the dishonored fragments of a once glorious Union," 
Southern feeling is now saying in thunder-tones : A Union can only 
be preserved, which guaranties the sovereignty of the 
States, and the equal rights op their citizens. 

I860.] editors' table. 309 





The Late Denison Olmsted, LL. D. — Denison Olmsted, one of the earli- 
est advocates of special institutions for the professional training of teachera 
in the United States, and for nearly fifty years a successful teacher, and pro- 
moter of education and science, was born in East Hartford, Connecticut, on 
the 18th of June, 1791. Having lost his father in very early life, his eduction 
devolved, from the first, on his surviving parent, who will long be remembered 
by those who knew her, for her native strength of mind, her soundness of 
judgment, and her uncommon piety and benevolence. He was early trained 
to those habits of order, diligence, and perseverance, for which he has been 
so much distinguished throughout life. About the age of thirteen, he was 
placed in a country store with a view to the mercantile profession ; but he 
soon showed so strong a taste for science and literature, as to convince his as- 
sociates that he was destined to higher employments. Even at this early pe- 
riod he became an earnest student of English literature, and made very con- 
siderable advances in the elementary mathematics. Nothing could satisfy 
such a mind but the highest advantages for education; and, with the reluctant 
consent of his guardian, he resolved, at the age of sixteen, to prepare himself 
for admission to Yale College. He accordingly commenced his studies in the 
year 1807 ; and, with a view to husbanding his limited means, he undertook 
the care of a public district school. He thus gained those practical views of 
teaching, and that acquaintance with the youthful mind in its early develop- 
ment, which have made him eminently qualified to prepare text-books in the 
simplest rudiments, as well as in the higher departments of science, and to 
take an active part in promoting the interest of general education in our coun- 

Mr. Olmsted entered Yale College in 1809, under the presidency of Dr. 
Dwight, then in the maturity of his powers and the hight of his distinguished 
reputation. He at once took rank among the best scholars of his class — a 
class distinguished for the eminent men it produced — and graduated with the 
highest honors of the institution in the autumn of 1813, when he delivered 
an oration on the "Causes of Intellectual Greatness." He immediately re- 
sumed his favorite employment of teaching ; and for two years had the charge 
of a select school in New London, Counecticut, where he was eminently suc- 
cessful both in discipline and instruction. ' - 

In 1815, he was chosen to the tutorship in Yale College — a laborious and 
responsible office, which he filled, with great acceptance to his pupils and the 
faculty, for two years, when he accepted the appointment of Professor of 
Chemistry in the University of North Carolina, remaining at Yale the follow- 
ing year, as a private pupil of Professor Silliman. There, associated with 


President Caldwell, Professor Elisha Mitchell, Prof. Ethan A. Andrews, and 
Professor William Hooper, he had the satisfaction of seeing the university 
take an elevated rank among the higher seminaries of the country. During 
his connection with the University of North Carolina, he commenced, under 
the auspices of the legislature, a geological survey of the state, which was the 
first attempt of the kind in this country. 

In 1825, Professor Olmsted was called to the chair of mathematics and nat- 
ural phiiosphy in Yale College, which had been filled with eminent success by 
his classmate, Professor Fisher, who perished in the Albion, on his outwad 
Voyage to Europe for scientiiiic improvement, in 1822; and afterward by Pro- 
fessor Dutton. The duties of the two professorships were discharged by him 
until 1835, when he resigned the chair of mathematics to Professor Anthony 
D. Stanley, whose genius and attainments in these studies he had helped to 
foster and mature. 

Professor Olmsted is the author of several text-books, originally prepared 
to meet the wants of his own college classes, but which have taken their place 
among the standard works of the country. His " Natural Philosophy" 'a;p- 
peared in 1831, and was followed within a year by the " School Philosophy," 
adapted to academies and high schools; both have had, and still have, a wide 
circulation — the latter having passed through nearly one hundred editions. 

In 1839, he published " Adronomy" for college classes, which was followed 
by a compendium under the title of " School Astronomy." In 1842, appeared 
his "Rudiments of Natural Philosophy and Adronomy" adapted to pupils in 
elementary schools, both public and private. This little work has passed 
through fifty editions, and has been printed in raised letters for the use of in- 
stitutions for the blind, having been selected by Dr. Howe for its clear, accu- 
rate, comprehensive presentation of the fundamental principles of the sciences 
of which it treats. His "Letters on Astronomy " was prepared as a reading- 
book for the School Library, commenced under the auspices of the Massachu- 
setts Board of Education. It has been used extensively and as a text-book, 
especially in female seminaries. Professor Olmsted brings to his preparation 
of text-books a full and familiar acquaintance with the subjects treated, and a 
practical knowledge of successful methods of teaching the same. 

Professor Olmsted deserves honorable mention in the history of popular ed- 
ucation in the United States, for his early and continued advocacy and labors 
in behalf of improvement in elementary schools. In an oration delivered at 
the commencement exercises of Yale College, in 1816, on taking his degree of 
Master of Arts, he took for his subject, "The State of Education in Connecti- 
cut." In this address he pointed out " the ignorance and incompetency of 
school masters" as the primary cause of the low condition of the common 
schools, and appealed to public and private liberality to establish and support 
institutions of a higher grade, where a better class of teachers might be train- 
ed for the lower schools. To meet a great evil by a special remedy, and at 
the same time advance the condition of popular education generally, he had 
already projected the plan of '"An Academy for Schoolmasters." 

Professor Olmsted was one of the few teachers in our higher seminaries of 
learning who assisted, from the start, by their presence and cooperation the 

I860.] editors' table. 311 

efforts of the friends of common schools and popular education. His sympa- 
thies were with those who labored for the improvement of the schools of his 
native State prior to 182o to his death. In 1838, he delivered a lecture 
before the American Institute of Instruction on the " School System of Con- 
necticut," in which, after an interval of nearly a quarter of a century, he 
pointed again to the absence of an institution for the education of teach rs as 
the great defect in the school system of the State. In 1845, before the same 
association, he drew the ideal of a perfect teacher. Thorough, accurate, and 
comprehensive knowledge — high religious character, deep enthusiastic love of 
his work and faith in its results, a strong and clear intellect, a lively imagin- 
ation, good taste and good manners constitute the indispensable elements of a 
teacher of the people. He responded cheerfully to the call of the Superinten- 
dent of Common Schools to address Teachers' Institutes and Teachers' Asso- 
ciations, and repeatedly lectured in the Hall of the House of Representatives, 
during the session of the Legislature, when any action was to be had in either 
branch concerning common schools. He availed himself at all times of the 
lypeum and the popular lecture, as well as of the daily press, to apply the 
principles of science to the explanation of the extraordinary phenomena of 
meteerulogy and astronomy, as well as to the advancement of domestic com- 
fort and popular improvement generally. In an Essay read before the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of Education, at New York, in 185-3, he 
showed, in a felicitous manner, that the whole drift and tendency of science 
its inventions and institutions is democratic. 

ILs more elaborate scientific papers have appeared in the "American Jour- 
nal of Science," the " Transactions of the Ainerkan Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science," and the " Smithsonian Contributions." He was also 
a frequent contributor to the " Chr.sLan Spectator," and the "New Engiand- 

For the above sketch we are indebted to the " American Journal of Educa- 
cation," for 1858. 

The Model Student. — The following thoughts were suggested to us by a 
"Fresh" asking our opinion about his college course and what our idea of a 
model student was. Whether our opinion is correct or not we leave that for 
ethers to decide : 

The model student's name is scarcity.. Many faithful students, 'tis true, can 
be found, or at least so called individuals ; but our idea of a model student is 
somewhat above even the faithful one. There are many dangers into which 
a . stud en i are liable to fall, the avoidance of which constitutes the model stu- 
dent. Every man, no matter how noble his purpose or exalted his sphere, is 
in h n^er. No: even in the discharge of what we think our duty are we safe. 
For it was when Bunyau's hero was directly pursuing his journey from the 
palace B:auciiul to the Ce.eitial City that Apollyon met him with curses and 
i rrow3 of fire. Verily, in his transit throught the world man is as a pilgrim 
in the valley of the shadow of death. 


Among men's liabilities those of the student are by no means the least 
Notwithstanding its apparent quietude, his is a life of intensity. His facul- 
ties are ever awake. He is always travelling one road or another rapidly. If 
he mistake his way he approaches disaster with fearful velocity. But let us 
turn to those dangers, which the faithful student is liable to fall into, the avoid- 
ance of which is necessary to constitute the model student. In the first place, 
in his hot pursuit after knowledge and self improvement he is liable to for- 
get all other men, and lcse all sympathy with the world, and interest in its 
aifairs. Coming to college fully resolved to do all in his power for self cul- 
ture he can execute his purpose in no way except by close application. Ac- 
cordingly he withdraws from all distracting influences, comrades, society, 
public affairs generally, and devotes his entire energy to his immediate pur- 
suits. The result is obvious. Habitually we are only interested in the things 
to which we turn our attention. " For where your treasure is, there will your 
heart be also." The student who excludes the world and its transactions 
from his mind and makes his room his sole dwelling place and his books his 
only companions finds his taste gradually circumscribed. Public spirit is a 
stranger to him. Public welfare is no concern of his. In tne outer world a 
financial crisis, its causes and workings, although it plunge thousands into 
distress, does not move him. A political contest, however great the principles 
at stake, a revolution even, unless it invade his own private sanctum, blows 
over without exciting either his hopes or his fears. The great ever-throbbing 
heart of humanity finds no response in his bosom. For all he cares strug- 
gle may succeed struggle, justice be crushed out of existence and the oppress- 
ed groan on for ever. 

This is the picture of the College styled model student. This is an evil 
that grows out of over devotion to his work. Again in this way a student is 
liable to disqualify himself for personal influence. Where we have no sym- 
pathy, we have no power. But besides, the man with feelings alive and pur- 
poses true, may confine himself so closely, even with the intention of gaining 
strength for influence, as to defeat his own end. His habits become settled, 
inflexible. His methods of thought differ from those of other men. He dis- 
trusts the ways of others. In turn they distrust him and laugh at his conser- 
vatism. Don't understand us as decrying hard study nor the scholarship it 
produces : more of it is needed. We only touch on liabilites. Our ideal scholar 
is a man who has large and various affinities of soul; whose mental absorp- 
tion is powerful in every department of knowledge and whose requisitions are 
changes into vital power, are practical. Study with reference to these, and if 
you expect to gain them, yours will be the course of the model student. 

I860.] EDITOES' TABLE. 313 

The Old Year. — The shrill whistling of the "northwester" around our 
college buildings reminds us that old Boreas has again been unchained from 
his frigid cave. And most of all our beautiful Campus, the pride of every 
Chapel Hillian, has doffed the gay summer robe and donned the more sombre 
one of winter. 

Shall vre weep or rejoice over the grave of the old year ? Let us rather shed 
a silent tear in memory of the past. What changes has not a short twelve- 
month brought about ! Reader, think for a moment what has occurred, both 
in Europe and in America. In the Old World thrones have been overthrown, 
and the might of the people established. Italy has been regenerated and the 
proud Roman once more taught to spurn the slaves' chains. The world has 
looked on in wonder at the rapid strides of human liberty. The grand spec- 
tacle has been presented to civilized Europe of the strongest despotism in the 
world maintaining the right of the people of Italy to elect their own lawful 
sovereign by their votes. And among these nations the arts and sciences and 
commerce have made no less astonishing progress. Unexampled prosperity 
has marked the advancement of these nations. 

But, with us,' this year is destined to be long remembered. No year since 
the foundation of our Government has been of such intense interest to the peo- 
ple of America. Our wonder-loving people were first flattered by the visit of 
the Japanese Embassy. No circumstance within the history of our country 
was ever hailed with more universal joy. These Asiatics were feasted, lion- 
ized and gloried over as no visitors were ever before. Our President and all 
his officials vied with each other in doing them honor. Our fairest women 
prodigally bestowed their most ravishing smiles upon them, and even fancied 
them handsome whom a skilful naturalist might have some conscientious scru- 
ples in pronouncing whether they betonged to an intelligent race of monkeys 
or to the family of man. , 

These Orientals had scarcely left our shores before the Great Eastern, 
the wonder of the world, made its appearance in our harbors. This great 
leviathan furnished an inexhaustible source of conversation. Our dailies 
and monthlies were almost wholly devoted to giving elaborate descriptions of 
the monster ship. 

We next were saluted with the shouts of welcome which greeted the Prince 
of Wales on his landing on our soil. We wanted the young gentleman to re- 
ceive a sufficiency of attention, by way of making him forget our past animosity 
and show him our present good will to the nation he will some day govern. 
But the inordinate amount of flunkyism displayed on all occasions by our 
citizens must have disgusted the Prince if he is a man of good sense. The 
indecent curiosity of our people even invaded the sanctuary of the Most High. 
Because a live Prince went to a particular church, thousands sought to wor- 
ship in the presence of Royalty. What a commentary is this on our plain 
republican manners and institutions ! These shows (for they were nothing 
else,) have almost been forgotten save perhaps by a few individuals only. But 
why dwell on thes stale topics ? rather let us hasten on. 

The grand spectacle of the Presidential contest has just'ended in the eleva- 
tion of a sectional chief to the highest office within the gift of the people. A 


different result has obtained from that of any preceding one. Formerly, after 
the smoke of the conflict had cleared away, and it was known who had tri- 
umphed, the passions of all parties died out, and general quiet pervaded. But 
not so now. The great fountains of party feelings have been too thoroughly 
broken up. We hear the mutterings of all the antagonistic elements in our 
body politic, calling up recruits to decide the unended and unnatural contest 
by an appeal to arms. Fortunately for our once happy country, there is yet 
hope in the future. The tide of Northern fanaticism and Southern rage under 
a sense of accumulated wrong, may yet subside, and the sentinel upon the 
watch-tower of Freedom may yet exclaim, "all is well \" Our gallant ship of 
State freighted with the invaluable Constitution of formerly united and proud 
America, and the last hopes of the patriot and the lover of freedom throughout 
the broad earth may yet ride safely through the sea of political troubles that 
now surround it and threaten to engulph it in the long night of civil anarchy 
and bloodshed. In this position we stand as the advocates of no party or 
creed. "We simply give utterance to our feelings as loyal sons of a State that 
has ever been true to the Federal Union and to the constitutional rights of all 
the States. 

Death or a Graduate. We have heard with feelings of the deepest sorrow 
of the death of George L. Wilson, of Newbern, N. C, a late graduate of this 
University. To one of our number he was a sincere and attached friend ; by 
all of us he was honored and respected. It has been but a few short months 
since he left us with the glow of health upon his cheek, with a mind well 
trained and disciplined by a long course of hard study and diligent applica- 
tion, and in every way prepared to act well and nobly his part in the great 
drama of life. Endowed with a patience that no labor could exhaust, and a 
mind no difficulty could daunt, his talents would no doubt have entitled him 
to any distinction to which he might have aspired. But alos ! ere his elastic 
step had begun to falter or his youthful hopes to fade,, ere he had fairly enter- 
ed upon that field of action where his talents promised him such a pright and 
successful career, the Destroyer came — and all his high aspirations with the 
hopes of his friends are buried with him in the grave ! 

George Wilson entered this college in June, 1856, and graduated in June 
of this year crowned with the highest honors of the University. At the com- 
mencement of 1858 he was awarded the prize for having written the best 
English Composition offered by his class during the Sophomore year. Dur- 
ing the Fall Session of the same year he became a member of the Baptist 
Church, and never from that time to the day of his death was he known to 
act inconsistently with the profession which he then made. Not unfrequent- 
ly did he fondly indulge the hope that God would send him forth a missionary 
to China, so that he might carry the glad tiding of the gospel to the people of 
that benighted land. During his Senior year he was an Editor of this Maga- 

I860.] editors' tabl-. 315 

zine, and by the efforts of his prolific pen contributed much to the reputa- 
tion which it now enjoys. At the time of his death he was pursuing the stu- 
dy of law in his native town. 

Sad and mournful is the duty we perform when we are called upon to record 
the death of a young man, especially one so good and so gifted as was George 
Wilson ; and it is with a melancholy pleasure that we pay this last sad tribute 
to his memory. While a member of College, he was universally respected 
and esteemed by his fellow-students ; he was kind and courteous to all, respect- 
ful and grateful to his instructors ; and when he graduated last June, Faculty 
as well as students regretted his departure. He returned to his native town, 
alas ! to die. We have been unable to learn the particulars of his death ; but 
as he lived a consistent christian, so, doubtless, he died happy in a Savior's 
love. He leaves many fond friends to deplore his loss, who while they deeply 
sympathize with his bereaved family in their great affliction, and shed bitter 
tears of sorrow over his early grave, yet will be comforted with the assurance 
that his spirit has winged its flight to blissful realms in Heaven. 

For this article we are indebted to the sweet-flowing pen of "Ninon." We 
will be glad to hear from her again ; either as a Poetess or as a writer of 
prose : 

"Castle-Building." — It is strange how prone the mind is to wander 'mid 
the scenes of by-gone days. To me there has always been a peculiar charm 
in the histories of the olden times, and when imagination pictures, the gal- 
lant leader and 

" The following host, 
Poured forth by thousands." 

ready, aye, ready for the field, with the determination to fight for their Gods, 
and for their native land written on stern brows, and sterner hearts; and 
where "liberty or death" was the watch-word of assembled millions who 
clothed in glory their country's name, and where each brave leader 
"counted heroes, where he counted men" and knew that in all the bright ar- 
ray there was not one coward heart, who would have it said it trembled for 
fear. When even timid women buckled on the armor of those dearest to them 
with their own hands, and with a firm voice bade them go and be true to their 
country and themselves. There awakens a feeling near akin to regret, that 
Greek and Roman soldiers are no more, and that Greek and Roman maids and 
matrons fill no longer their accustomed offices. But most do we feel how fleet- 
ing are the things of earth, when we call for the heroes of departed days and 
they answer us not again, they who intoxicated by the syren whispers of Am- 
bition, marched with rapid strides, to the topmost, though tottering pinacle of 
earthly power, built on the crushed hopes, and broken hearts of those who 
were once their dearest friends. But friend or foe it boots not which, so they 
added a stepping-stone to the conqueror's greatness. They were but mortal, 


and they are gone. But where will another Csesar, Anthony, or Brutus ap- 
pear in these days of luxury and effeminacy? And when will more majestic 
strains awake the slumbering intellect of our " Pigmy race," than those of 
Virgil, or of Horace? Bead but the "Iliad" and with the poet you will ac- 
knowledge that — 

"Bead but Homer, once, and you can read no more 
For all books else appear so mean and poor, 
Verse will seem prose ; but still persist to read 
And Homer will be all the book you need." 

Not that I mean to disparage the authors of later days, but the mysterious 
veil of romance is wanting, that lends to the Grecian bards such an irresistible 

"Gastle building" is pleasant always, but when in fancy I roam in the gor- 
geous temples of Borne or of Carthage, 'neath the soft blue of the Italian sky, 
and picture the varied scenes that have transpired in the shadows of the now 
ruined walls, the sacrifices, and feasts, 

" The boast of Heraldry, the pomp of power, 
And all that beauty, all that wealth e'er gave, 

methinks it would be sweet to dream always. But the ever-changing current 
of thought will not be content to run in ages so long past, forms and scenes of 
later years will rise; the names of Napoleon, and of Washington take the 
place of those ol ancient ability. And Shakespeare, Byron, Milton, Moore 
and others lay the productions of their great minds by the side of Grecian 
classics and claim our notice as weaker brothers. Nations rise and fall and 
rise again. Time writes in frosty letters on all things, " Passing away." 
In a few short years we know that we too shall be forgotten; our country 
share the fate of others ; our great men live only in their works ; nothing be 
left but the name. 'Tis when such thoughts as these arise I would fain come 
back to busy life again, and dream no more. 

Beligious Literature. — We have been shown by the agent the Bepository 
of religious books and tracts belonging to the American Tract Society and un- 
der the charge of the Young Men's Christian Association. We take great 
pleasure in announcing that such a repository has been established at the *' 

The selection though at present too small for the demand is a very good one. 
Arrangements have been made for keeping large quantities of the best and 
6tandard religious works on hand for the future. These books are sold with 
no profits but at publishers prices. Call on the agent at No. 21 west end S. B. 

I860.] editors' table. S17 

Vacation. — Once more the happy time has arrived when the student bidding 
adieu to t&ese " classic walls," looks forward with increasing rapture to the 
coming vacation. Our Alma Mater, that has for five long, weary months kept 
us so strictly beneath her watch, has at length loosened her reins and we are 
now at liberty to scamper whithersoever our inclinations lead us. Farewell, 
ye ancient classics; farewell, ye abstruce theories of mathematics, but above 
all farewell to theer, college bell. Kb more will thy haiih tongue sound the 
knell of our murdered slumbers. No more will thy thundering peals call us 
shivering from our beds. To you, kind friends, who have cared for us in sick- 
ness, a fond adieu. Yes, to one and all, farewell, for we are going home. 

How the heart swells at the mention of that name ! Again we are gathered 
around the family hearth and listen to the voices of those we love. Again we 
recall to mind those loved forms as last we saw them when they stood watch- 
ing our departure, and lingering to get the last glimpse of our retreating 
figures. Father, we are coming home ; your good counsel and advice have 
not gone entirely unheeded, although we have often been led astray. Mother, 
fond mother, your boy is coming home. Still do thy last words, as if but of 
yesterday, whisper in his ear " God bless you, my son — be a good boy V 
Again, sweet sister, we would, bid you welcome us. Often amid the troubles 
of a student's life have we missed thy gentle hand and thy kind and sympa- 
thizing voice. Friends and and relations, once more bid us welcome to your 

But to most of our classmates there is still another, the bare mention of whose 
name causes emotions unutterable to throb within the heart, and as for ourselves 
we do not deny being in the same category. But now comes the momentous 
question — h<>w will these fair beings receive us? Will they meet us with 
that bewitching smile which speaks volumes to the anxious heart, or will they 
come forward with that cold indifference which seems to sry, "I wish you 
were not here ?" All we can do is to wish you success, and may you be as 
generous to us; and when we return and are gathered again in a jovial band, 
may we amid the smoke — not of the battle-field, but of the peaceful meer- 
ehaum — be able to recount our many victories without the sad recollection of 
a single defeat. 

For those who expect to spend their vacation upon the Hill we can predict 
nothing but a pleasant time. We are too well aware of the accomplishments 
and beauty of our Chapel Hill belles to fear that any will die of ennui. Once 
more, a happy vacation to all. 

We have on our table the following exchanges : The Southern Literary 
Messenger, the Virginia University Magazine, the Printer, the Williams 
Quarterly, the North Carolina Journal of Education, the Medical Journal, the 
Harvard Magazine, the Kenyon Collegian, the Hampden Sydney Magazine, 
the New York Teacher, the Southern Planter and the Fly Leaf. 


Here is the latest of Mrs. Sigourney's productions. We have no doubt that 
it will meet with the hearty concurrence of all true friends of the Union. 



Ho ! Eagle of our banded States, 

Wilt drop thine olive fair, 
And bid the shafts of war and woe 

Speed bursting through the air ? 
And the soaring Eagle answered, 

Waving his peace-branch high, 
'"No! Freedom's chieftain gave the trust — 

I'll guard it till I die I" 

Ye stars, that shine in sparkling blue 

Upon your banner' d field, 
Shalt be stricken«d from your place, 

And half in clouds conceal ? 
But silent were those glorious orbs, 

AVith dread amazement fraught ; 
Each trembling in its crystal sphere 

At the dark traitor-thought. 

Oh, human hearts ! to concord train'd, 

By sires who stood of yore, 
As brothers, when around their homes 

The Lion ramp,d in gore ; 
Will ye the heritage they won 

With ruthless hand divide ? 
Or rend the Gordian knot they drew 

Around ye — when they died ? 

Then from the Pater Patrice's tomb, 

Beneath Mount Vernon's shade — 
And from the heroe's bed who sleeps 

In Nashville's beauteous glade — 
And from green Quincy's honor'd breast, 

Where sire and son repose — 
"Break not that band," a solemn voice 

In deep accordance rose. 

Hark, hark ! o'er forest rob'd in snow, 

In sunny, flower-crown'd vales, 
From where the Atlantic's thunder-tone 

The far Pacific hails ; 
From mart and dell, where millions dwell, 

By prairie, lake and hill — 
Bolls on, the full, sublime response — 

" We never will!" 

I860.] editors' table. 319 

Fear and Credulity — Fear upholds tyranny, credulity supports imposture. 
The Czar of Russia employs the former, the Morman imposter subsidized the 
latter. Cowardice and simplicity are their agents — mankind their victims. 
The history of the world is their history. The thrones of tyrants are the al- 
tars they reared, and their subjects, bound by the fetters of superstition, have 
during sixty centuries rendered an obsequious homage. Fear is cruel, credu- 
lity is mean. These influences reigned conjointly in Egypt when the sword 
of the Turk and the religion of the Koran rendered the land of darkness 
more desolate than it was under the rod of the Persian or the heel of the As- 
syrian. Bigotry and slavery rioted together in the palaces of the Ptolemies. 
Every generous sentiment and every manly emotion died in the hearts of their 
successors, and the Egyptian accursed of God and man became a " by-word 
to the nations and a stranger in the land of his fathers." 

Credulity often disturbs the peace of the world ; it makes implacable ene- 
mies of those who should be confiding friends ; it makes treachery, more 
treacherous, and cruelty more cruel. The Mahomedan slays the christian to 
merit the approbation of Heaven, and the christian slays the Mahomedan to 
save his offspring from the burning lake ; the Israelite cooled the anger of 
Heaven with the blood of the Gentile, and a cowardly world pronounced the 
horrid expiation meritorious. 

Men rarely award to others what they deny to themselves. One sentiment 
governs the fanatic, the bigot, and the slave; they are equally cruel, equally 
credulous, equally mean. 

Apology. — "We have to offer an apology to our readers for the absence of 
our accustomed engraving. We were to have had Prof. Olmsted's, but owing 
to some mishap it has failed to reach us. We have waited for them as 
long as possible but as the session is fast drawing to a close and most of the 
students desire to get their number before leaving we have been compelled 
much against our will to issue the present number without the engraving. 
Our next number will contain both our engraving of Prof. Olmsted and that 
of some other distinguished man; so that, we will make nothing and you 
shall lose nothing by the present failure. 

Special Notice. — Those of our subscribers who have not yet settled their 
accounts, will please do so at the earliest opportunity, as we are very much 
in need of funds. We dislike very much to be compelled so often to allude to 
this, but we can not carry on the Magazine without money- We hope this is 
sufficient to induce all to attend to this matter. 

We admire the ladies because of their beauty, respect them because of 
their virtues, adore them because of their intelligence, and love them because 
we can't help it. 




Dialectic Hall, November, 1860. 

Whereas it has seemed good to an All-wise Providence to remove by the 
blasting hand of Death, our fellow-member, SANDFORD E. SUTTON, he 
who but a few months ago was in our midst, , it becomes our duty in due defer- 
ence to the many virtues which he bore as a zealous and active member of our 
body, wherein to express our deep regret, that he so soon in the morning of 
life ended that course so nobly begun. Therefore, 

Resolved, That the Dialectic Society, while she bows in humble submission 
to the will of Omnipotence cannot but lament the death of one, whose usefel- 
ness, energy, and talent, were so well calculated to reflect honor on our Society 

Resolved, That the Society tender to the bereaved family, her heartfelt 
sympathies, and mourning in unison, would point them to the Eternal source 
of never ending happiness. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the parents of the de- 
ceased, the La Fayette Courier, Ala., Raleigh Register, and University Maga- 
zine, with a request to publish them. 








'PEN miles south of Clarksville, Va., and twelve miles from ToAvnsville DepSt 
-*- on the Roanoke Valley Rail Road. 

The course of studies is preparatory to College, Boys board only with the 
Principal, vrill be taught exclusively by him, and will thus be under his con- 
stant supervision and control as members of his family. The number of course 
must be limited. Not more than two occupy the same room. 

The Eleventh session begins on the 14th January 1861. For particulars, 
address, R. II. GRAVES, Principal, 

Brownsville P. 0., Granville county, N. C. 



Ji]d Serif lefty's fi|tf|fei)ii|g Goods, 

Will visit Chapel Hill every season. mar — 6m. 





Sheet iffifsie, 2 Mist's Ifgietf^, £icfufrj E^JWSi &c m 

IO. j&- Xj IHJ 2 €3- IEX „ BJ,, O- 

ALWAYS on hand a supply of TEXT BOOKS — alsu Theological, Law, Med- 
ical and Miscellaneous BOOKS; Gift Books, Albums, Autograph Books, 
Bibles, Prayer Books, Hymn Books, for all denominations. He also invites 
attention to his stock of superior STATIONERY, comprising a great variety 
of the finest English, French and American Letter and Note PAPER; En- 
velopes, Visiting Cards, Blank Books, Patent Adhesive Letter Files, &c, &c. 
Mathematical Instruments, Writing Desks, Port Folios, Strings for the Violin 
and riiitar, of the best quality ; Engravings, Lithographs, &c. 

J8@jf7isi.ting Cards engraved to order. NEW BOOKS received and for sale 
as s , m as published. 

£@- A full supply of OIL and WATER COLORS always on hand. 



THIS School is situated in a moral, healthy neighborhood, one mile from 
Mebanesville Depot, on the North Carolina Railroad. 

The Principal will board his pupils in his own family ; being convinced that 
the teasher, standing in relation of parent, can more successfully discharge 
the duties of that relation when he has his pupils under his constant supervi- 
sion. The course of Instruction is preparatory to the University and other 
first-class Colleges. 

The Scholastic Year is divided into two Session of twenty weeks each, 
beginning respectively about the middle of January and July. 

TERMS — Per Session, for Board and Tuition, $100 in advance. 

References : Faculty of the University ; W. J. Bingham & Sons, Oaks, N. 
C; A. Wilson, D. D.. Mellville, N. C. 

March, 60. WM. B. LYNCH, Principal. 


'TWTALLETT & CO. keep on hand all the College TEXT BOOKS. Also Med- 
-*-'■'- ical and Law Books, together with a general stock of Standard Authors, 
and other Miscellaneous Works, Bibles, Common Prayer, Hymns, Hymns and 
Psalms, and Psalmody, Gift Books,Albums and Autographs, Writing Desks, 
Portfolios, Mathematical Instruments, with a full supply of Stationery 
Books or other articles ordered at short notice. March, 1860, 



258, 259 and 260 Broadway, 

TATE desire to call the attention of gentlemen of the University to this the 
YV most extensive Clothing House in the Union- Facilities unequaile'd by 
any other firm in the trade render our establishment the fountain head of gar- 
ments of taste and elegance. 

All commands entrusted to us will meet -\rith prompt attention, and will be 
executed in our well known superior style, 

New York, February 1st, lbtiO. 


^Tossisr 23- unties j^*s? hieto-TT, 



TS prepared to execute at short order all manner of printing on exceedingly 
-*• moderate terms. Particular attention paid to the printing of catalogues, 
addresses, pamphlets, reports, invitation cards, &c. 

• He has on hand a large stock of cards, bronzes, colored inks, and other 
materials, which, with his long experience in the business, will enable him to 
compete with any similar establishment in the State or elsewhere. 

"^7"±s±tl2i.§? OsircSLiS &,t SH3. per pacls.. 

All kinds of Sheriff's, Clerks', and Constables' blanks on hand or supplied 
at short notice at 75 cents per quire, cash. When a large quantity is ordered 
a discount of 10 per cent, will be allowed. 

All he asks is a trial to give satisfaction. 


'THIS PREPARATION has the property of rendering the Hair SOFT and 
- 1 - GLOSSY, at tho same time that, by its tonic and stimulant properties, it 
tends to arrest its premature decay. To accomplish this it should be nibbed 
thoroughly into the roots, at least once a day. It will remove and prevent 
dandruff ; it will stop the itching from the bite of insects. It causes the hair 
to assume a darker appearance. It is easily applied. Prepared by 

R. B. SAUNDERS, Druggist, Ciiapel Hill, N. C. 
Who has constantly on hand a general assortment of Drugs, Medicines, 
Paints, Oils, Window-Glass, Dye Stuffs, Brushes, Perfumery, Fancy Articles, 
&c, &c. mh,60 

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iojH s^i-WSt 





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; : 1861. 

l£km • ...._.. .. . 

=; iff*?. ■?■' ■J'MiHi 
! i ll( ' -a&l. - it 

V^K"A."\^.Vv •U, V\K\\VS_N 



1. JAMES K. POLK, 321 



INGTON, \ 352 


5. THE CONSUMPTIVE, (Poetry,) 358 

6. WORDS OVER A GRAVE, (Poetry,) 359 




10. EDITORS' TABLE, 370 



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^ MC 







Vol. X. FEBRUARY, 1861. Mo. 6. 


North Carolina was founded chiefly by Covenanters from Scotland, 
and Scotch-Irish Presbyterians from the north of Ireland, all of whom 
left their country for " conscie _nfie;...sakfr~- -* We cannot, therefore, be sur- 
prised that in that state the seeds of independence were early sown; nor 
do we wonder that its sons claim to be the first who declared their free- 
dom from all obligations to obey the government of Great Britain. 

Among the leading men in the Revolution, were the now widely exten- 
ded family of Polk, originally Pollock. They are said to have been the first 
Democratic family of note in the country, and one of them was the prime 
mover, and a signer of the celebrated "Mecklenburg Declaration" of May 
20, 1775. This was the great uncle of the President. 

Samuel, the father of James Knox Polk, was an enterprising farmer. 
He was throughout life a firm Democrat, and a warm supporter of Mr. 
Jefferson. Thrown upon his own resources in early life, he became the 
architect of his own fortune, and in the year 1806, he removed with his 
family of ten children, from North Carolina to Tennessee, where he was 
among the pioneers of the fertile valley of the Duck river, now one of the 
most flourishing and populous portions of the State. He was followed by 
the Polk family, with the exception of one branch, and they added char- 
acter to that portion of the great valley of the Mississippi. 

James Knox, who was named after the worthy father of his mother, 
was the oldest of the ten childreu of his father. He was born in Meck- 
lenburg County, N. C, November 2, 1795. Removing, as we have seen 
he did, in very early life to Tennessee, it could be no matter of surprise 
that his early education was very limited. The opportunities for instruc- 
tion furnished in an infant settlement were few, besides which he was no 


Affable, but dignified; intelligent, but unaffected; frank and sincere, yet 
never losing sight of the respect due to her position, she has won the 
regard of all who have approached her. May she long be spared to per- 
petuate the memory of him whose name she bears. 

In August, 1825, being then in his thirtieth year, Mr. Polk was elect- 
ed to represent his district in Congress, and took his seat in December 
following. He brought with him the princples to which he adhered 
through all the mutations of party. He was at that time, with one or 
two exceptions, the junior member of the body, but so conducted himself 
as to satisfy his constituents, so that he was returned for fourteen years 
in succession, from 1825 to 1839, when he voluntarily withdrew from 
another contest, in which his success was not even questionable, to become 
a candidate for the office of Governor in his adopted State. The same 
habits of laborious application which had previously characterized him, 
were now displayed on the floor of the House, and in the committee-room. 
He was punctual and prompt in the performance of every duty, and firm 
and zealous in the advocacy of his opinions. He spoke frequently, but 
was invariably listened to with respect. He was always courteous in de- 
bate; his speeches had nothing declamatory about them, were always to 
the point, and always clear. So exemplary was he in his attendance on 
Congress, that it is said, he never missed a division while occupying a 
seat on the floor of the House, and was not absent from the sittings a 
single day, except on one occcasion, on account of indisposition. Such 
punctuality in a legislator, is rarely witnessed, and therefore it deserves to 
be remembered. 

The first speech which Mr. Polk made in Congress, was in favor of a 
proposition so to amend the Constitution as to prevent the choice of Pres- 
ident, in any event whatever, from devolving on Congress. This address 
at once attracted the attention of the country, by the force of its reason- 
ing, the fulness of its research, and the spirit of honest indignation with 
which it was animated. As one of the friends of General Jackson, he 
entered warmly into the subject, and his speech was characterized by 
what was with him an unusual degree of animation, in addressing a deliber- 
ate body. Henceforth the way was clear bebore him. Although among his 
associates in Congress there were many of the ablest men in the nation, 
an honorable post among them was cheerfully assigned him, and he be- 
came henceforth identified with the most important transactions in the 
Legislature. During the whole of General Jackson's administration, as 
long as he retained a seat on the floor, he was one of its leading support- 
ers, and at times, and on certain questions of vast importance, its chief 
rel'ance. Throughout the period of his connection with the Legislature, 
he was on the most important committees, and originated many momen- 
tous measures. 

1861.] JAMES K. POLK. 325 

In December, 1885, Mr. Polk was elected Speaker of the House of 
Representatives, and was again chosen to that high office in 1837, at the 
extra session held in the. first year of Mr. Van Buren's administration. 
During the first session in which he presided, more appeals were taken 
from his decision than had occurred in the whole period since the origin 
of the government; but he was uniformly sustained by the House, and 
frequently by the most prominent members of the opposition. He was 
courteous and affable toward all who approached him, and in his manner, 
as the presiding officer, dignity and urbanity were admirably blended. 
Notwithstanding the violence with which he had been assailed, Congress 
passed at the close of the session, in March, 1837, an unanimous vote of 
thanks to its presiding officer, from whom it separated with the kindest 
feelings; and no man now could enjoy its confidence and friendship in a 
higher degree. His calmness and good temper had allayed the violence 
of opposition, in a station for which his sagacity, tact for business, and 
coolness eminently qualified him. In the twenty-fifth Congress, over 
which he presided as speaker during three sessions, commencing in Sep- 
tember, 1837, and ending in March, 1839, parties were more nearly bal- 
anced, and the most exciting questions were agitated during the whole 
period. At the close of the term, Mr. Elmore, of South Carolina, moved 
the usual vote of thanks. A long and exciting debate arose, when the 
resolution was adopted. In adjourning the House, Mr. Polk delivered 
a farewell address of more than ordinary length, and characterized by 
deep feeling. Thus ceased his connection with the House, for he de- 
clined a reelection. He had faithfully discharged his legislatorial duties 
fourteen years. 

Thus freed from engagements of this kind, he was taken up by the 
friends of the administration in Tennessee, as a candidate for Governor. 
After an animated canvass, during which Mr. Polk visited the different 
counties of that extensive state, and addressed the people on the political 
topics of the day, the election took place in August, 1839, and resulted 
in a majority for Mr. Polk, of more than two thousand five hundred 
votes over General Cannon, and on the 14th of October following, he en- 
tered on the discharge of the executive duties. This station, however, 
he filled but two years. As he was not reelected, he returned with cheer- 
fulness in 1841 to the duties and enjoyments of private life; where, 
blessed with a competency which enabled him to be liberal in his chari- 
ties, and to dispense a generous hospitality to his friends, and favored 
with a wife whose virtues and graces made his home a paradise, little was 
left for him to desire. 

But can a politician stand still ? Mr. Polk was not without ambition, 
and the expectations of his friends were early fixed on the presidential 


chair. At tlae "session of the Tennessee Legislature, in 1839,. he was 
nominated by that body for the Vice-presidency, to be placed on the tick- 
et with Mr. Van Buren, and with the expectation that he might succeed 
that gentleman in the higher office; and he was afterwards nominated in 
other states for that station, but the design failed. 

From the time of the defeat of Mr. Van Buren, in 1840, till within 
a few weeks of the assembling of the national democratic convention, at 
Baltimore, in May, 1844, public opinion in the republican party seemed 
to have been firmly fixed upon him as their candidate for reelection to the 
station which he had once filled. But in April, 1844, a treaty was con- 
cluded by President Tyler, between the United States and the republic of 
Texas, for the annexation of the latter to the American confederacy. 
This measure was fruitful of contention, and destroyed the general expec- 
tation that Messrs. Van Buren and Clay would be the rival candidates for 
the presidency. In the midst' of this commotion the democratic con- 
vention assembled, and after much discussion and many trials of strength 
in behalf of various parties, the name of Mr. Polk was mentioned, and 
it operated like magic; harmony was instantly restored, and in the end 
the vote was unanimous. The honor to Mr. Polk was entirely unexpect- 
ed, but who could expect him to decline it? On the 28th of November, 
the result of the election being then known, Mr. Polk visited Nashville, 
and was honored with a public reception by his democratic friends, to- 
gether with a number of their opponents in . the late contest, who cheer- 
fully united with them in paying due honors to the President elect of the 
people's choice. A grand procession, and an imposing illumination testi- 
fied the hilarity and joy of the, people. 

Mr. Polk left his home in Tennessee, on his way to "Washington, the 
latter end of January, 1845. Be was accompanied by Mrs. Polk, and 
several personal friends. On the 31st of that month he had a long?pri- 
vate interview at the Hermitage, with his venerable friend, Andrew 
Jackson. Tbe leave-taking was affectionate and impressive, for each felt 
conscious, that, in all probabilty, it was a farewell forever. It was the 
son, in the pride of manhood, going forth to fulfill his high destiny, from 
the threshold of his political father, whose trembling lips, palsied with 
the touch of age, could scarcely invoke the benediction which his heart 
would prompt. Before another harvest moon shed its light upon the spot 
hallowed by so many memories and associations, the " Hero of New Or- 
leans," and the "Defender of the Constitution" slept the sleep which, 
till the morning of the resurrection, knows no waking. 

Various pleasant anecdotes, illustrative alike of the character of Mr. 
Polk and of the manners of the country, are told of his "progress" to 
the Capital, far more attractive than the movements of monarchs. When 

1861.] JAMES K. POLK. 327 

the steamboat, on which he proceeded up the Ohio river, stopped at Jeff- 
ersonville, Indiana, a a plain-looking man came on board," says a passen- 
ger on the steamer, "who from the soiled and coarse condition of his 
dress, seemed just to have left the plough handles or spade, in the field. 
He pressed forward through the saloon of the boat, to the place where 
the President was standing in conversation with a circle of gentlemen, 
through which he thrust himself, making directly for the President, and 
ofFered his hand, which was received with cordial good will. Said the 
farmer, ' how do you do, Colonel ? I am glad to see you. I am a strong 
democrat, and did all I could for you. I am the father of twenty-six 
children, who are all for Polk, Dallas, and Texas!' Colonel Polk re- 
sponded with a smile, saying, he was happy to make his acquaintanc e, 
feeling assured that he deserved well of his country, if for no other rea~ 
son than because he was the father of so large a republican family." 

.On March 4, Mr. Polk was duly inaugurated President of the United 
States. An immense concourse of people assembled at Washington to 
witness the imposing ceremony, every quarter of the Union being well 
represented. Tbe morning was wet and lowering; but the spirits of the 
spectators were proof against the unfavorable influences of the weather. 
All parties joined in the appropriate observance of the day, and the na- 
tional standard floated proudly from the flag-staffs of both democrats and 

Mr. Polk entered upon the duties of his administration under some- 
what unfavorable auspices. He belonged to a younger race of statesmen 
than the prominent candidates whose names were originally presented to 
the Baltimore convention, and it was but natural that he should be fearful 
of incurring the dislike of some one or more of them, which might tend 
seriously to embarrass his administration. But his position personally, 
was all that could be desired. He had no pledges to redeem, — no promi- 
ses to fulfill; and he was not a candidate for reelection. He was indiffer- 
ent, too, as to which of the leading men of his party should be his suc- 
cessor. It was his desire, therefore, to harmonize and conciliate, but, at 
the same time, to surrender no principle, to maintain his character for in- 
dependence, and to observe the dignity of his official position. For these 
reasons, his cabinet was selected from among the most distinguished mem- 
bers of the democratic party, and in it each section of the confederacy 
was represented. 

It will be remenbered by our readers, that the treaty for the annexa- 
tion of Texas, concluded by President Tyler, had been rejected by the 
Senate of the United States, on June 8, 1844. At the ensuing session 
of Congress, the subject was again discussed, and joint resolutions provi- 
ding for the annexation, were adopted on March 1, 1845. The people of 


Texas, represented in convention, signified their assent to the terms of the 
resolution on the 4th of July following, and formed a state constitution, 
which was forwarded to Washington to be laid before the Congress of the 
United States by the President. This difficulty was thus settled; as was 
also the Oregon question, so long an apple of discord between Great 
Britain and the United States; and the war with Mexico, arising out of 
the annexation of Texas, soon after ended. All these great events elicit- 
ed the statesmanlike talents of Mr. Polk and his official advisers, and 
furnished ground of satisfaction to every lover of his country. Much 
additional labor had been thrown on the President, but it was all ably 
and promptly performed. 

Other great and grave questions had to be now discussed and acted on, 
such as the independent treasury system, the tariff of 1846, the course 
in regard to official appointments, the river and harbor veto, and the ter- 
ritorial bill for Oregon, but our limited space affords no room for discus- 
sion, besides which the reader can have no difficulty in obtaining what- 
ever information relative to them he may desire. Congress assembled for 
the last time during the administration of Mr. Polk, on December 4, 
1848. The most important subject then agitating the public mind, was 
that growing out of the Wilmot Proviso, as to which his opinions had 
been made known in his annual message. His vetoes, too, had been at- 
tacked, in some of the Northern and Western states, with great asperity, 
and an effort to amend the constitution, so as to deprive the executive of 
this power was said to be in contemplation. He therefore availed him- 
self in his last annual message to vindicate his course and to express his 

March 5, 1849, the 4th happening on Sunday, General Taylor was du- 
ly inaugurated as the successor of Mr. Polk. The latter gentleman took 
part in the ceremonies, and rode at the side of General Taylor in the car- 
riage which conveyed them to the Capitol. He was also one of the first 
to congratulate him at the close of his inaugural address, at the same 
time rejoicing that he was himself relieved from the anxieties of public 
life. On that afternoon, he and Mrs. Polk took leave of their friends, — 
many words of mingled regret and endearment being uttered on both 
sides, — and in the evening commenced their return to their home in Ten- 
nessee. Thus ended the most important administration since that of Mr. 
Madison. As Mr. Jenkins one of Mr. Polk's ablest biographers, has 
remarked, " The settlement of the Oregon question, the war with Mex- 
ico, and the acquisition of California, will cause it to be long remembered. 
Ages hence, if the God of nations shall continue to smile on our favored 
land, the dweller on the banks of the Mississippi, as he gazes on the 
mighty current that laves his feet, and beholds it reaching forth, like a 

1861.] JAMES K. POLK. 329 

giant, its hundred arms, and gathering the produce of that noble valley 
into its bosom, will bless the name of Thomas Jefferson. So, too, the 
citizen of California or Oregon, when he sees their harbors filled •with 
stately argosies, richly freighted with golden sands, or with silks and spi- 
ces of the Old World, will offer his tribute, dictated by a grateful heart, 
to the memory of James K. Polk. At home, his administration was 
well conducted. Though the war with Mexico was actively prosecuted for 
nearly two years, the national debt was not larglely or oppressively in- 
creased, and the pecuniary credit of the government was at all times 
maintained; more than double the premiums realized in the war of 1812 
being procured for stock and treasury notes. Commerce, agriculture, 
and every art and occupation of industry, flourished during this period, 
happiness and prosperity dwelt in every habitation. In the management 
of our foreign relations, ability, skill and prudence were displayed. Our 
rights were respected; our honor defended; and our national character 
elevated still higher in the estimation of foreign governments and their 

If Mr. Polk was gratified with the enthusiastic demonstrations of re- 
gard which attended him on his journey to Washington, to enter on the 
duties of his administration, he was far more sincerely pleased with the 
kindly greetings that everywhere welcomed him as he returned to his 
home in Tennessee. The one might have been selfish, for he had then 
office and patronage to bestow; but the other was the genuine homage of 
the heart. At Richmond, he was complimented with a public reception 
by the citizens, and the Legislature of Virginia, then in session; at 
Charleston, Savanrah, and New Orleans — at every place he passed on his 
route, — congratulations, prayers, and blessings attended him, like minis- 
tering angels, to the home from which he had gone forth in early man- 
hood to carve out his destiny, and to which he now returned with +he 
harvest of fame he had gathered. Perhaps, however, the most gratifying 
reception he met with on his whole journey, was at Wilmington, N. C., 
where the people of his native State, came together in crowds to welcome 
him. Extensive preparations had been made for his reception, and in re- 
plying to the orator who addressed him, he said : — " You remark truly, 
sir, that I still cherish affection for my native State. I receive its wel- 
come as the blessing of an honored parent. North Carolina can boast 
of glorious reminiscences, and is entitled to rank with, or far above, many 
who make great pretensions. It was from her — her counties of Meck- 
lenburg, New Hanover, and Bladen, that the news of treason in the col- 
onies first went to the ears of the British monarch, and here was the spir- 
it of independence first aroused." 

The exhausted health and strength of Mr, Polk now demanded rest. 



He had been eminently devoted to the duties of Ms great office; friends 
and enemies acknowledged that his labors had been too great for his com- 
paratively delicate frame to sustain with safety. He had been for a long 
time subject to frequent attacks of chronic diarrhoea, one of which great- 
ly prostrated him on his journey up the Mississippi. Previously to this 
period, he had purchased the beautiful house and grounds of his friend 
and preceptor, Mr. Grundy, situated in the centre of the city of Nash- 
ville. Here, surrounded by the convenience which an ample fortune en- 
abled him to procure, in the constant companionship of his wife and 
books, and in the frequent society of the friends he esteemed, he had de- 
termined to pass the remainder of his life in ease and retirement, fulfill- 
ing his duty to himself and the world, but not entering again into public 
life. On arriving at Nashville, after a few days' rest, he took possesssion 
of this elegant mansion, and seemed to be rapidly gaining strength; he 
devoted himself to the improvement of his grounds, and all now seemed 
to promise long life and enjoyment. 

But, alas, how often are the brightest expectations of man doomed to 
the darkest disappointment! Even those highest in rank and excellence, 
are compelled to meet the common lot. Some of the friends of Mr. 
Polk were observing the rapid improvement of his health, and were 
struck with his erect and healthful bearing; and the active energy of his 
manner, which gave .promise of long life. His flowing gray locks 
alone made him appear beyond the middle stage of life. About the first 
of June, being detained within doors by a rainy day, he began to arrange 
his extensive library, and the fatigue of reaching his books from the floor 
to the shelves, brought on a slight fever, which the next day assumed the 
form of his old disease. The best medical aid was obtained, and for some 
days no alarm was cherished. But, in defiance of the most eminent skill, 
he continued gradually to sink, so that when the disease left him four 
days before his death, there did not remain energy enough for heal- 
thy reaction, and on the evening of Friday, June 15, 1849, he expired, 
in the fifty-fourth year of his age. 

The close of life now rapidly approaching was contemplated by Mr. 
Polk with all the solemnity which its vast importance demanded; and all 
his conversations on the subject were worthy of his character. He evinced 
a very thorough knowledge of the Scriptures, which he said he had read 
a great deal, and deeply reverenced as divine truth; in a word, he had 
been throughout his life theoretically a Christian; and now, more than 
ever felt the importance of genuine piety. He said that when in office 
he had several times seriously intended to be baptised; but the cares and 
perplexities of public life scarcely allowed time for the requisite solemn 
preparation; and so procrastination had ripened into inaction, till it was 

1861.] JAMES K. POLK. 331 

now almost too late to act. About a week before bis decease, be received 
tbe sacraments of baptism and of tbe Lord's Supper from tbe Rev. Mr. 
M'Ferrin, of tbe Methodist Episcopal Church, with whom he had 
long been personally intimate, and then calmly awaited the change which 
should remove him to another state of existence. About half an hour 
preceding his death, his venerable mother entered the room, and kneeling 
by his bedside, in the presence of Major Polk, brother of the ex-presi- 
dent, and the other members of the family, she most solemnly and feel- 
ingly commended the departing soul of her son to " the King of kings, 
and tbe Lord of lords." Previously to this act, he had taken leave of all 
he held dear; and could thus say with Lord William Russell, "the bit- 
terness of death is past." 

On the day following, the mansion of the lamented ex-president was 
shrouded in mourning, and the corpse, dressed in a plain suit of black, 
with, a copy of the Constitution of the United States at its feet, lay in 
one of the drawing rooms, to receive the last look of thousands of friends 
and neighbors; and the cortege which accompanied his remains to their 
last resting place, was composed of almost the entire population of the 
city and adjacent country. The plain silver plate on his coffin, contained 
merely these words : 

"J. K. Polk, 
Bom Naoemher 2, 1795, 
Died June 15, 1849." 

At Washington, and in every part of the Union, due honors were paid 
to his memory. 

In person, President Polk was of middle stature, with a full angu- 
lar brow, and a quick penetrating eye. The expression of his 
countenance was grave, but its serious cast was often relieved by a pecu- 
liarly pleasant smile. His private life, which had ever been upright and 
pure, secured to him the esteem of all who had the advantage of his ac- 

The Hon. Mr. Chase, in his •• " History of the Polk Administration" 
says very truly, " No one who ever knew Mr. Polk ever considered him 
a brilliant genius. His mind possessed solidity rather than imagination. 
His perception was intuitive, and his memory retentive to an cxtraordinay 
degree, while his judgment rarely led him to error. His manners were 
remarkably affable, and always made an impression upon those who knew 
him. Among his intimate friends, he indulged his wit and humor with 
perfect freedom, and they always found him a pleasant and instructive 
companion." The prominent trait of his character was extraordinary en- 
ergy. In college, at the bar, in his political canvasses, and in the dis- 
charge of his executive duties, he was alike distinguished for his untiring 


industry and indomitable will. This, frequently induced liim to devote 
his attention too much to minute details, and had the effect of impairing 
his constitution. He invariably succeeded in inspiring his friends with 
his own enthusiasm ; no obstacle could deter him from the energetic dis- 
charge t>f his duty. Subsisting upon the plainest food, and perfectly 
temperate in his habits, he accustomed himself to a rigid system of diet, 
which alone could have sustained him in his political conflicts. As Mr. 
Chase has remarked, "Posterity will pronounce his eulogium!" 



The General Assembly of this State at the session of 1854-' 5 estab- 
lished the County op Harnett. The annual address before the two 
Literary Societies of the University, the following commencement, June 
1854, was delivered by George Davis, Esq., of "Wilmington. The ad- 
dress was, in substance, a sketch " of the early times and men of the 
lower Cape Fear," and prominent among the subjects of deserved and 
well-wrought eulogy was the patriot to whose memory the General As- 
sembly had so recently rendered a tardy tribute. 

"To all the men of whom I have spoken, history has done some justice, 
more or less partial. But there was yet another who shone like a star in 
the early troubles of the State, of pure and exalted character, of unsur- 
passed influence with his countrymen, and the value of whose services 
was only equalled by the extent of his sufferings and sacrifices in the 
cause of liberty. And yet, so little is he known, that I doubt not, gen- 
tlemen, many of yOu have not even so much as heard his name. I speak 
of Cornelius Harnett, the pride of the Cape Fear — "the Samuel Adams 
of North Carolina."* To the shame of the State, his birth-place has not 
heretofore been even conjectured; and meagre as are the accounts of his 
early history, they are full of errors. He is always 1 spoken of as the first 
and only one of his family in North Carolina, and is said to have emi- 
grated from England to the Cape Fear; and one historian"]" makes him 

* Journal of Josiah Quincy. f Wheeler, 2 — 282. 


to have been one of Governor Burrington's Council in 1730. This is all 
wrong. In 1730 he was only seven years old. His father, of the same 
name, was among the earliest emigrants to the Cape Fear, and was for 
many years one of its leading inhabitants ; and he did not go there from 
England, but from the county of Albemarle. I think it nearly certain 
that he himself was born in the Precinct of Chowan, and most probably 
in the town of Edenton. In the Register's Office of New Hanover coun- 
ty* there is the record of a bond from Colonel Maurice Moore, of New 
Hanover Precinct, to Cornelius Harnett, "of the same place," dated 30th 
June, 1726, and conditioned to make him a title to two lots in the new 
town of Brunswick, upon his building good habitable houses thereon 
within eight months. This fixes the period of the father's emigration to 
the Cape Fear. But where had been his previous residence ? There is 
another public record which gives us the information. At the General 
Court sitting in Edenton, the 29th of March, 1726, " George Burrington 
was indicted for that about the 2nd of December, 1725, with Cornelius 
Harnett of Chowan, and others, he assaulted the house of Sir Richard 
Everard, &c."f Now, from his abetting Burrington even with force, in 
his quarrel with Sir Richard Everard, and from his afterwards being ap- 
pointed one of his first councillors when he became a second time Governor 
in 1730, we may fairly infer that Cornelius Harnett the elder was the 
intimate friend and associate of Gov. Burrington, and a man of distinction 
in the colony as early as 1725. And to have attained that position, he 
must have been resident there previously several years at least. If 
these inferences are correct, his son, the subject of 'this sketch, was a 
native born North Carolinian; for we know that he was born in 1723. 
From 1765 to 1780, there was scarcely a movement in the patriot cause 
in which Cornelius Harnett did not bear a conspicuous part. And a 
bare enumeration of the appointments which he filled, and of the men 
with whom he was associated, would be sufficient to show the influence he 
exercised, and the estimation in which he was held." 

To this sketch beyond a few explanatory notes we propose to add noth- 
ing of our own. It affords us great pleasure, nevertheless, to have it in 
our power to render a more valuable service to our readers by the publi- 
cation of the following "Notes relative to Cornelius Harnett," written by 
the late Archibald McLaine Hooper, many years ago. Mr. Hooper was 
a small boy at the time of Mr. Harnett's death, but probably old enough 
to retain his remembrance, and was familiar with the circle in which he 
moved. Mr. Hooper's grandfather, Mr. McLaine, and his uncle, William 
Hooper, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence were 
among Mr. Harnett's most intimate friends, and the notes may be regard- 

* Book A., page 71. f Williamson, 2—229. 


•ed as presenting the opinions of these eminent men as well as those of the 
writer : 

".Cornelius Harnett held a conspicuous station among those intrepid pat- 
riots, who roused the people of North-Carolina, into resistance of British 
aggression ; who conducted them, through the dangers and perils of the 
revolution; and who assisted in establishing a government for the preser- 
vation of those liberties, for which they contended. 

" In 1774 he was one of that band of patriots composed of Henderson, 
Burke, Ashe, Johnston, Harvey, Nash, Iredell, Moore and others, who 
resisted the demand of the British Government for establishing a Court 
system favoring the inhabitants of the mother country, to the exclusion of 
creditors, on this side of the Atlantic. 

" The first motions of disaffection on Cape Fear, were prompted by him. 
When the conjuncture favourable to his projects arrived, he kept conceal- 
ed behind the curtain, while the puppets of the drama, were stirred by his 
wires into acts of turbulence and disloyalty. Afterwards, when a meet- 
ing was convened at Wilmington, he was bold in the avowal of his senti- 
ments and in the expression of his opinions. 

"In 1776, he was a member of the Convention at Halifax, which 
framed the Bill of Rights and formed the Constitution of the State. In 
1777, 1778 and 1779, he served as a delegate, in the Continental Con- 

" In the year 1781, a British force occupied the town of Wilmington. 
And the first incursion from the garrison into the country, was planned 
by the commandant, with a view of taking Mr. Harnett prisoner, and 
also of obtaining possession of a considerable sum of money confided to 
him, for the purchase of munitions and clothing, for the Continental 
Troops. Mr. Harnett, was however, on the alert. As soon as he receiv- 
ed intelligence that the enemy had entered the river, he adopted precau- 
tions for the preservation of the money ; and managed with so much fore- 
cast and address, as to direct it safely to its precise destination. He then 
lost no time, in making efforts to escape from the danger to which his per- 
son was exposed, from the proximity of the enemy. He left his planta- 
tion on Topsail sound, with the intention of seeking a refuge at the head 
of New-River, in Onslow County. On his way, he was seized with a 
paroxysm of the gout, which forced him to stop at Colonel Spicers/ about 
thirty-two miles from Wilmington. Here he was confined to his bed for 
four days. 

"The detachment sent to take him, hearing that a body of cavalry at 
Moore's Hill, in Duplin county, and another body on Trent were in mo- 
tion; and apprehensive of being attacked and overpowered, returned to 
Wilmington and obtained a reinforcement, with which, assisted by treach- 


ery, it recommenced the pursuit. It reached Col. Spicer's plantation 
about daybreak. T7hen the alarm was given, Mr. Harnett, under the im- 
pulse of the moment, sprung from his bed with an activity which surpris- 
ed those who were in the room with him, and who considered him too 
much debilitated for any exertion, On a little reflection, however, the 
impossibility of effecting his escape became obvious to him. He submitt- 
ed to his adverse condition ; and on an occasion attended by circumstan- 
ces calculated to shakes the nerve of the most resolute, we have reason to 
believe, he displayed a firmness and a dignity, consistent with the tenor 
of his life. The importance of the prisoner (himself and Gen. Howe 
being the only exceptions in the proclamation of amnesty published by 
the British,) probably prevented the detachment from murdering him. 
They treated him roughly; and the treatment he received from Craig, the 
commandant, was little better. He was confined to the block-house for 
three days, during which time, the attention and deference paid to him 
by all the respectable loyalists, induced Craig to adopt a mild usage. He 
was paroled; and took lodgings, which rendered his situation comfortable. 
He did not, however, long enjoy this indulgence. 

" Aware that his disease must terminate fatally, he declined the advice 
of his physicians, but received thankfully their kind and friendly atten- 
tions. In the last stage of pain and suffering, he had, as might be expect- 
ed, his moments of impatience and asperity. The placidity of his temper 
never, however, deserted him long; and he enjoyed a serenity of mind, 
to the last hour of his existence. Some of his friends endeavored to pre- 
sent to his mind the consolations of revealed religion, and to enforce on it 
the necessity of repentance ; but he had so intrenched himself in the posi- 
tions of infidelity that their approaches were too easily resisted at that 
awful period. He died in the tenets in which he had lived, and dictated 
a short time before his expiration the simple epitaph which appears over 
his grave. A valetudinarian for the last three years of his life, his death 
was probably not accelerated by the hardships or the privations incident 
to his captivity. 

"His stature was about five feet nine inches. In his person he was 
rather slender than stout. His hair was of a light brown, and his eyes 
hazel. The contour of his face was not striking nor were his features, 
which were small, remarkable for symmetry; but his countenance, was 
pleasing; and his figure, though not commanding, was neither inelegant 
nor ungraceful. 

" In his private transactions he was guided by a spirit of probity, honor 
and liberality ; and in his political career he was animated by an ardent 
and enlightened and disinterested zeal lor liberty, in whose cause he ex- 
posed his life and endangered his fortune. He had no tinge of the vis- 


ionary or of the fanatic in the complexion of his politics. " He read the 
volume of human nature and understood it." He studied closely that 
complicated machine, man, and he managed it to the greatest advantage 
for the cause of liberty, and for the good of his country. That he some- 
times adopted artifice, when it seemed necessary to the attainment of his 
purpose, may be admitted with little imputation on his morals and with- 
out disparagement to his understanding. His general course of action in 
public life, was marked by boldness and decision. 

" He practised all the duties of a land and charitable and elegant hos- 
pitality; and yet with all this liberality he was an exact and a minute 

"Easy in his manners, affable, courteous, with a fine taste for letters 
and a genius for music, he was always an interesting, sometimes a fascinat- 
ing companion. 

"He had read extensively, for one engaged so much in the bustle of the 
world, and he had read with a critical eye and an inquisitive mind. Yet 
in the perusal of his familiar letters we are disappointed, and we ask our- 
selves why it is that we do not perceive any indications of that elegance or 
of that refinement with which his character was imbued. 

" In conversation, he was never voluble. The tongue, an unruly mem- 
ber in most men, was in him nicely regulated by a sound and discriminat- 
ing judgment. He paid, nevertheless, his full quota into the common 
stock, for what was wanting in continuity or fullness of expression, was 
supplied by the glance of his eye, the movement of his hand and the im- 
pressiveness of his pause, Occasionally too he imparted animation to dis- 
course, by a characteristic smile of such peculiar sweetness and benignity, 
as enlivened every mind and cheered every bosom, within the sphere of its 

"Although affable in address he was reserved in opinion. He could 
be wary and circumspect or decided and daring as exigency dictated or as 
emergency required. At one moment abandoned to the gratifications of 
sense, in the next he could recover his self-possession and resume his dig- 
nity. Addicted to pleasure, he was always ready to devote himself to busi- 
ness, and always prompt in execution. An inflexible republican, he was 
beloved and honored by the adherents of the monarchy, amid the fury of 
a civil war. A deist in principle and a libertine in practice, he was ca- 
ressed by the moralist and courted by the votary of cBrisferanityi 

" Such was Cornelius Harnett. Once the favorite of Cape Fear and the 
idol of the town of Wilmington ; his applauses filled the eai", as his char- 
acter filled the eye of the public. Now forgotten, his name awakens none 
of those associations which keep alive the recollections of a brilliant life. 

" His grave is to be seen in the North-Eastern corner of the grave-yard 


of St. James' Church., in Wilmington, with a head-stone on which is the 
following inscription, 

" Cornelius Harnett, 

Died April 20, 1781, 

Aged 58 years. 

" Slave to no sect, he took no private road, 
But look'd through nature, up to nature's God." 

We congratulate the reader on our ability to exhibit at this late day 
still better means for forming an accurate opinion of the true character of 
Harnett than is afforded by the details derived from the very respectable 
sources to which we have referred. We allude to a series of letters writ- 
ten at successive intervals during the entire period of his service in the 
Continental Congress. We are not certain that every one will concur in 
the opinion of Mr. Hooper that "the familiar correspondence " of Harnett 
shows " no indications of that elegance or that refinement with which his 
character was imbued." We are very confident, however, that no true 
North Carolinian will read these public letters without increased respect 
and affection for the State, and without very high admiration of the cour- 
age which sustained the writer in the darkest days of the revolution, and 
the lofty and disinterested patriotism exhibited throughout the whole 
course of his legislative career. 

Of the thirty-six letters of Mr. Harnett to which we have access 11 
were written to his colleage Mr. Burke (Governor in 1781-'2) and the 
remainder to his friend William Wilkerson, Esq., of Wilmington. The 
earliest of the collection is dated 16 July, 1777 and the latest 25 April, 
1780 ; the former of these was written at Baltimore on his way to take 
his seat for the first time in the Continental Congress, at Philadelphia, 
and the latter at Wilmington shortly after the close of his last term of 
service. The series reflects much light upon the condition of the couu- 
try, and the proceedings of the Continental Congress, during the eventful 
years 1777, 1778, 1779 and the early months of 1780. 

The letters to Mr. -Wilkerson have all, with the exception of the first, 
the elate marked upon them, at which they came to his hands. We have 
taken pains to arrange the following table of dates in order to exhibit the 
speed with which letters were transmitted by private conveyance, by mail 
or by express, from the national capital during the session of 1777 to the 
most important commercial town in North Carolina. 

Four letters were written from Philadelphia, the first dated 20th July, 
was transmitted by mail in 65 days ; the second 1 1th August, in 25 days ; 
the third 26th August, in 24 days; the fourth 13th September in 62 
days. A letter from Lancaster, dated 25th September, was received 29th 
October — 34 days. 



At the time the Congress removed to York no mail route extended that 
far into the interior and the printing press did not of course precede the 
mail. A post office was established very soon, and a newspaper no great 
while thereafter. We regret that the copies of this paper transmitted 
with the letters have not been preserved. Whether owing to disaffection 
on the part of the government officials or not, Mr. Harnett seems to have 
had very little confidence in th.e fidelity of those concerned in the trans- 
mission of the mails. 

Twenty letters written from York during the time that town was the 
temporary seat of national government, bore the elates and arrived in the 
spaces of time indicated below: 4th October, 1777, 31 days; 10th Octo- 
ber, 35 days; 20th October, 33 days; 23d October, 16 days; 2d Novem- 
ber, 19 days; 13th November, 54 days; 19th November, 29 days; 20th 
November, 27 days ; 8th December, 17 days ; 12th December, 26 days ; 
16th December, 21 days; 28th December, 49 days; 6th January, 1778, 
30 days; 3d February, 43 days; 10th February, 36 days; 3d March, 37 
days; 7th March, 24 days; 18th March, 46 days, and 28th March in 37 



York Pennsylvania, Nov. 13, 1777. 

Dear Sir: — The child Congress has been big with these two years 
past is at last brought forth (confederation.) I fear it will by several Leg- 
islatures be thought a little deformed ; you will think it a monster. I 
wish however some kind of confederation may take place. Many carry 
their ideas of this matter so far as to believe our affairs must be ruined 
without it; be this as it may it will in a few days be sent to the Legisla- 
tures of the several States. Nothing more has been done worth your no- 
tice. Our time has been chiefly employed in army matters and God 
knows we have had perplexity enough. 

Gen. Washington's headquarters are at White Marsh, a few miles from 
Germantown and the pickets of each army are very near together. We 
are informed of a large reinforcement detached from Gen. Gates' army, 
on their way to join the main army, and everybody hopes a good account 
will still be given of Sir William. You left us, dissatisfied, but when 
you hear that we still have the command of the river — Burgoyne's whole 
army surrendered — the noble defence made at Bed Bank, Fort Mifflin, 
&c, you will I hope entertain an opinion that our armies must conquer 
where ever they appear notwithstanding the few checks (perhaps neces- 
sary ones)they have lately met with— rwe have an account of 30 transports 


sailing from New York, supppsed to bring a reinforcement of troops to 
Gen. Howe. They are not as yet arrived in the Delaware. 

As soon as our main army receives the reinforcement expected, I shall 
expect to hear of a vigorous attack on the enemy, but I am no General. 

At the battle of Germantown I am informed Col. Martin has again 
been so unfortunate as to meet with censure. lie has been tried by a 
court martial and acquitted as I hear. Since the death of our worthy 
and brave Nash, I have received a letter from Col. Sumner showing the 
necessity of having a brigadier appointed. What can your delegates do 
in this case? For God's sake endeavor to get our Assembly to nominate 
the gentleman they would choose. I am told by several officers, that, 
should Col. Martin be appointed, many resignations, would take place as 
several of the Colonels &c, are much dissatisfied with his conduct. Col. 
Sumner is I believe nest in rank, a worthy man. Our brigade will as 
soon as Col. Shepherd arrives at camp be a very respectable one consist- 
ing of 2000 rank and file. I wish to see some one or more of my coun- 
trymen at the head of them, and hope they may be esteemed in camp, 
and out of it, as our worthy deceased friend was. The sooner one or 
more General officers is appointed the better — indeed we have a right to 
the appointment of a Major General for our State r.hould it be thought 
necessary. Pray let me have your opinion freely and dispassionately on 
the articles of confederation. The mode of settling the quota of each 
State towards defraying the general expense has taken up much time. 
Some States were for the valuation of all the property in each State; oth- 
ers for fixing it by the number of inhabitants; others, on the value of 
land. This last seems to come as near the mark as any, except a valuation 
of all property; however, the value of land has taken place, much against 
the desire of the delegates from the eastern States. 

As I expect you will be directed to return immediately after the rising 
of our assembly, I hope you will take care to be properly instructed in 
every measure they may wish to accomplish. You ought to be here — no 
State should have a less number of delegates than three present in Con- 
gress, and I hope our State will attend constantly to that rule. 

I have a great inclination to return home and wish to be in future ex- 
cused from this kind of service. Between you and me, we shall be ruined 
in it, and I wish to make way for some gentleman who values his honor in 
this way, at a much higher rate than I do. I have not time to say one 
word more than to desire you'll make my compliments to all my friends 
in Assembly. I wrote Messrs. Hooper and Maclaine a few clays ago and shall 
write them again very soon. . No post or press as yet established here, 
and when I meet with an opportunity to write «my friends I am obliged 
to do it in such hurry that I hardly know what I write. 


Believe me to be with, unfeigned esteem, dear sir, your affectionate and 
obedient servant, 



York, Pennsylvania, Nov. 20, 1777. 

Dear Sir: Our affairs at bead-quarters seem to remain mucb as they 
were when you left us. The river has been as well defended as could 
possibly be expected, but our brave Col. Smith was a few days ago obliged 
to leave Fort Mifflin in ruins to the enemy. Bob Morris still thinks, the 
enemy's ships will not be able to get to Philadelphia this winter ; others 
are very doubtful. For my part I anxiously look for the time of the riv- 
er being frozen over; this seldom happens before Christmas. "We cannot 
find the reinforcement from New York, yet arrived, but Gen. Howe hour- 
ly expects it, some say 3,000 some 5,000. Gen. Washington's strong 
reiuforcement from Gen. Gates' army will be at head-quarters to-morrow. 
If you were here you would think a general attack should be made on 
the city immediately. Others imagine that Gen. Howe may, in the course 
of this winter, be starved out, but I think we have no right to expect 
two British armies in one year to surrender. In my next, however I will 
if I can, send you news. The expectation of the people is great, they 
believe as soon as Gates' victorious troops arrive at head-quarters, Gen. 
Howe's army will be ruined. I am also of this opinion. 

Col. Martin has been tried by a court martial or court of enquiry, I 
don't know which, on his behavior at Germantown, and acquitted. Our 
brigade (the high officers of it) are exceedingly anxious to have a gener- 
al officer appointed. I wish it were done. You know the delegates con- 
cluded to take the opinion of the general assembly; I wish this could be 
speedily done. You know better than I do how our Colonels stand as to 
rank, Martin, Sumner, Polk, I believe. As far as I can find from the 
officers, I have conversed with, they wish for Sumner and Clarke. This 
might cause several resignations. We have too many officers for the 
number of men. You know Congress catch at resignations, with great 
eagerness. A new board of war is appointed. Gen. Mifflin, Mr. Hamil- 
ton and another gentleman I think the Adjutant-General of the army 
Gen. Mifflin resigns his office of Quarter Master General, but holds his 
rank of Major General without pay. 

Your favorite confederation is at last 'finished, it only waits to be print- 
ed and sent on by the President to the Legislatures of the several States, 
for their approbation with a pressing letter from Congress on that subject, 
which you will soon see. Our finances arc in such a situation that unless 


the States agree immediately to tax as high as the people can possibly 
bear, the credit of our money must be ruined. Another very large 
emission musi take place — there is no preventing it. The treasury board 
see the fatal consequences of this measure. But they also perceive when 
we have no money, we shall have no army. The loan offices are already 
drained to the utmost farthing. The prospect before us is truly distress- 
ing. We must however continue further emissions. I tremble at the 
consequences. A defeat of Gen. Howe's army must, I think, be attempt- 
ed; should we succeed, we shall be on our legs again. I wish the whole 
force of America could be collected to effect this grand purpose. 

Our worthy and agreeable friend Mrs. Trist, is well; I shall soon send 
my carriage for her and Mrs. Ross, they intend a visit to Mrs, Ross' rela- 
tion in this town. 

For God's sake get the Assembly to recommend General officers for 
our brigade. As soon as Col. Shepherd joins them they will consist of 
at least 2000 rank and file. They are exceedingly uneasy. They are at 
present commanded by the brave McDougal, yet they imagine they ap- 
pear contemptible in the eyes of the army not having one General officer 
from our State. They insist they have according to the proportion of 
men, a right 10 a Major General and two Brigadiers. For God's sake en- 
deavor to get some gentleman appointed in my stead. I cannot stay here 
any longer with any pleasure. I am, &c. 


York, Pennsylvania, 8 December, 1777. 

Dear Sir : — I have not received one line from you 'since I had the 
pleasure of seeing you here. As much as I dislike letter-writing, this is 
the fourth of mine, in one of which I enclosed one from Mrs. Trist. She 
is now at Lancaster and " begs (in her letter to me of the 2d,) to know 
what has become of our friend Burke ?" She and Mrs. Ross were to have 
come to this town on a visit to Mrs. Swoops and my carriage was to have 
been sent for them, but the capricious vixens have put it off to a future 
day. Mrs. Trist desires when I write to you that I will " tender you her 
best services." 

Enclosed is a hand bill printed by order of Congress, the particulars of 
which you have perhaps seen. As to our army it is still near Philadel- 
phia, and we hourly expect very interesting news, as Gen. Howe on the 
6th instant, with his whole force, was in sight of our lines, and a general 
action hourly expected. The flower and force of the contending parties 
are now ready to engage. The enemy have drawn a strong reinforcement 
from New York, and Gen. Washington a much stronger from Gen. Gates' 


victorious Northern army. I fear, however, we shall suffer ourselves to 
he attacked instead of attacking. This conduct, I believe, has often 
proved disadvantageous. A committee of Congress now at head-quarters 
informs us that our soldiers are exceedingly anxious to come to a general 
engagement, and are in high spirits. Who knows but this battle may put 
a glorious end to the land war in America ? 

The Virginians, in Assembly, have set a glorious example to the South- 
ern States, and indeed to every State in the Union, by not only ordering 
a reinforcement of 5,000 militia to join Gen. Washington immediately, 
but also to fill up their continental batallions with great dispatch. The 
recruiting service ought to be attended to in our State in case of accidents, 
as nothing is to be expected from Pennsylvania. Should our army be 
defeated our utmost exertions will be requisite. 

The several resolutions of Congress sent to the Governors of the States 
will require particular attention. That of taxation is essential above all ; 
the credit of our continental currency depends upon it. The opening the 
courts of law for the recovery of debts surely ought to be attended to. 
The calling in your paper currency, especially that issued under the au- 
thority of the British Government, (as a distinction is made by the Tories 
and sordid Whigs already of at least 100 per cent., which in its conse- 
quences must ruin our public credit,) ought to command the attention of 
our Legislature. 

Col. Martin has been tried and acquitted, and has since resigned, Mr. 
Penn and myself have desired the Governor to apply to the General As- 
sembly to recommend some one or more of our Colonels as Brigadiers. 
Our troops are uneasy at not having a general officer of our State to com- 
mand them. You know we have a right to more than one general officer 
should the Assembly think it expedient. I wish you and the rest of my 
friends would push this matter. Our officers are exceedingly anxious 
about it. Col. Sumner writes me it is absolutely necessary. 

We are daily entertained by members of Congress with paragraphs of 
letters, giving an account of the surprising exertions of their constituents. 
I beg that you will inform me what has been done by our General Assem- 
bly in this way. We have often been before them — I hope we shall never 
be behind them. 

Be pleased to tell Messrs. Hooper and Machine I shall write them by 
the next opportunity, and hope to have it in my power to inform them of 
Gen. Howe's defeat. 

I wish to hear from you, and beg you will be very particular in regard 
to what is going forward in a political way. I am, &c. 

1861.] ; CORNELIUS HARNETT. 348? 


York, Pennsylvania, December 12, 1777. 
Dear Sir : — This day I received your favor of the 6th last month, and 
am glad to hear of your safe return to your family, and have also the 
pleasing expectation of seeing you soon again in Congress. I wish it was 
in my power to give you such intelligence as I know you wish for. Our' 
army remained almost inactive at White Marsh since the affair at Ger- 
mantown, until the 6th instant, when the enemy marched with almost 
their whole force in the night, and appeared towards noon in sight of our 
army, took post on Chesnut Hill, and other strongholds in that neighbor- 
hood. A general battle was daily expected, but neither of the Generals 
seemed inclined to quit their advantageous posts. In the mean time some 
small skirmishing ensued. Our militia, with Gen. Irwin* at their head, 
attacken one of the enemy's advanced parties and a smart firing followed, 
which lasted about fifteen minutes. They then retired' to our main body, 
with the loss of two captains and ten or twelve men killed and wounded, 
among the latter was Gen. Irwin who was taken prisoner, being advanced 
too far before his men ; the enemy's loss not known. The enemy for 
several days kept up a show of attacking our lines but on the 10th filed, 
off in three columns and returned within their redoubts. Col. Morgan, 
with his riflemen, had a very smart action with a party of the enemy, in 
which he lost more men than he has lost the #hole campaign, 26 in num- 
ber. The enemy must have suffered exceedingly from the fire of those 
excellent marksmen. Gen. Washington was informed by some deserters 
that their loss in killed and wounded was 500, but this amount he thinks 
exaggerated. I fear it was. Gen. Howe's intention in this manoeuvre 
was to have attacked our army, expecting to find them off their guard ; in 
this he was disappointed, and then by keeping up a show in front with his 
light troops, he marched off his artillery and heavy armed troops towards 
the city; soon after those in front filed off on the right and left, and by 
a precipitate march out-generaled us, as usual. A large body of our light 
infantry were ordered to pursue but could not come up with them until 
they had got within the lines. Thus ended this affair. They have since 
sent a large body over the Schuylkill to forage. The militia under Gen.. 
Potter were surprised, but maintained a smart action with them for a 
short time, took several of them prisoners but lost an equal number at 
least of his men taken by the enemy. This account comes not from au- 
thority but is believed. We have as yet no newspaper published in this 
town, otherwise I should send you some of them. Since the confedera- 

* Wheeler, 2—142. 


tion has been finished several recommendations to the Legislatures of the 
States have been sent by expresses. I need not mention them — they will 
speak for themselves. I beg you will inform me of the temper you find 
Our Assembly in. Are they inclined to pursue spirited measures ? For 
God's sake fill up your batallions, lay taxes, put a stop to the sordid and 
avaricious spirit which has infected all ranks and conditions of men, reg- 
ulate the prices of all commodities, at least such as are immediately useful 
to our army. The United States will not much longer be able to procure 
them at the very exorbitant prices they are now held at. 

We have already received an account from Connecticut that their State 
is much dissatisfied with the mode in the confederation of fixing the 
quota of each State by the value of lands. Numbers of inhabitants, in- 
cluding slaves, is their favorite plan. A valuation of all property through- 
out the continent was allowed to be the most equitable mode for fixing 
the quota, but this was said to be impracticable. 

All our foreign intelligence indicates that Europe will soon be in a 
flame — 'let us not depend upon this. If we have virtue we certainly have 
power to wcrk out our own salvation, I hope without fear or trembling. 

I wish I could inform you of a victory obtained over Gen. Howe. I 
fancy we must wait until stern winter builds a bridge over the Schuylkill. 
Small parties of our army have been successful, however in taking several 
of the enemy prisoners. Ninety-five arrived in this town the night before 
the last and three officers of low rank; they go on to Yirginia to-morrow. 

As to the prospect you wish for, of accommodating Mrs. Burke here, 
I beg you will not think of it; be assured it is impossible. You will 
hardly be able to get a bed to sleep in. I should be sorry to see my 
country woman in distress, which be assured must be the case if you 
bring her here. No, my friend, let her remain at your peaceful mansion 
in expectation of better times. Be assured that my expenses since I ar- 
rived in this town a very little more than two months, have been upwards 
of £200 currency, and I never lived in so wretched a manner in my life. 

I shall be under the necessity of procuring an advance from the treasury 
of at least 81,000 over and above my allowance from the State which is 
very handsome. I shall be content if this will bring me home with a sin- 
gle dollar in my pocket. Mention not this — if you do, I am sure you 
will not be believed, but it is as true as the gospel. God only knows what 
this country will come to at last. 

I am so harrassed by attending Congress, the treasury board, the com- 
mercial committee, &c, that I can hardly find time to write to my friends. 
Tell Messrs. Hooper and Maclaine I shall write them by next post. It is 

II o'clock at night, I have not time to copy or correct. I am ; &c. 




Philadelphia, 27th August, 1770. 

Dear Sir : — Upon my arrival here, I met with the enclosed letter. 
Congress seems to go on in the old way, sometimes disputing upon trifles, 
and neglecting the greater matters of the law. 

The expedition against Rhode Island seems to be in train for success. 
Your friend Gen. Sullivan having landed without opposition with between 
3 and 4000 Regulars, and a body of militia from tiie New England States, 
and the French squulron under the Count D'Estaing having made an 
attack upon the enemy's fortification and had in a very short time silenced 
two of their batteries; but were surprised at the appearance of a British 
fleet off the harbor, which obliged the French Admiral to put to sea the 
nest morning in order to - engage the enemy. This, Lord Howe endeav- 
ored to avoid by flight, and the, French fleet were seen in pursuit of him 
at 11. o'clock — no certain intelligence has been since received of the 
event of the manoeuvre. Gen. Sullivan however marched up near the 
enemy, who had evacuated all their outposts and retired within their lines 
near the town. Our General had under cover of a fog, erected a battery 
within 250 yards of the enemys works, and intended to begin a cannon- 
ade as soon as the fog cleared away. Indeed the General seems to prom- 
ise himself success at all events, and is by his letter to Congress, in high, 
spirits. He has heretofore been unlucky; who knows but Fortune, who is 
a fickle jade, may favor him at last. I hope she will. 

Enclosed are the last papers, to them I refer you for what little news 

When the assembly meets I beg you will endeavor to get their amount 
of expenditures for continental services sent — in which ought to be in- 
cluded, the expense of the armament to quell the insurrection, the ex- 
pedition against the Indians, the militia sent to Virginia and those raised 
on several other occasions.* I am firmly of opinion these matters ought to 

* Harnett's prudent forecast in relation to these claims against the Confed- 
eration, though it did not produce the effect intended, was more than justified 
by subsequent results. The subjoined extract of a letter from the late Gov. 
Tazewell, of Virginia, than whom no man of his day was more to be rel'ed 
upon in investigations of this character, give convincing proof of the loss sus- 
tained by North Carolina from a want of proper attention to these accounts. 
The letter is dated Norfolk, Sept. 1, 1834, and addressed to a friend in this 
State. Those disposed to pursue the inquiry further, will find the subject 
examined with some minuteness in the opening Message of the Governor cf 
this State to the General Assembly in 1834: 

" You were rightly informed that I was engaged some years ago in inves- 
tigating the mode in which the accounts between the ecveral states and tha 



be made a continental charge, as you know sucli charges are made, and 
allowed to the other States daily. I hope you, Mr. Hooper, Maclaine, &c, 
will exert yourselves on this occasion. Col. Hogan is arrived with near 
600 men, and as soon as they are furnished with money &c, will proceed 
immediately to White Plains, where Gen. Washington with the main 
army is encamped, ready to act as circumstances may require — Gen. 
Lee's trial is ended and the sentence of the court martial is in these 
words — "The court do " sentence Major. General Lee to be suspended 
from any command in the army of the United States of North America 
for the term of twelve months " — signed — Sterling, Major General and 
President. The whole proceedings of the court martial are now before 
Congress, but nothing, as yet done in it. They are only ordered to be 
printed. Our friends are all well and send their compliments to you — be 
pleased to present mine to Mrs. Burke. I am, &c. 


Philadelphia, 19th September, 1778. 

Dear Sir: — Your agreeable favor of the 22d August only came to my 
hands last night. Believe me when I assure you that I have heart-felt 
satisfaction in finding our General Assembly have shown a proper resent- 
ment at the unprecedented treatment you met with at Yorktown. They 
could not have given you a more convincing proof of their approbation of 
your conduct in Congress than by appointing you again in the very face 
of their ridiculous resolves, to represent them in that body. 

I have consulted my associates in regard to the time of returning home. 
Mr. Penn seems content to remain, and Mr. Williams and myself have 
concluded to stay until the 1st December, and to return immediately on 
your and Mr. Hill's arrival. The appointment of Mr. Hill with yourself 
has given me great pleasure. 

United States were settled, at the close of the Revolutionary war. These in- 
vestigations were then prosecuted to a point at which they were necessarily 
arrested, by the discovery of the fact, that all the documents connected with 
this settlement were purposely destroyed, very soon after the settlement it- 
self was completed ; and this to prevent any discovery of the principles upon 
which the adjustment was made. At least such is my present recollection of 
the cause of my stopping my examination re infecta. 

My researches at that time, left a very lively impression upon my mind, 
(which is still retained) that great injustice was done in this settlement to all 
the Southern States, South Carolina excepted. This State had much more 
than justice done to it. But I cannot now give you the detail of the facts 
from which this impression was derived, for so soon as I discovered that the 
papers had been purposely destroyed, with the avowed intent of rendering it 
impossible ever to ascertain how and why the settlement was made, and that 
Congress had steadily refused afterwards to look further in the matter, I de- 
stroyed all my memoranda, believing that they never could be of use thereafter." 


Our Assembly have been wise in determining that three of their dele- 
gates shall always be present in Congress. I only wish they had appoint- 
ed six which would have made it more convenient for the gentlemen to 
attend. I send newspapers. As to the business of Congress, it goes on 
in the old way, doing more in three hours at one time than they do at 
another in three days. 

Nothing interesting has happened at head-quarters. The preparations 
making at New York seem to indicate the enemy's intention of removing 
from that city. Perhaps it may only be a feint. 

You will be pleased to present my respectful compliments to Mrs. Burke, 
and be assured that I am, &c. 


Philadelphia, Nov. 3, 1778. 

Dear Sir : — This is the fifth letter I have written to you since I receiv- 
ed your favor, acquainting me that Mr. Hill and yourself were added to 
the delegation from our State. I am in anxious expectation of seeing you 
both here by the first of next month. As for our friend Hill, I have my 
fears that he will not proceed, but let me beg of you to come and relieve 
me. I assure you, without any compliment, your presence in congress is, 
I think, very necessary, but more of this when we meet. As for news I 
refer you to the enclosed papers — we are not as yet certain, whether the 
enemy intend the entire evacuation of New York, or not. Indeed I can 
not even venture to give my own opinion. 

For Grod's sake come in time for me to return home. You know I am 
older than you are and can not stand travelling after Christmas. I de- 
sire you will make it a point with Whitmill Hill to accompany you. I 
shall have a pleasure in leaving him here to represent us. Spain has not 
yet declared war that we know of, but we hourly expect the event. I 
am, &e. 


Halifax, 26 January, 1779. 
Dear Sir: — I arrived here on Thursday last, after one of the most 
terrible journeys, that ever a man 55 years old undertook. I rode 
through frost and snow in some places 3 feet deep. Our Assembly seem 
to be inclined to do good, and we shall soon (I hope) get a state of our 
accounts sent on to Congress. I take the liberty to enclose to you a letter 
just now received from Mr. Starkey of Onslow county. You are a much 
better judge of the law than I am, and it is my sincere wish that jus- 
tice may be done in the case to the parties. I wish you to render Mr. 


Starkcy service as far as it consists with law and justice. Your friends 
are all well, llemember me kindly to Messrs. Penii and Hill. Georgia 
is invaded. Whether the enemy intend to keep possession of Savannah 
or not, is at present uncertain. General Lincoln is near the enemy. 
Some of the North Carolina militia arc with him and the others march- 
ing forward. I have nothing more of consequence to communicate. I 
aui &c. 


Philadelphia, Oct. 9, 1779. 

Dear Sir : — I had the pleasure of receiving three letters from you 
while you were on the road, which I answered some time ago. I am hap- 
py to find by yours of the lGth September, you are in your own house and 
sincerely wish you every domestic happiness you can possibly desire. Had 
Col. Rochester called upon me according to his promise you would cer- 
tainly have heard from me by him. Long before I received yours I had 
congratulated Miss Fining on the brilliant and successful attempt of Maj. 
Lee on Paulus' Hook. Her mamma and herself present their affectionate 
compliments to you. The young lady promises to write by this express; 
I fear she will be worse than her word. 

Spain's declaration against Britain may, as you conjecture, prolong the 
war. Mr. Jay is appointed minister plenipotentiary to the Court of 
Madrid, and Mr. Caimichael his secretary. John Adams is appointed 
min ster plenipotentiary to negotiate a peace — Mr. Dana his secretary, 
and Col. Laurens, son of old Mrs. Laurens, secretary to Dr. Franklin. 
Fifteen millions per month is called for from the several States. Query — 
will it be paid ? I believe not. The consequences you must know will 
1 c distressing indeed. The quota of our State is out of proportion, but 
this could not be avoided. 

We hourly expect good news from Georgia. Surely the force the 
Count has with him must soon settle matters in that quarter, should no 
i n foreseen acciden , intervene. He is soon expected here, which will 
render this a very active, an I I hope successful, campaign. The North 
Carol. na troops were ordeed to the Southward, but this order has been 
countermanded by Gen. Washington on his hearing of the arrival of Count 
1'Estainj. Many are so sanguine in their expectations as to believe we 
shall be in possession of New York and Rhode Island this fall. God 
send it may so happen. Sullivan has been very successful in the Indian 
c mntry, having destroyed all their settlements. It is hoped this may 
jvcvuit the depredations of these savages for some time. The press stops 
at ^UJ, 1)00,000 which I believe will be expended in December. Out of 
the (30,000,000 which was heretofore culled for from the States, only 3 ; - 


000,000 have been received. How the war can he carried on after that 
period (December) I know not. I do not expect the treasury can possi- 
bly be supplied by the States 15,000,000 per month; North Carolina I 
am confident cannot supply her quota monthly. I dread the consequen- 
ces, but as you say "we must take events as they happen..? 

For God's sake come on to relieve me in November, but at farthest the 
begining of December, and make that domestic creature Whit-mill Hill 
come with you. In fact I cannot live here. The prices of every neces- 
sary have advanced 100 per cent, since Ave parted. I shall return in- 
debted to my country at least 6,000 dollars, and you may well know hew 
we lived. Do not mention this complaint to any person. I am content 
to sit down with the loss, and lnuch more, if my country requires it. 
I only mention it to you to guard you against difficulties which you must 
encounter on your return, unless the General Assembly make suitable 
provision for your expenses, at least. I know they will be liberal, they 
always have been in their allowance to their servants. 

Could not Hooper, Nash, Johnston, or some such, be sent with you ? 
Believe me they will be much wanted. I acknowledge it is cruel in me 
to wish you to return ; you have already suffered more in youpyprivate 
concerns than any man who has been in the delegation for some time 
past. Eut you have this consolation — that should you fail of receiving 
your reward in this world, you will no doubt be singing hallelujahs in the 
next, to all eternity ; though I acknowledge your voice is not very well 
calculated for that business. 

Your scythes shall be purchased and sent as soon as any person applies 
for them. 

Remember me to all your friends, I hope they are mine. Send some 
body or other to relieve me, and let me, for God's sake, take leave of this 
laborious, disagreeable and perhaps unthankful office forever. 

Adieu my friend, and may you be happy. You will believe me when 
I assure you that your happiness will be a very great addition to my own. 
I know you hate professions — so do I. 

Mr. Jay draughted the circular letter. Hooper and yourself know his 
manner. I am, &c. 


Poplar Grove, (near Wilmington,) Feb. 22, 1780. 

Dear Sir: — After one of the most fatiguing and disagreeable journeys, 

that ever old fellow undertook, I at hist arrived at my little hovel, and 

had the happiness to find my family in good health. I have waited some 

time for some interesting intelligence to communicate to you from the 


South to no purpose; we cannot yet find that the enemy has landed in 
any considerable number. We are informed by a prize taken, that the fleet 
suffered very considerably by very bad weather, and it is supposed many 
of them bore away for the West Indies. The North Carolina troops un- 
der the command of Gen. Hogan passed the river at Wilmington three 
days ago, and it is hoped they will be at Charlestown in a few days. The 
Virginia troops have gone the upper road and will be there soon after 
our troops. The General Assembly were called together by the Gover- 
nor — but made no house. After a number of members had waited ten 
or twelve days, they returned home. I am sorry to observe my country- 
men do not pay that attention to public business which their constituents 
have a right to expect from them. No taxes laid, although the Spates in 
general have shown them so laudable an example. We are informed 
Gov. Martin intends to pay us a visit; he is not yet arrived in Cape Fear 
river. I hope he will first take a trip to the West Indies to see his friends 
in Antigua. 

As I passed through Halifax I had the pleasure of hearing that Miss 
Eaton* was very well. I do not write to Gen. Jones as it is expected you 
will show him this scrawl. I hope to hear from you very soon, pray send 
me some papers. Mrs. Harnett joins me in most respectful campliments 
to Mrs. Burke, Mrs. Vining and Miss Vining, also Miss Hart, and re- 
member me kindly to Mrs. Jones and her nieces. You will be pleased 
to tell Miss Vining I hope to be informed by the next post that she is 
married to a man deserving of so sweet tempered and so accomplished a 
young lady. I shall always, remember (with great pleasure) the happy 
hours spent in the company of Mrs. Vining and her daughter. I must 
beg you to make my compliments to all my acquaintances in Congress, 
your secretary, Mr. B,. Morris, Mr. Peters and their ladies. I am &c. 


Wilmington, April 25, 1780. 

Dear Sir : — I take this opportunity, by Mr. Bee, a Delegate from 
South Carolina, to drop a line to you, though I have not been so happy as 
to receive one from you since I left Philadelphia. Mrs. Bee and Miss- 
Smith will be happy in Mrs. Burke's acquaintance. This is the third 
letter I have written to you since I saw you. I should have troubled you 
much oftener had I been furnished with any intelligence worth your no- 
tice. I refer you to Mr. Bee for Southern news. I have my fears that 
Charlestown will fall. 

I beg you will present mine and Mrs. Harnett's very respectful compli- 

* A famous Koanoke belle, to whom we may have occasion to refer hereafter. 


ments to Mrs. Burke, Mrs. and Miss Vining,* Mrs. Morris, Mrs. Peters- 
and every other of my acquaintances. Let me hear from you for God's 
sake. A. Nash is our Governor. My compliments to Mr. Jones. I 
wish to know whether he is tired of the great city? I am &c. 

*We may take occasion hereafter, in the preparation of similar memoirs of 
Messrs. Burke and Whitmill Hill, colleagues of Mr. Harnett, to append notices 
of some of the most conspicuous characters, male and female, introduced in their 
correspondence. For the present we content ourselves with the following ac- 
count of Miss Vining, the object of Mr. Burke's enthusiastic admiration, and 
to whom various effusions in prose and verse were dedicated by him. We 
copy from Griswold's "Republican Court," p. 21: 

" Miss Vining in 1783 was twenty-five years of age. Miss Montgomery, in 
her ' Reminiscences of Wilmington,' says her rare beauty and graceful form 
commanded admiration, and her intellectual endowments — a mind stored with 
historical knowledge and sparkling effusions of wit — entertained the literati 
and amused the gay. The singular fluency and elegance with which she 
spoke the French language, with her vivacity, grace and amiability, had made 
her a general favorite with the French officers, who praised her in their home 
correspondence to such a degree, that her name became familiar in Paris, and 
the Queen, Marie Antoinette, spoke of her with enthusiasm to Mr. Jefferson, 
expressing a wish that she might some time see her at the Tuilleries. The 
intimate friendships she formed during the revolution were preserved after 
the peace by a large correspondence with distinguished men. La Fayette 
appears to have been very much attached to her, and she wrote to him fre- 
quently until she died. Foreigners of rank rarely visited Wilmington after 
Miss Yining's retirement from the society of Philadelphia, without soliciting 
an introduction to her. Among her guests were the Duke de Liancourt, the 
Duke of Orleans, (Louis Philippe,) and many others ; and it is related that 
General Miranda, passing through the town in a mail coach, at night, left his 
card for her at the post-office. The death of her brother, a man of eminent 
abilities, who was chose i at an early age a member of Congress from Delaware,, 
was followed by a series of misfortunes, and retiring from the gay world, in 
the maturity of her charms, she passed the closing years of her life in poverty 
and seclusion." 

For interesting references to Mrs. Robert Morris, the reader may turn to. 
page 162 of the "Republican Court." 




Were the aged sister of the muses called upon to designate any par- 
ticular event that has transpired within the nineteenth century that shows 
the singular revolution of human mind and human government, it must 
he confessed that the mere enunciation of the fact of the visit of the 
Prince of Wales to the tomb of Washington, is the sublimest and most 
truthful exponent of human feeling and sympathy. Royalty paying its 
tribute at the tomb of Freedom's great vindicator? Shade of George 
the Third ! that one of thy race should stand at the last resting place 
of him who vanquished the armies of thy realm, whilst a price was set 
upon his head as a rebel and a traitor to the divine right of kings! It 
beggars belief. Yet that it is true that the youthful scion of legitimist 
rule, as the representative of the proudest dynasty in Europe has at last 
jiaid the tribute to spotless integrity and republican simplicity that the 
world has long since awarded to the father of his country, stands forth in 
bold relief as one of the crowning events in history that point to the fu- 
ture as destined to fulfill the dream of the so called visionary republican. 

Thus it has ever been, that pure patriotism meets its reward sometime 
or other. A great mind has said, that he bequeathed his name and fame 
to future generations to vindicate from the foul aspersions of contempora- 
ries. And his trust has not been left unexecuted. But in the case of 
Washington contemporaneous history applauded his conduct, and marred 
not the fair symmetry of